Brooklyn Botanic Garden

Lonicera canadensis
Fly Honeysuckle

Technical Page

by Steven D. Glenn
Not peer reviewed
Last modified: 02/01/2012

Nomenclature

Lonicera canadensis Bartr., Cat. Am. Trees Bartram's Gard. Broadsheet, col. 3. 1785.
Xylosteum tataricum Michx., Fl. Bor.-Am. 1: 66. 1803, non Dumont de Courset 1802.
Lonicera ciliata Muhlb., Cat. Pl. Am. Sept. 23. 1813.
Xylosteum ciliatum Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. 1: 161. 1814.
Caprifolium ciliatum Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 1: 274. 1891.
TYPE: unknown

Description

HABIT Perennial, deciduous, phanerophytic, shrub, monoclinous, 1-2 m tall.

STEMS Main stems ascending or erect, round. Bark furrowed or fibrous, not exfoliating, light brown. Branches ascending or horizontal. Twigs light brown, terete, 1.5-4 mm in diam., smooth, glabrous, becoming stringy on older twigs. Pith white, round, continuous, nodal diaphragm absent. Sap translucent. For a detailed analysis of the root anatomy see Gasson, 1979

BUDS Terminal and axillary present, scattered along stem; axillary buds 1-2 per axil, ovoid, often superposed. Bud scales brown, imbricate, glabrous. Bud scale scars not encircling the stem. Leaf scars thinly crescent-shaped. Vascular bundle scars 3.

LEAVESOpposite, simple, spaced somewhat evenly along and divergent from stem. Stipules absent. Leaves petiolate, petiole flattened, 0.4-0.8 cm long, with long and unbranched erect or spreading hairs sparsely distributed marginally; not glabrescent. Leaf blades: abaxial surface light green, adaxial surface green, oblong or ovate or widely deltate, bilaterally symmetric, 2-10 cm long, 1.5-5.5 cm wide, base cuneate or obtuse or cordate, margin entire or ciliate, apex acute, abaxial surface usually glabrous or with long and unbranched white hairs, sparsely distributed throughout. Adaxial surface glabrous.

INFLORESCENCESSerotinous, formed on last season's growth, bisexual, simple, 2-flowered axillary cyme. Peduncle 1.5-2.5 cm long, drooping, glabrous. Rachis absent. Bracts sessile, light greenish yellow, linear triangular, 1.5-2.5 mm long, 0.5 mm wide, margin entire, apex acute, surfaces glabrous. Flowers sessile at peduncle apex. Bracteoles often obsolete or 1 or 2, elliptic, margin entire, apex obtuse, glabrous.

FLOWERSSepals and petals readily distinguishable from one another, 5-merous, 2 flowers per inflorescence. Calyx actinomorphic, of fused sepals, persistent. Sepal lobes 5, shallowly triangular, margin entire, apex obtuse, glabrous. Corolla actinomorphic, infundibuliform, of fused petals, deciduous, abaxial and adaxial surfaces light yellow or white, 15-20 mm long, saccate at base. Petal lobes 5, margin entire, apex obtuse, abaxial surface glabrous; adaxial surface glabrous. Gynoecium syncarpous. Locules 2-3. Stigmas 1, capitate. Styles 1, slightly exserted. Ovary inferior, glabrous. Placentation axile. Androecium epipetalous, included, haplostemous, inserted near the top of the corolla tube. Stamens 5. Anthers opening along the long axis, glabrous. Filaments straight, glabrous. For a detailed analysis of the flower micro-anatomy and vascularization see Wilkinson, 1948

FRUITS Bacca, red, ovoid, 8-12 mm long, 6-8 mm wide, glabrous.

SEEDS Seeds 1 or 2, orange-red or brown, ovoid, 3.5-4 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, glabrous.

Habitat

Dry to moist upland woods, sometimes along streams.

Distribution

Native to northeastern North America.

United States -- CT, GA, IA, IL, IN?, KY?, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV

Canada -- NB, NS, ON, PE, QC New York

Metropolitan Region -- Native, restricted to northern and western upland areas in the metropolitan flora.

Rarity Status

Heritage global rank -- G5

Connecticut -- Not listed

New Jersey -- S1

New York -- Not listed

Species Biology

Flowering
April [week 4] - May [week 3]

Pollination
(Graenicher, 1900) (Lovell, 1900)

Mellitophily -- Andrena, Bombus, Halictus, Osmia

Fruiting
June [week 2] - August [week 1] (October?)

Dispersal
(Ridley, 1930) (Ingold, 1983)

Endozoochory -- Avian frugivores: Bonasa umbellus (Ruffed Grouse), Turdus migratorius (Robin), Catharus minima (Gray-cheeked Trush), Catharus ustulatus (Swainson's Thrush), Dumetella carolinensis (Gray Catbird), Bombycilla cedorum (Cedar Waxwing), Cardinalis cardinalis (Cardinal), Carpodacus purpureus (Purple Finch), Carduelis tristis (Goldfinch), Zonotrichia albicollis (White-throated Sparrow), Mimus polyglottus (Mockingbird), Dendroica coronata?(Yellow-rumped Warbler), Toxosoma rufum? (Brown Thrasher), Cyanociita cristata? (Blue Jay)

Germination
(Schopmeyer, 1974)

Natural germination is believed to occur in the spring following autumn/winter dispersal. This species apparently has little or no seed dormancy. Germination is epigeous. While definite information for the optimum storage of Lonicera seeds is lacking; generally, seed stored in a sealed container at 41 degrees F should remain viable for at least one year.

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