New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Bignoniaceae

Campsis radicans
Campsis radicans   (L.) Seem. ex Bureau  -  Trumpet-creeper

Photo © by Peter Nelson
Taken in Avalon, NJ, 1985.

By Kerry Barringer

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/01/2013

Key to the genera of Bignoniaceae

1. Sprawling vines; flowers orange; leaves pinnately compound...Campsis
1. Trees; flowers blue-purple or white; leaves entire...2

2. Flowers blue-purple, with 4 stamens; fruits ovoid, borne upright; pith chambered or absent...Paulownia (now in Catalpa)

List of Bignoniaceae Genera

References to Bignoniaceae

  • Ambler, M. A. 1965. Seven alien plant species. William L. Hutcheson Memorial For. Bull. 2: 1-8.
  • Ames, O. I. 1939. Survey of hurricane damage at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Arborist's News 4(1): 5-6.
  • Anonymous 1979. Catalpa, Catalpa speciosa. Bignonia family (Bignoniaceae). Morton Arbor. Quart. 15(1): 7.
  • Armstrong, J. E. 1981. Floral anatomy of the Bignoniaceae.
  • Bertin, R. I. 1986. Consequences of mixed pollinations in Campsis radicans. Oecologia 70: 1-5.
  • Bertin, R. I. 1982. Floral biology, hummingbird pollination and fruit production in trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans, Bignoniaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 69(1): 122-34.
  • Bertin, R. I. 1990. Effects of pollination intensity in Campsis radicans. Amer. J. Bot. 77(2): 178-87.
  • Bertin, R. I. 1980. Floral biology, hummingbird pollination, and pollinator limitation of trumpet creeper. (Abstract)
  • Bertin, R. I. 1990. Paternal success following mixed pollinations of Campsis radicans. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 124: 153-63.
  • Bertin, R. I. 1982. Paternity and fruit production in trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans). Amer. Naturalist 119: 694-709.
  • Bertin, R. I. 1985. Nonrandom fruit production in Campsis radicans: between year consistency and effects of prior pollination. Amer. Naturalist 126: 750-9.
  • Bertin, R. I.; Barnes, C.; Guttman, S. I. 1989. Self-sterility and cryptic self-fertility in Campsis radicans (Bignoniaceae). Bot. Gaz. 150: 397-403.
  • Bertin, R. I.; Peters, P. J. 1992. Paternal effects on offspring quality in Campsis radicans. Amer. Naturalist 140(2): 166-78.
  • Bertin, R. I.; Sullivan, M. 1988. Pollen interference and cryptic self-fertility in Campsis radicans. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 1140-7.
  • Borthwick, H. A.; Toole, E. H.; Toole, V. K. 1964. Phytochrome control of Paulownia seed germination. Israel J. Bot. 13: 122-33.
  • Borthwick, H. A.; Toole, E. H.; Toole, V. K. 1965. Phytochrome control of Paulownia seed germination. Israel J. Bot. 13: 122-33.
  • Bowden, W. M. 1940. Diploidy, polyploidy, and winter hardiness relationships in the flowering plants. Amer. J. Bot. 27: 357-71.
  • Britton, Nathaniel L. 1923. Bignonia radicans. Addisonia 8: 39-40.
  • Burk, C. John; Lauermann, S. D. 1977. Catalpa speciosa naturalized in western Massachusetts. Rhodora 79(818): 305-7.
  • Burk, C. John; McMaster, N. D. 1988. The spread of Catalpa ovata G. Don in western Massachusetts and its biogeographic implications. Rhodora 90(864): 461-4.
  • Buurman, J. 1977. Contribution to the pollenmorphology of the Bignoniaceae, with special reference to the tricolpate type. Pollen & Spores 19(4): 447-519.
  • Campbell, D. H. 1930. The relationships of Paulownia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 57: 47-50.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Immel, M. J.; Smith, N. D. 1983. Effect of photoperiod on the growth and photosynthetic capacity of Paulownia seedlings. Castanea 48: 13-8.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1979. Variation in shade leaf thickness among urban trees growing in metropolitan Lexington, Kentucky. Castanea 44: 94-8.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1979. Germination of Paulownia seeds after stratification and dry storage. Tree Pl. Notes 30: 4-6.
  • Cathey, H. M.; Campbell, L. E. 1975. Security lighting and its impact on the landscape. J. Arboric. 1: 181-187.
  • Churcher, C. S. 1992. Western catalpa, Catalpa speciosa, colonising in Toronto, Canada. Canad. Field-Naturalist 106: 390-2.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1943. Northern catalpa. Amer. Forests 49: 400-1.
  • Cox, B. J. 1974. A systematic comparison of Catalpa by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of seed proteins. Trans. Missouri Acad. Sci. 7-8: 145-53.
  • Croxton, W. C. 1939. A study of the tolerance of trees to breakage by ice accumulation. Ecology 20: 71-3. (spp. table reprinted in Arborist's News 4(3):24. 1939.)
  • Del Tredici, P. 1986. The great catalpa craze. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 46: 2-10.
  • Downs, R. J.; Borthwick, H. A. 1956. Effects of photoperiod on growth of trees. Bot. Gaz. 117(4): 310-26.
  • Elias, T. S.; Gelband, H. 1976. Morphology and anatomy of floral and extrafloral nectaries in Campsis (Bignoniaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 63(10): 1349-53.
  • Fogg, J. M. Jr. 1966. The silent travelers. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. Rec. 22: 4-7. (New Series)
  • Fosket, E. B.; Briggs, W. R. 1970. Photosensitive seed germination in Catalpa speciosa. Bot. Gaz. 131(2): 167-72.
  • Galetto, L. 1995. Nectary structure and nectar characteristics in some Bignoniaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 196: 99-121.
  • Gandhi, K. N.; Thomas, R. D. 1983. Placentation in Bignoniaceae as illustrated by Catalpa, Millingtonia, Kigelia, and Eccremocarpus. Phytologia 52: 377-8.
  • Grover, F. O. 1942. The phyllotaxy of Catalpa. Rhodora 44(527): 414-6.
  • GuédÞs, M. 1974. The gynoecium of Paulownia and Schlegelia and the problem of the deliniation of Scrophulariaceae and Bignoniaceae. Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 278(21): 2629-32. (In French)
  • Heit, C. E. 1968. Thirty-five years' testing of tree and shrub seed. J. Forest. 66(8): 632-3.
  • Hemmings, E. T.; Core, E. L. 1976. Archeological evidence for range extension of the catawba tree (Catalpa speciosa Warder) in West Virginia. Castanea 41: 9-11.
  • Hu, S. Y. 1959. A monograph of the genus Paulownia. Quart. J. Taiwan Mus. 12: 1-54.
  • Hu, S. Y. 1961. The economic botany of the Paulownias. Econ. Bot. 15: 11-27.
  • Isenberg, I. H. 1956. Papermaking fibers. Econ. Bot. 10(2): 176-93.
  • Kirkbride, J. H. 2011. Neotypification of Catalpa speciosa (Bignoniaceae). Taxon 60: 1760-1763.
  • Lersten, N. R.; Krueger, L.; Curtis, J. D. 2002. Tracheoid variation among Bignoniaceae seed wings, with emphasis on Campsis radicans. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 369-378.
  • Li, J. 2008. Phylogeny of Catalpa (Bignoniaceae) inferred from sequences of chloroplast ndhF and nuclear ribosomal DNA. J. Systematics Evol. 46: 341-348.
  • Lumis, G. P.; Hofstra, G.; Hall, R. 1973. Sensitivity of roadside trees and shrubs to aerial drift of deicing salt. Hortscience 8: 475-7.
  • Lumis, G. P.; Hofstra, G.; Hall, R. 1975. Salt damage to roadside plants. J. Arboric. 1(1): 14-6.
  • Manning, S. D. 2000. The genera of Bignoniaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers in Botany 5: 1-77.
  • Matlack, G. R. 1987. Diaspore size, shape, and fall behavior in wind-dispersed plant species. Amer. J. Bot. 74(8): 1150-60.
  • McClendon, J. H.; McMillen, G. G. 1982. The control of leaf morphology and the tolerance of shade by woody plants. Bot. Gaz. 143(1): 79-83.
  • Millsaps, V. 1936. The structure and development of the seed of Paulownia tomentosa. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 52: 56-75.
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  • Paclt, J. 1952. Synopsis of the genus Catalpa (Bignoniaceae) III. Candollea 13: 241-85.
  • Pammel, L. H.; King, C. M. 1918. The germination of some trees and shrubs and their juvenile forms. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 25: 291-340.
  • Prakash, I. 1994. Floral development of Campsis radicans Seem (Bignoniaceae). Acta Bot. Indica 22(1): 75-81.
  • Reveal, J. L.; Jarvis, C. E.; Barrie, F. R. 1990. On the typification of Bignonia catalpa L. (Bignoniaceae). Bartonia 56: 17-8.
  • Rickson, F. R. 1968. Anatomy, histochemistry and fine structure of the germinating embryo of Paulownia tomentosa. Amer. J. Bot. 55: 280-90.
  • Sanderson, K. D. 1972. Effect of photoperiod on the growth of empress tree (Paulownia tomentosa) seedlings.
  • Santamour, F. S. 1983. Woody-plant succession in the urban forest: filling cracks and crevices. J. Arboric. 9(10): 267-70. (Woody spp. on abandoned brick kilns)
  • Sax, K. 1933. Species hybrids in Platanus and Campsis. J. Arnold Arbor. 14: 274-8.
  • Siebert, R. J. 1948. The use of glands in a taxonomic consideration of the fanily Bignoniaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 35: 123-37.
  • Smith, E. C. 1941. Chromosome behavior in Catalpa hybrida Spaeth. J. Arnold Arbor. 22: 219-21.
  • Smith, E. M.; Treaster, S. A. 1987. Tolerance of landscape vines to selected pre-emergence herbicides. Ohio Agric. Res. Dev. Circ. 291: 17-18.
  • Southwick, E. E. et.al. 1981. Nectar production composition energetics and pollinator attractiveness in spring flowers of western New York USA. Amer. J. Bot. 68: 994-1002.
  • Spangler, R. E.; Olmstead, R. G. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of Bignoniaceae based on the cpDNA gene sequences rbcL and ndhF. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 86: 33-46.
  • Stearns, J. L. 1944. Paulownia as a tree of commerce. Amer. Forests 50: 60-1, 95-6.
  • Stephenson, A. G. 1980. Fruit set, herbivory, fruit reduction, and the fruiting strategy of Catalpa speciosa. Ecology 61(1): 57-64.
  • Stephenson, A. G. 1979. An evolutionary examination of the floral display of Catalpa speciosa (Bignoniaceae). Evolution 33(4): 1200-9.
  • Stephenson, A. G. 1981. Toxic nectar deters nectar thieves of Catalpa speciosa. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 105: 381-3.
  • Stephenson, A. G. 1978. The flowering and fruiting strategy of Catalpa speciosa (Bignoniaceae). Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI120 p.
  • Stephenson, A. G. 1982. The role of the extrafloral nectaries of Catalpa speciosa in limiting herbivory and increasing fruit production. Ecology 63(3): 663-9.
  • Stephenson, A. G.; Thomas, W. W. 1978. Diurnal and nocturnal pollination of Catalpa speciosa (Bignoniaceae). Syst. Bot. 2(3): 191-8.
  • Tang, R. C.; Carpenter, S. B.; Wittwer, R. F.; Graves, D. H. 1980. Paulownia- a crop tree for wood products and reclamation of surface-mined land. S. J. Appl. Forest. 4: 19-24.
  • Toda, R.; Isikawa, H. 1952. Effect of diffused light on the germination of Paulownia seeds. J. Jap. Forest. Soc. 34: 250.
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  • Williams, C. E. 1993. The exotic empress tree, Paulownia tomentosa: an invasive pest of forests? Natural Areas Journal 13: 221.
  • Williams, C. E. 1993. Age structure and importance of naturalized Paulownia tomentosa in a central Virginia streamside forest. Castanea 58: 243-9.
  • Wu, J. Y.; Gu, Y. 1990. A study of the relationships of eastern Asian-North American vicarious species in Campsis. Cathaya 2: 21-8.