New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Apiaceae

Zizia aptera
Zizia aptera (A. Gray) Fern.

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 04/29/2013

List of Apiaceae Genera

References to Apiaceae

  • Averill, K. M.; DiTommaso, A. 2007. Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa): a troublesome species of increasing concern.
  • Baskin, C. C. et.al. 2000. Deep complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of Anthriscus sylvestris (Apiaceae). Flora 195: 245-251.
  • Baskin, C. C.; Hawkins, T. S.; Baskin, J. M. 2004. Ecological life cycle of Chaerophyllum procumbens variety shortii (Apiaceae), a winter annual of the North American eastern deciduous forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131: 126-139.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1990. Seed germination ecology of poison-hemlock Conium maculatum. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2018-2024.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1984. Germination eco-physiology of the woodland herb Osmorhiza longistylis Umbelliferae. Amer. J. Bot. 71: 687-692.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1991. Nondeep complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of Osmorhiza claytonii Apiaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 78: 588-593.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1975. Ecophysiology of seed dormancy and germination in Torilis japonica in relation to Its Life cycle strategy. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 102: 67-72.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1979. Studies on the autecology and population biology of the weedy monocarpic perennial, Pastinaca sativa. J. Ecol. 67: 601-610.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1988. The ecological life cycle of Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC (Umbelliferae), a woodland herb with monocarpic ramets. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 119: 165-173.
  • Bell, C. R.; Constance, L. 1957. Chromosome numbers in Umbelliferae. Amer. J. Bot. 44: 565-572.
  • Bone, T. S. et.al. 2011. A phylogenetic and biogeogaphic study of the genus Lilaeopsis (Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae). Syst. Bot. 36: 789-805.
  • Bosy, J.; Aarssen, L. W. 1995. The effect of seed orientation on germination in a uniform environment: Differential success without genetic or environmental variation. J. Ecol. 83: 769-773.
  • Caffrey, J. M. 1999. Phenology and long-term control of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Hydrobiologia 1999: 223-228.
  • Calvino, C. I. et.al. 2008. The evolutionary history of Eryngium (Apiaceae, Saniculoideae): rapid radiations, long distance dispersals, and hybridization. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 46: 1129-1150.
  • Calvino, C. I. et.al. 2008. Morphology and biogeography of Apiaceae subfamily Saniculoideae as inferred by phylogentic analysis of molecular data. Amer. J. Bot. 95: 196-214.
  • Chancellor, R. J. 1986. Decline of arable weed seeds during 20 Years in soil under grass and the periodicity of seedling emergence after cultivation.
  • Cody, W. J. 1982. A comparison of the northern limits of distribution of some vascular plant species found in southern Ontario. Naturaliste Canad. 109: 63-90.
  • Darbyshire, S. J. et.al. 1999. The biology of Canadian weeds. 111. Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 79: 671-682.
  • Downie, S. R. et.al. 2001. Tribes and clades within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: the contribution of molecular data. Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 301-330.
  • Downie, S. R. et.al. 2008. Phylogeny and biogeography of Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae inferred from nuclear rDNA ITS and cpDNA psbl-5'trnK sequences, with emphasis on the North American endemics clade. Botany 86: 1039-1064.
  • Downie, S. R.; Katz-Downie, D. S. 1996. A molecular phylogeny of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 83: 234-251.
  • Downie, S. R.; Katz-Downie, D. S.; Spalik, K. 2000. A phylogeny of Apiaceae tribe Scandiceae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 76-95.
  • Downie, S. R.; Katz-Downie, D. S.; Watson, M. F. 2000. A phylogeny of the flowering plant family Apiaceae based on chloroplast DNA RPL16 and RPOC1 intron sequences: towards a suprageneric classification of subfamily Apiodeae. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 273-292.
  • Downie, S. R.; Ramanath, S.; Katz-Downie, D. S.; Llanas, E. 1998. Molecular systematics of Apiaceae subfamily Apiodeae: phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer and plastid RPOC1 intron sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 85: 563-91.
  • Eames, E. H. 1916. Some varieties and forms of Connecticut plants. Rhodora 18: 239-240.
  • Easterly, N. W. 1957. A morphological study of Ptilimnium. Brittonia 9: 136-145.
  • Eckardt, N. 1987. Element stewardship abstract for Daucus carota - wild carrot.
  • Evans, J. P.; Cain, M. L. 1995. A spatially explicit test of foraging behavior in a clonal plant. Ecology 76: 1147-1155.
  • Feist, M. A.; Downie, S. R. 2008. A phylogenetic study of Oxypolis and Ptilimnium (Apiaceae) based on nuclear rDNA ITS sequences. Syst. Bot. 33: 447-458.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1939. New species, varieties and transfers. Rhodora 41: 423-61.
  • Fleming, P.; Kanal, R. 1992. Newly documented species of vascular plants in the District of Columbia. Castanea 57: 132-46.
  • Graenicher, S. 1900. The fertilization and insect visitors of our earliest entomophilous flowers. Bull. Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. 1: 73-84.
  • Gross, K. L. 1984. Effects of seed size and growth form on seedling establishment of 6 monocarpic perennial plants. J. Ecol. 72: 369-388.
  • Gupta, S. K. et.al. 1991. Chromosome evolution in the genus Torilis Adans Apiaceae. Cytologia 56: 597-602.
  • Hardway, T. M. et.al. 2004. Circumscription of Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae. S. African J. Bot. 70: 393-406.
  • Harris, S. K. 1959. Peucedanum paluste, an interesting addition to the flora of Essex county, Massachusetts. Rhodora 61: 181.
  • Hawkins, T. S. et.al. 2007. Seed morphology, germination phenology, and capacity to form a seed bank in six herbaceous layer Apiaceae species of the eastern deciduous forest. Castanea 72: 8-14.
  • Hawkins, T. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 2005. Life cycles and biomass allocation in seed- and ramet-derived plants of Cryptotaenia canadensis (Apiaceae), a monocarpic species of eastern North America. Canad. J. Bot. 83: 518-528.
  • Heinken, T. 2000. Dispersal of plants by a dog in a deciduous forest. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 122: 449-467.
  • Hemingson, J. C. 1990. Element stewardship abstract for Zizia aptera - golden alexanders.
  • Hendrix, S. D. 1989. Interspecific and intraspecific variation in seed mass in seven species of Umbelliferea. New Phyt. 112: 445-452.
  • Hendrix, S. D.; Trapp, E. J. 1992. Population demography of Pastinaca sativa Apiaceae effects of seed mass on emergence survival and recruitment. Amer. J. Bot. 79: 365-375.
  • Heywood, V. H. (eds.) (1971): 1971. The biology and chemistry of Umbelliferae. Academic Press, London.
  • Holm, T. 1891. Contributions to the knowledge of the germination of some North American plants. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 2: 57-108.
  • Holubowicz, R. et.al. 1992. Internal seed structure of selected vegetable species. Acta Botanica Hungarica 37: 267-277.
  • Hussey, J. S. 1974. Some useful plants of early New England. Econ. Bot. 28(3): 311-37.
  • Iovene, M. et.al. 2008. Major cytogenetic landmarks and karyotype analysis in Daucus carota and other Apiaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 95: 793-804.
  • Jarvis, C. E. et.al. 2006. Typification of Linnaean plant names in Apiaceae. Taxon 55: 207-216.
  • Jongejans, E.; Telenius, A. 2001. Field experiments on seed dispersal by wind in ten umbelliferous species (Apiaceae). Plant Ecology 152: 67-78.
  • Kapoor, B. M. et.al. 1987. Annotated list of the chromosome numbers of the vascular flora of northeastern America V. Naturaliste Canad. 114: 105-116.
  • Kingsbury, J. M. 1966. Poison ivy, poison sumac and other rash-producing plants. Cornell Extension Bulletin 1154: 1-16.
  • Koul, P. 1985. Floral biology of Scandix pecten-veneris. Phytomorphology 35: 173-180.
  • Lamont, E. E.; Fitzgerald, J. M. 2001. Noteworthy plants reported from the Torrey Range- 2000. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128: 409-414.
  • Lawrey, J. D. 1977. Trace metal accumulation by plant species from a coal strip-mining area in Ohio. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 368-375.
  • Leck, M. A. 1996. Germination of macrophytes from a Delaware River tidal freshwater wetland. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 48-67.
  • Leck, M. A.; Simpson, R. L. 1993. Seeds and seedlings of the Hamilton marshes, a Delaware river tidal freshwater wetland. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 144: 267-81.
  • Lee, C. S.; Downie, S. R. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships within Cicuta (Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae) inferred from nuclear rDNA ITS and cpDNA sequence data. Canad. J. Bot. 84: 453-468.
  • Lindsey, A. H. 1984. Reproductive biology of Apiaceae. I. Floral visitors to Thaspium and Zizia and their importance in pollination. Amer. J. Bot. 71: 375-387.
  • Lindsey, A. H. 1982. Floral phenology patterns and breeding systems in Thaspium and Zizia (Apiaceae). Syst. Bot. 7: 1-12.
  • Lindsey, A. H.; Bell, C. R. 1985. Reproductive biology of Apiaceae 2. Cryptic specialization and floral evolutoin in Thaspium and Zizia. Amer. J. Bot. 72: 231-247.
  • Lusk, J. M.; Reekie, E. G. 2007. The effect of growing season length and water level fluctuations on growth and survival of two rare and at risk Atlantic Coastal Plain flora species, Coreopsis rosea and Hydrocotyle umbellata. Canad. J. Bot. 85: 119-131.
  • Menemen, Y.; Jury, S. L. 2001. A taxonomic revision of the genus Pastinaca L. (Umbelliferae). Israel J. Pl. Sci. 49: 67-77.
  • Mitich, L. W. 1998. Intriguing world of weeds: Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Weed Technol. 12: 194-197.
  • Nelson, J. B. 1993. Noteworthy Collections, South Carolina. Castanea 58: 59-63.
  • Nitao, J. K.; Zangerl, A. R. 1987. Floral development and chemical defense allocation in wild parsnip Pastinaca sativa. Ecology 68: 521-529.
  • Oskolski, A. A. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships within Apiales: evidence from wood anatomy. Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 201-206.
  • Ostertag, C. P.; Jensen, Richard J. 1980. Species and population variability of Osmorhiza longistylis and Osmorhiza claytonii. Ohio J. Science 80: 91-95.
  • Page, N. A. et.al. 2006. The biology of invasive alien plants in Canada. 4. Heracieum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier. Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 86: 569-589.
  • Palamarchuk, O. P. 2001. Genus Pastinaca L. in the systems of family Apiaceae. Ukrayins'k Bot. Zhurn. 58: 486-493. (In Ukrainian)
  • Petersen, G. et.al. 2002. The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of Lilaeopsis (Apiaceae), with notes on the applicability of ITS sequence data for phylogenetic reconstruction. Australian Syst. Bot. 15: 181-191.
  • Phartyal, S. S. et.al. 2009. Temperature requirements differ for the two stages of seed dormancy break in Aegopodium podagraria (Apiaceae), a species with deep complex morphophysiological dormancy. Amer. J. Bot. 96: 1086-1095.
  • Plunkett, G. M.; Downie, S. R. 2000. Expansion and contraction of the chloroplast inverted repeat in Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae. Syst. Bot. 25: 648-667.
  • Plunkett, G. M.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S. 1997. Clarification of the relationship between Apiaceae and Araliaceae based on matK and rbcL sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 84: 565-80.
  • Plunkett, G. M.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S. 1996. Evolutionary patterns in Apiaceae: inferences based on matK sequence data. Syst. Bot. 21: 477-95.
  • Plunkett, G. M.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S. 1996. Higher level relationships of Apiales (Apiaceae and Araliaceae) based on phylogenetic analysis of rbcL sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 83(4): 499-515.
  • Pryer, K. M.; Phillippe, L. R. 1989. A synopsis of the genus Sanicula Apiaceae in eastern Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 694-707.
  • Pysek, P. et.al. (eds.) (2007): 2007. Ecology and management of giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegassiannum). Oxford Univ. Press, New York. , 352 pages. (ISBN13: 978-1-84593-206-0)
  • Rejmankova, E. 1992. Ecology of creeping macrophytes with special reference to Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) Raven. Aquatic Botany 43: 283-299.
  • Reveal, J. L. 1986. Additional comments on Linnaean types of eastern North American plants. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 92: 161-176.
  • Richardson, L. E. 1971. Peucedanum palustre again in Massachussetts. Rhodora 73: 460-461.
  • Roberts, H. A. 1979. Periodicity of seedling emergence and seed survival in some Umbelliferae. J. Applied Ecol. 16: 195-201.
  • Robertson, C. 1890. Flowers and insects: Umbelliferae. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 5: 449-60.
  • Sifton, H. B. 1925. Poison canals of Cicuta maculata. Bot. Gaz. 80: 319-324.
  • Spalik, K. 1997. Revision of Anthriscus (Apiaceae). Polish Botanical Studies 13: 1-69.
  • Spalik, K. 1989. Typification of Linnaean names now in Anthriscus Apiaceae. Taxon 38: 288-293.
  • Spalik, K. 1994. Regulation of pollen production in Anthriscus sylvestris, an andromonoecious species. Int. J. Plant Sci. 155: 750-754.
  • Spalik, K.; Downie, S. R. 2006. The evolutionary history of Sium sensu lato (Apiaceae): dispersal, vicariance, and domestication as inferred from ITS RDNA phylogeny. Amer. J. Bot. 93: 747-761.
  • Spalik, K.; Wojewodzka, A.; Downie, S. R. 2001. The evolution of fruit in Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae (Apiaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 79: 1358-1374.
  • Spalik, K.; Wojewodzka, A.; Downie, S. R. 2001. Delimitation of genera in Apiaceae with examples from Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae. Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 331-346.
  • Tiley, G. E. D. et.al. 1996. Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier. J. Ecol. 84: 297-319.
  • Walker, N. F. et.al. 2003. Population genetics of an invasive species, Heracleum mantegazzianum: Implications for the role of life history, demographics and independent introductions. Molec. Ecol. 12: 1747-1756.
  • Walmsley, C. A.; Davy, A. J. 1997. Germination characteristics of shingle beach species, effects of seed ageing and their implications for vegetation restoration. J. Applied Ecol. 34: 131-142.
  • Webster, C. R.; Parker, G. R. 2000. Evaluation of Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C.B. Clarke, Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott, and Actaea pachypoda Ell. as potential indicators of white-tailed deer overabundance. Natural Areas Journal 20: 176-188.
  • Wen, J. et.al. 2002. Phylogenetic and biogeographic diversification in Osmorhiza (Apiaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 89: 414-428.
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  • Williams, C. F. 1994. Genetic consequences of seed dispersal in three sympatric forest herbs: II. Microspatial genetic structure within populations. Evolution 48: 1959-1972.
  • Worz, A. 2005. A new subgeneric classification of the genus Eryngium L. (Apiaceae, Saniculoideae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 126: 253-259.
  • Yoo, K. O. et.al. 2002. Discordance of chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA data in Osmorhiza (Apiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 89: 966-971.