New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Ulmaceae

Ulmus americana

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 03/19/2013

Nomenclature

List of Ulmaceae Genera

References to Ulmaceae

  • Ager, A. A.; Guries, R. P. 1982. Barriers to interspecific hybridization in <em>Ulmus americana</em>. Euphytica 31: 909-20.
  • Angeles, G.; Evert, R. F.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1986. Development of lenticels and adventitious roots in flooded <em>Ulmus americana</em> seedlings. Canad. J. Forest Res. 16: 585-90.
  • Baillon, H. 1877. Ulmacees. Hist. Pl. 6: 137-216. (In French)
  • Barton, L. V. 1939. Storage of elm seeds. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 10: 221-33.
  • Bate-Smith, E. C.; Richens, R. H. 1973. Flavonoid chemistry and taxonomy in <em>Ulmus</em>. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 1(3): 141-6.
  • Beattie, R. K. 1933. How the Dutch elm disease reached America. Proc. Annual Meeting Natl. Shade Tree Conf. 9: 101-5.
  • Bechtel, A. R. 1921. The floral anatomy of the Urticales. Amer. J. Bot. 8: 386-410.
  • Bernard, C. 1905. Sur la distribution geographique des Ulmacees. Bull. Herb. Boissier 5: 1097-112.
  • Billings, F. H. 1905. Precursory leaf-serrations of <em>Ulmus americana</em>. Bot. Gaz. 40: 224-5.
  • Bob, C. F.; Redmond, B. L.; Karnosky, D. F. 1986. On the nature of intra- and interspecific incompatability in <em>Ulmus</em>. Amer. J. Bot. 73(4): 465-74.
  • Boivin, B. 1867. Les <em>Celtis</em> du Canada. Naturaliste Canad. 94: 621-4.
  • Borthwick, H. A. 1957. Light effects on tree growth and seed germination. Ohio J. Science 57: 357-64.
  • Broadhurst, J. 1917. Self-pruning in the American elm. Torreya 17: 21-4.
  • Brown, R. L. 1904. Wood structure of elms, maples and oaks as a means of identifying species. Rep. Michigan Acad. Sci. 4: 109-12.
  • Carter, J. C. 1975. Major tree diseases of the century. J. Arboric. 1(8): 141-7.
  • Cathey, H. M.; Campbell, L. E. 1975. Security lighting and its impact on the landscape. J. Arboric. 1: 181-187.
  • Charlton, W. A. 1993. The rotated-lamina syndrome: 2. The seedling of <em>Ulmus glabra</em>. Canad. J. Bot. 71(2): 222-8.
  • Chernik, V. V. 1975. Arrangement and reduction of perianth and androecium parts in representatives of Ulmaceae Mirbel and Celtidaceae Link. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 60(11): 1561-73. (In Russian; English summary. See also Inter. Bot. Congress:12 Leningrad- abstract)
  • Chernik, V. V. 1980. Peculiarities of structure and development of the pericarp of the representatives of the family Ulmaceae and Celtidaceae. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 65(4): 521-31. (In Russian)
  • Choat, B. et.al. 2006. Direct measurements of intervessel pit membrane hydraulic resistance in two angiosperm tree species. Amer. J. Bot. 93: 993-1000.
  • Coladoanto, M. 1992. <em>Ulmus americana</em>. ()
  • Coladoanto, M. 1993. <em>Ulmus rubra</em>. ()
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1940. Hackberry. Amer. Forests 46: 414-5.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1942. Slippery Elm. Amer. Forests 48: 364-5.
  • Collins, P. E. 1967. Hybridization studies in the genus <em>Ulmus</em>. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Minnesota118 p. (Univ. microfilms Dissert. Abstr. 1968, 28 B (12 Pt. 1) 4828-4829)
  • Constantinidou, H. A.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1979. Effects of sulphur dioxide and ozone on <em>Ulmus americana</em> seedlings. II. Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Canad. J. Bot. 57: 176-84.
  • Constantinidou, H. A.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1979. Effects of sulphur dioxide and ozone on <em>Ulmus americana</em> seedlings. I. Visible injury and growth. Canad. J. Bot. 57: 170-5.
  • Cowan, M. R.; Gabel, M. L.; et al. et.al. 1997. Growth and biomineralization of <em>Celtis occidentalis</em> (Ulmaceae) pericarps. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 137: 266-73.
  • Crane, P. R.; Blackmore, S. (eds.) (1989): 1989. Evolution, systematics and fossil history of the Hamamelidae. 2 Vols. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Cypher, B. L.; Cypher, E. A. 1999. Germination rates of tree seeds ingested by coyotes and raccoons. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 142: 71-76.
  • Dallimore, W. 1920. Elms and elm timber. Quart. J. Forest. 14: 109-18.
  • Dame, L. L.; Brooks, H. 1982. The American elm: <em>Ulmus americana</em> L. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 42: 49-60.
  • Davis, R. W.; Larimore, R. L.; Ebinger, J. E. 1998. The occurrence of slippery elm (<em>Ulmus rubra</em> Muhl.) root sprouts in forest understories in east-central Illinois. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 91: 13-7.
  • De Steven, D. 1991. Experiments on mechanisms of tree establishment in old-field succession: seedling emergence. Ecology 72: 1066-75.
  • De Steven, D. 1991. Experiments on mechanisms of tree establishment in old-field succession: seedling survival and growth. Ecology 72: 1076-88.
  • Denk, T.; Grimm, G. W. 2005. Phylogeny and biogeography of <em>Zelkova</em> (Ulmaceae sensu stricto) as inferred from leaf morphology, ITS sequence data and the fossil record. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 147: 129-157.
  • Detwiler, S. B. 1916. The American elm (<em>Ulmus americana</em>). Amer. Forests 22: 259-67.
  • Earle, F. S. 1904. Proceedings of the club. Torreya 4: 12.
  • Ehrenberg, C. E. 1953. Studies on elm pollen. Bot. Not. 3: 308-16.
  • Ekdahl, I. 1941. Die Entwicklung von Embryosack und Embryo bei <em>Ulmus glabra</em> Huds. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 35: 143-56.
  • Elias, T. S. 1970. The genera of Ulmaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 51: 18-40.
  • Elliot, J. C. 1954. Studies in and near Michigan's tension zone: a northward extension for the range of <em>Ulmus thomasi</em> Sarg. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 52: 370-3.
  • Fernald, M. L.; Schubert, B. G. 1948. Studies of American types in British herbaria. Rhodora 50: 149-76, 181-208, 217-33.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America, Volume 3. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford University Press, New York. , 590 pages.
  • George, E. J. 1937. Storage and dewinging of American elm seed. J. Forest. 35: 769-72.
  • Giannasi, D. 1978. Generic relationships in the Ulmaceae, based on flavonoid chemistry. Taxon 27: 331-44.
  • Grudzinskaya, I. A. 1975. On the origin of the American species of <em>Ulmus</em> (hybridogenity and significance of flavonoid score). Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 60(2): 163-9. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Grudzinskaya, I. A. 1967. Ulmaceae and reasons for distinguishing Celtoideae as a seperate family Celtidaceae Link. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 52: 1723-49. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Gustafson, F. G. 1950. Is the American elm (<em>Ulmus americana</em>) injured by natural gas? Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 25: 433-40.
  • Heybroek, H. M. 1976. Systematics and nomenclature of the genus <em>Ulmus</em>. Groen (Netherlands) 32(8): 237-40. (In Dutch)
  • Higgins, D. J.; Arisumi, T. 1959. Time of floral differentiation in <em>Ulmus americana, U. pumila,</em> and <em>U. carpinifolia</em>. Bot. Gaz. 120(3): 177-80.
  • Hill, E. 1900. <em>Celtis pumila</em> Pursh, with notes on allied species. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 27: 496-505.
  • Hoppes, W. G. 1988. Seedfall pattern of several species of bird-dispersed plants in an Illinois woodland. Ecology 69: 320-329.
  • Hosner, J. F. 1959. Survival, root, and shoot growth of six bottomland tree species following flooding. J. Forest. 57: 927-8.
  • Houle, G.; Bouchard, F. 1990. Hackberry (<em>Celtis occidentalis</em>) at the northeastern limit of its distribution in North America: Population structure and radial growth patterns. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2685-92. (French summary)
  • Jacobs, H. L.; Tehon, L. R. 1939. The study of lightening injury to an American elm. Arborist's News 4(6): 41-4.
  • Johnson, F. L.; Bell, D. T. 1976. Tree growth and mortality in the streamside forest. Castanea 41: 34-41.
  • Johnson, L. P. V. 1946. Fertilization in <em>Ulmus</em> with special reference to hybridization procedure. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24: 1-3.
  • Jones, R. H.; Sharitz, R. R.; McLeod, K. W. 1989. Effects of flooding and root competition on growth of shaded bottomland hardwood seedlings. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 121: 165-75.
  • Killingbeck, K. T. 1985. Autumnal resorption and accretion of trace metals in gallery forest tress. Ecology 66: 283-6. (Cu, Fe, Mn, & Zn)
  • Knudsen, G. J. 1978. Rock elm, <em>Ulmus thomasii</em>. Bull. Nat. Resourc. Wisconsin 41(2): 31. (Ref. in Bibliogr. Agric. 42(2):015931. 1978)
  • Kozlowski, T. T.; Pallardy, S. G. 1979. Effects of low temperature on leaf diffusion resistance of <em>Ulmus americana</em> and <em>Fraxinus pennsylvanica</em> seedlings. Canad. J. Bot. 57: 2466-70.
  • Laing, C. C. 1966. Structure, formation, and dormancy of terminal buds of Elm. Bot. Gaz. 127(2-3): 127-32.
  • Lanier, G. N.; Schubert, D. C.; Manion, P. D. 1988. Dutch elm disease and elm yellows in central New York. Plant Dis. 72: 189-94.
  • Lester, D. T. 1971. Self-compatibility and inbreeding depression in American elm. Forest Sci. 17: 321-2.
  • Linder, D. H. 1931. Some diseases of elm trees. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 19: 61-9.
  • Lodhi, M. A. K. 1977. The influence and comparison of individual forest trees on soil properties and possible inhibition of nitrification due to intact vegetation. Amer. J. Bot. 64(3): 260-4.
  • Marshall, P. E.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1974. Photosynthetic activity of cotyledons and foliage leaves of young angiosperm seedlings. Canad. J. Bot. 52(9): 2023-32.
  • McDermott, R. E. 1953. Light as a factor in the germination of some bottomland hardwood species. J. Forest. 51: 203-4.
  • McDermott, R. E. 1954. Effects of saturated soil on seedling growth of some bottomland hardwood species. Ecology 35: 36-41.
  • McGregor, R. L. 1985. Multiple seedlings in <em>Celtis</em> (Ulmaceae): with notes on <em>Ulmus americana</em>. Contr. Univ. Kansas Herb. 17: 1-5.
  • Mears, J. A. 1973. Chemical constituents and systematics of Amentiferae. Brittonia 25(4): 385-94.
  • Micales, J. A.; Stipes, R. J.; Ratliff, J. L.; Lawrence, S. R. 1981. Botanical aspects of the genus <em>Ulmus</em>. Virginia J. Sci. 32(3): 104. (Abstract)
  • Millet, J. et.al. 1998. Plagiotropic architectural development of four tree species of the temperate forest. Canad. J. Bot. 76: 2100-2118.
  • Moseley, M. F. 1973. Vegatative anatomy and morphology of Amentiferae. Brittonia 25(4): 356-70.
  • Muller, C. H. 1939. Mechanically initiated bark growth in <em>Celtis</em>. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 22: 436-7.
  • Newhouse, M. E.; Madgwick, H. A. I. 1968. Comparative seedling growth of four hardwood species. Forest Sci. 14: 27-30.
  • Newsome, R. D.; Kozlowski, T. T.; Tang, Z. C. 1982. Responses of <em>Ulmus americana</em> seedlings to flooding of soil. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 1688-95.
  • Oginuma, K.; Raven, P. H.; Tobe, H. 1990. Karyomorphology and relationships of Celtidaceae and Ulmaceae (Urticales). Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 103: 113-31.
  • Priemer, F. 1893. Die anatomischen Verholtnisse der Laubblotter der Ulmaceen (einschl. Celtideen) und die Beziehungen zu ihrer Systematik. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 17: 419-75. (In German)
  • Qui, Y. L. et.al. 1998. Phylogenetics of the Hamamelidae and their allies: parsimony analysis of nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL. Int. J. Plant Sci. 159: 891-905.
  • Redenbaugh, K.; Karnosky, D. F.; Westfall, R. D. 1981. Protoplast isolation and fusion in three <em>Ulmus</em> species. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 1436-43.
  • Richardson, C. J.; Cares, C. W. 1976. An analysis of elm (<em>Ulmus americana</em>) mortality in a second-growth hardwood forest in southeastern Michigan. Canad. J. Bot. 54(10): 1120-5.
  • Richens, R. H. 1980. On fine distinctions in <em>Ulmus</em>. Taxon 29: 305-12.
  • Roberts, B. R.; Main, H. V. 1965. The effect of chilling and photoperiod on bud break in American elm. J. Forest. 63(3): 180-1.
  • Rosario, L. C. 1988. <em>Celtis occidentalis</em>. ()
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  • Santamour, F. S. 1971. A triploid elm (<em>Ulmus pumila</em> x <em>U. rubra</em>) and its aneuploid progeny. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 98: 310-4.
  • Santamour, F. S. 1970. A natural hybrid between American and Siberian elms. Forest Sci. 16: 149-53.
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