New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Apiaceae

Zizia aptera

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 04/29/2013

Nomenclature

List of Apiaceae Genera

References to Apiaceae

  • Averill, K. M.; DiTommaso, A. 2007. Wild parsnip (<em>Pastinaca sativa</em>): a troublesome species of increasing concern.
  • Baskin, C. C. et.al. 2000. Deep complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of <em>Anthriscus sylvestris</em> (Apiaceae). Flora 195: 245-251.
  • Baskin, C. C.; Hawkins, T. S.; Baskin, J. M. 2004. Ecological life cycle of <em>Chaerophyllum procumbens</em> variety <em>shortii</em> (Apiaceae), a winter annual of the North American eastern deciduous forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131: 126-139.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1990. Seed germination ecology of poison-hemlock <em>Conium maculatum</em>. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2018-2024.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1984. Germination eco-physiology of the woodland herb <em>Osmorhiza longistylis</em> Umbelliferae. Amer. J. Bot. 71: 687-692.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1991. Nondeep complex morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of <em>Osmorhiza claytonii</em> Apiaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 78: 588-593.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1975. Ecophysiology of seed dormancy and germination in <em>Torilis japonica</em> in relation to Its Life cycle strategy. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 102: 67-72.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1979. Studies on the autecology and population biology of the weedy monocarpic perennial, <em>Pastinaca sativa</em>. J. Ecol. 67: 601-610.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1988. The ecological life cycle of <em>Cryptotaenia canadensis</em> (L.) DC (Umbelliferae), a woodland herb with monocarpic ramets. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 119: 165-173.
  • Bell, C. R.; Constance, L. 1957. Chromosome numbers in Umbelliferae. Amer. J. Bot. 44: 565-572.
  • Bone, T. S. et.al. 2011. A phylogenetic and biogeogaphic study of the genus <em>Lilaeopsis</em> (Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae). Syst. Bot. 36: 789-805.
  • Bosy, J.; Aarssen, L. W. 1995. The effect of seed orientation on germination in a uniform environment: Differential success without genetic or environmental variation. J. Ecol. 83: 769-773.
  • Caffrey, J. M. 1999. Phenology and long-term control of <em>Heracleum mantegazzianum</em>. Hydrobiologia 1999: 223-228.
  • Calvino, C. I. et.al. 2008. The evolutionary history of <em>Eryngium</em> (Apiaceae, Saniculoideae): rapid radiations, long distance dispersals, and hybridization. Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 46: 1129-1150.
  • Calvino, C. I. et.al. 2008. Morphology and biogeography of Apiaceae subfamily Saniculoideae as inferred by phylogentic analysis of molecular data. Amer. J. Bot. 95: 196-214.
  • Chancellor, R. J. 1986. Decline of arable weed seeds during 20 Years in soil under grass and the periodicity of seedling emergence after cultivation.
  • Cody, W. J. 1982. A comparison of the northern limits of distribution of some vascular plant species found in southern Ontario. Naturaliste Canad. 109: 63-90.
  • Darbyshire, S. J. et.al. 1999. The biology of Canadian weeds. 111. <em>Anthriscus sylvestris</em> (L.) Hoffm. Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 79: 671-682.
  • Downie, S. R. et.al. 2001. Tribes and clades within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: the contribution of molecular data. Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 301-330.
  • Downie, S. R. et.al. 2008. Phylogeny and biogeography of Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae inferred from nuclear rDNA ITS and cpDNA psbl-5'trnK sequences, with emphasis on the North American endemics clade. Botany 86: 1039-1064.
  • Downie, S. R.; Katz-Downie, D. S. 1996. A molecular phylogeny of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 83: 234-251.
  • Downie, S. R.; Katz-Downie, D. S.; Spalik, K. 2000. A phylogeny of Apiaceae tribe Scandiceae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 76-95.
  • Downie, S. R.; Katz-Downie, D. S.; Watson, M. F. 2000. A phylogeny of the flowering plant family Apiaceae based on chloroplast DNA RPL16 and RPOC1 intron sequences: towards a suprageneric classification of subfamily Apiodeae. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 273-292.
  • Downie, S. R.; Ramanath, S.; Katz-Downie, D. S.; Llanas, E. 1998. Molecular systematics of Apiaceae subfamily Apiodeae: phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer and plastid RPOC1 intron sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 85: 563-91.
  • Eames, E. H. 1916. Some varieties and forms of Connecticut plants. Rhodora 18: 239-240.
  • Easterly, N. W. 1957. A morphological study of <em>Ptilimnium</em>. Brittonia 9: 136-145.
  • Eckardt, N. 1987. Element stewardship abstract for <em>Daucus carota</em> - wild carrot.
  • Evans, J. P.; Cain, M. L. 1995. A spatially explicit test of foraging behavior in a clonal plant. Ecology 76: 1147-1155.
  • Feist, M. A.; Downie, S. R. 2008. A phylogenetic study of <em>Oxypolis</em> and <em>Ptilimnium</em> (Apiaceae) based on nuclear rDNA ITS sequences. Syst. Bot. 33: 447-458.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1939. New species, varieties and transfers. Rhodora 41: 423-61.
  • Fleming, P.; Kanal, R. 1992. Newly documented species of vascular plants in the District of Columbia. Castanea 57: 132-46.
  • Graenicher, S. 1900. The fertilization and insect visitors of our earliest entomophilous flowers. Bull. Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. 1: 73-84.
  • Gross, K. L. 1984. Effects of seed size and growth form on seedling establishment of 6 monocarpic perennial plants. J. Ecol. 72: 369-388.
  • Gupta, S. K. et.al. 1991. Chromosome evolution in the genus <em>Torilis</em> Adans Apiaceae. Cytologia 56: 597-602.
  • Hardway, T. M. et.al. 2004. Circumscription of Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae. S. African J. Bot. 70: 393-406.
  • Harris, S. K. 1959. <em>Peucedanum paluste</em>, an interesting addition to the flora of Essex county, Massachusetts. Rhodora 61: 181.
  • Hawkins, T. S. et.al. 2007. Seed morphology, germination phenology, and capacity to form a seed bank in six herbaceous layer Apiaceae species of the eastern deciduous forest. Castanea 72: 8-14.
  • Hawkins, T. S.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 2005. Life cycles and biomass allocation in seed- and ramet-derived plants of <em>Cryptotaenia canadensis</em> (Apiaceae), a monocarpic species of eastern North America. Canad. J. Bot. 83: 518-528.
  • Heinken, T. 2000. Dispersal of plants by a dog in a deciduous forest. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 122: 449-467.
  • Hemingson, J. C. 1990. Element stewardship abstract for <em>Zizia aptera</em> - golden alexanders.
  • Hendrix, S. D. 1989. Interspecific and intraspecific variation in seed mass in seven species of Umbelliferea. New Phyt. 112: 445-452.
  • Hendrix, S. D.; Trapp, E. J. 1992. Population demography of <em>Pastinaca sativa</em> Apiaceae effects of seed mass on emergence survival and recruitment. Amer. J. Bot. 79: 365-375.
  • Heywood, V. H. (eds.) (1971): 1971. The biology and chemistry of Umbelliferae. Academic Press, London.
  • Holm, T. 1891. Contributions to the knowledge of the germination of some North American plants. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 2: 57-108.
  • Holubowicz, R. et.al. 1992. Internal seed structure of selected vegetable species. Acta Botanica Hungarica 37: 267-277.
  • Hussey, J. S. 1974. Some useful plants of early New England. Econ. Bot. 28(3): 311-37.
  • Iovene, M. et.al. 2008. Major cytogenetic landmarks and karyotype analysis in <em>Daucus carota</em> and other Apiaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 95: 793-804.
  • Jarvis, C. E. et.al. 2006. Typification of Linnaean plant names in Apiaceae. Taxon 55: 207-216.
  • Jongejans, E.; Telenius, A. 2001. Field experiments on seed dispersal by wind in ten umbelliferous species (Apiaceae). Plant Ecology 152: 67-78.
  • Kapoor, B. M. et.al. 1987. Annotated list of the chromosome numbers of the vascular flora of northeastern America V. Naturaliste Canad. 114: 105-116.
  • Kingsbury, J. M. 1966. Poison ivy, poison sumac and other rash-producing plants. Cornell Extension Bulletin 1154: 1-16.
  • Koul, P. 1985. Floral biology of <em>Scandix pecten-veneris</em>. Phytomorphology 35: 173-180.
  • Lamont, E. E.; Fitzgerald, J. M. 2001. Noteworthy plants reported from the Torrey Range- 2000. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128: 409-414.
  • Lawrey, J. D. 1977. Trace metal accumulation by plant species from a coal strip-mining area in Ohio. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 368-375.
  • Leck, M. A. 1996. Germination of macrophytes from a Delaware River tidal freshwater wetland. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 48-67.
  • Leck, M. A.; Simpson, R. L. 1993. Seeds and seedlings of the Hamilton marshes, a Delaware river tidal freshwater wetland. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 144: 267-81.
  • Lee, C. S.; Downie, S. R. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships within <em>Cicuta</em> (Apiaceae tribe Oenantheae) inferred from nuclear rDNA ITS and cpDNA sequence data. Canad. J. Bot. 84: 453-468.
  • Lindsey, A. H. 1984. Reproductive biology of Apiaceae. I. Floral visitors to <em>Thaspium</em> and <em>Zizia</em> and their importance in pollination. Amer. J. Bot. 71: 375-387.
  • Lindsey, A. H. 1982. Floral phenology patterns and breeding systems in <em>Thaspium</em> and <em>Zizia</em> (Apiaceae). Syst. Bot. 7: 1-12.
  • Lindsey, A. H.; Bell, C. R. 1985. Reproductive biology of Apiaceae 2. Cryptic specialization and floral evolutoin in <em>Thaspium</em> and <em>Zizia</em>. Amer. J. Bot. 72: 231-247.
  • Lusk, J. M.; Reekie, E. G. 2007. The effect of growing season length and water level fluctuations on growth and survival of two rare and at risk Atlantic Coastal Plain flora species, <em>Coreopsis rosea</em> and <em>Hydrocotyle umbellata</em>. Canad. J. Bot. 85: 119-131.
  • Menemen, Y.; Jury, S. L. 2001. A taxonomic revision of the genus <em>Pastinaca</em> L. (Umbelliferae). Israel J. Pl. Sci. 49: 67-77.
  • Mitich, L. W. 1998. Intriguing world of weeds: Poison-hemlock (<em>Conium maculatum</em> L.). Weed Technol. 12: 194-197.
  • Nelson, J. B. 1993. Noteworthy Collections, South Carolina. Castanea 58: 59-63.
  • Nitao, J. K.; Zangerl, A. R. 1987. Floral development and chemical defense allocation in wild parsnip <em>Pastinaca sativa</em>. Ecology 68: 521-529.
  • Oskolski, A. A. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships within <em>Apiales</em>: evidence from wood anatomy. Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 201-206.
  • Ostertag, C. P.; Jensen, Richard J. 1980. Species and population variability of <em>Osmorhiza longistylis</em> and <em>Osmorhiza claytonii</em>. Ohio J. Science 80: 91-95.
  • Page, N. A. et.al. 2006. The biology of invasive alien plants in Canada. 4. <em>Heracieum mantegazzianum</em> Sommier & Levier. Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 86: 569-589.
  • Palamarchuk, O. P. 2001. Genus <em>Pastinaca</em> L. in the systems of family Apiaceae. Ukrayins'k Bot. Zhurn. 58: 486-493. (In Ukrainian)
  • Petersen, G. et.al. 2002. The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of <em>Lilaeopsis</em> (Apiaceae), with notes on the applicability of ITS sequence data for phylogenetic reconstruction. Australian Syst. Bot. 15: 181-191.
  • Phartyal, S. S. et.al. 2009. Temperature requirements differ for the two stages of seed dormancy break in <em>Aegopodium podagraria</em> (Apiaceae), a species with deep complex morphophysiological dormancy. Amer. J. Bot. 96: 1086-1095.
  • Plunkett, G. M.; Downie, S. R. 2000. Expansion and contraction of the chloroplast inverted repeat in Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae. Syst. Bot. 25: 648-667.
  • Plunkett, G. M.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S. 1997. Clarification of the relationship between Apiaceae and Araliaceae based on matK and rbcL sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 84: 565-80.
  • Plunkett, G. M.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S. 1996. Evolutionary patterns in Apiaceae: inferences based on matK sequence data. Syst. Bot. 21: 477-95.
  • Plunkett, G. M.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S. 1996. Higher level relationships of Apiales (Apiaceae and Araliaceae) based on phylogenetic analysis of rbcL sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 83(4): 499-515.
  • Pryer, K. M.; Phillippe, L. R. 1989. A synopsis of the genus <em>Sanicula</em> Apiaceae in eastern Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 694-707.
  • Pysek, P. et.al. (eds.) (2007): 2007. Ecology and management of giant hogweed (<em>Heracleum mantegassiannum</em>). Oxford Univ. Press, New York. , 352 pages. (ISBN13: 978-1-84593-206-0)
  • Rejmankova, E. 1992. Ecology of creeping macrophytes with special reference to <em>Ludwigia peploides</em> (Kunth) Raven. Aquatic Botany 43: 283-299.
  • Reveal, J. L. 1986. Additional comments on Linnaean types of eastern North American plants. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 92: 161-176.
  • Richardson, L. E. 1971. <em>Peucedanum palustre</em> again in Massachussetts. Rhodora 73: 460-461.
  • Roberts, H. A. 1979. Periodicity of seedling emergence and seed survival in some Umbelliferae. J. Applied Ecol. 16: 195-201.
  • Robertson, C. 1890. Flowers and insects: Umbelliferae. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 5: 449-60.
  • Sifton, H. B. 1925. Poison canals of <em>Cicuta maculata</em>. Bot. Gaz. 80: 319-324.
  • Spalik, K. 1997. Revision of <em>Anthriscus</em> (Apiaceae). Polish Botanical Studies 13: 1-69.
  • Spalik, K. 1989. Typification of Linnaean names now in <em>Anthriscus</em> Apiaceae. Taxon 38: 288-293.
  • Spalik, K. 1994. Regulation of pollen production in <em>Anthriscus sylvestris</em>, an andromonoecious species. Int. J. Plant Sci. 155: 750-754.
  • Spalik, K.; Downie, S. R. 2006. The evolutionary history of <em>Sium</em> sensu lato (Apiaceae): dispersal, vicariance, and domestication as inferred from ITS RDNA phylogeny. Amer. J. Bot. 93: 747-761.
  • Spalik, K.; Wojewodzka, A.; Downie, S. R. 2001. The evolution of fruit in Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae (Apiaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 79: 1358-1374.
  • Spalik, K.; Wojewodzka, A.; Downie, S. R. 2001. Delimitation of genera in Apiaceae with examples from Scandiceae subtribe Scandicinae. Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 331-346.
  • Tiley, G. E. D. et.al. 1996. <em>Heracleum mantegazzianum</em> Sommier & Levier. J. Ecol. 84: 297-319.
  • Walker, N. F. et.al. 2003. Population genetics of an invasive species, <em>Heracleum mantegazzianum</em>: Implications for the role of life history, demographics and independent introductions. Molec. Ecol. 12: 1747-1756.
  • Walmsley, C. A.; Davy, A. J. 1997. Germination characteristics of shingle beach species, effects of seed ageing and their implications for vegetation restoration. J. Applied Ecol. 34: 131-142.
  • Webster, C. R.; Parker, G. R. 2000. Evaluation of <em>Osmorhiza claytonii</em> (Michx.) C.B. Clarke, <em>Arisaema triphyllum</em> (L.) Schott, and <em>Actaea pachypoda</em> Ell. as potential indicators of white-tailed deer overabundance. Natural Areas Journal 20: 176-188.
  • Wen, J. et.al. 2002. Phylogenetic and biogeographic diversification in <em>Osmorhiza</em> (Apiaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 89: 414-428.
  • Williams, C. F. 1994. Genetic consequences of seed dispersal in three sympatric forest herbs. I. Hierarchical population-genetic structure. Evolution 48: 791-805.
  • Williams, C. F. 1994. Genetic consequences of seed dispersal in three sympatric forest herbs: II. Microspatial genetic structure within populations. Evolution 48: 1959-1972.
  • Worz, A. 2005. A new subgeneric classification of the genus <em>Eryngium</em> L. (Apiaceae, Saniculoideae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 126: 253-259.
  • Yoo, K. O. et.al. 2002. Discordance of chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA data in <em>Osmorhiza</em> (Apiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 89: 966-971.