New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Liliaceae

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/01/2013

Nomenclature

List of Liliaceae Genera

References to Liliaceae

  • Adams, R. M.; Dress, W. J. 1982. Nodding <em>Lilium</em> species of eastern North America. Baileya 21: 165-188.
  • Allen, G. A.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S. 2003. Phylogeny and biogeography of <em>Erythronium</em> (Liliaceae) inferred from chloroplast matK and nuclear rDNA ITS sequences. Syst. Bot. 28: 512-523.
  • Ambrose, J. D.; Anderson, N. J. F. 1975. Comparative anatomy and morphology of the Melanthioideae (Liliaceae). Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY,
  • Anderson, C. E. 1940. Some studies on the floral anatomy of the Liliales. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY,
  • Badawi, A. A.; Elwan, Z. 1986. A taxonomic study of Liliaceae sensu lato. I. & II. Phytologia 60: 201-221.
  • Bailey, P. C. 1958. Differential chromosome segments in eight species of <em>Trillium</em>. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 85: 201-214.
  • Bailey, P. C. 1954. A further study of the chromosome morphology of some species of <em>Trillium</em>. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 81: 68-75.
  • Barnes, D. 1987. Daffodils. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 176 pages. (ISBN 0-88192-044-4)
  • Barrett, S. C. H. 1982. Breeding systems and flowering phenology of boreal forest herbs. Bot. Soc. Amer., Misc. Publ. 162: 28.
  • Barrett, S. C. H. 1984. Variation in floral sexuality of diclinous <em>Aralia</em> (Araliaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71: 278-88. (Also Cornus, Maianthemum, Medeola, & Trientalis)
  • Barrett, S. C. H.; Helenurm, K. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs I. Breeding systems and pollination. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2036-2046.
  • Baskin, C. C. et.al. 1993. Seed germination ecophysiology of two <em>Zigadenus</em> (Liliaceae) species. Castanea 58: 45-53.
  • Baskin, C. C. et.al. 2001. Morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of <em>Chamaelirium luteum</em>, a long-lived dioecious lily. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128: 7-15.
  • Berg, R. Y. 1962. Morphology and taxonomic position of <em>Medeola</em>, Liliaceae. 3: 1-55.
  • Blanchard, J. W. 1990. <em>Narcissus</em>: A guide to wild daffodils. Alpine Garden Society, Surrey, UK.
  • Bodkin, N. L. 1978. A revision of North American <em>Melanthium</em> L. (Liliaceae). Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Maryland, College Park, MD,
  • Boerner, R. E. J. 1986. Seasonal nutrient dynamics, nutrient resorption, and mycorrhizal infection intensity of two perennial forest herbs. Amer. J. Bot. 73: 1249-1257.
  • Bourg, N. A. et.al. 2005. Putting a cart before the search: Successful habitat prediction for a rare forest herb. Ecology 86: 2793-2804.
  • Bowles, E. A. 1985. A handbook of <em>Narcissus</em>. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
  • Burke, D. J. 2008. Effects of <em>Alliaria petiolata</em> (Garlic Mustard; Brassicaceae) on mycorrhizal colonization and community structure in three herbaceous plants in a mixed deciduous forest. Amer. J. Bot. 95: 1416-1425.
  • Bush, B. F. 1927. The species of <em>Polygonatum</em>. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 10: 385-400.
  • Cain, M. L.; Cook, R. E. 1988. Growth in <em>Medeola virginiana</em> clones II. Stochastic simulation of vegetative spread. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 732-738.
  • Carter, A. 1892. Notes on pollination. Bot. Gaz. 17: 19-22.
  • Carter, C. R. 1968. Variations in populations of <em>Clintonia borealis</em> (Ait.) Raf. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 95: 305-309.
  • Clebsch, E. E. C.; Walker, G. L.; Wofford, B. E. 1989. Noteworthy collections, Tennessee. Castanea 54: 48-50.
  • Cook, R. E. 1988. Growth in <em>Medeola virginiana</em> clones I. Field observations. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 725-731.
  • Corbet, S. A. et.al. 1988. Vibratory pollen collection and flower form: bumble-bees on <em>Actinidia, Symphytum, Borago</em> and <em>Polygonatum</em>. Funct. Ecol. 2: 147-155.
  • Crespo, M. B. M. et.al. 1996. Moleculat phylogeny of <em>Leucojum</em> based on ITS sequences. [Abstract]. Amer. J. Bot. 83: 149.
  • Cunliffe-Lister, L. et.al. 1990. On the lectotypification of <em>Erythronium americanum</em> Ker (Liliaceae). Bartonia 56: 13-14.
  • Demars, B. G. 1996. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of spring ephemerals in two Ohio forests. Ohio J. Science 96: 97-99.
  • Farmer, S. B.; Schilling, E. E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of Trilliaceae based on morphological and molecular data. Syst. Bot. 27: 674-692.
  • Flinn, M. A.; Pringle, J. K. 1983. Heat tolerance of rhizomes of several understory species. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 452-7.
  • Flinn, M. A.; Wein, R. W. 1988. Regrowth of forest understory species following seasonal burning. Canad. J. Bot. 66: 150-155.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002. Flora of North America. Volume 26. Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. , 723 pages. (ISBN 0195152085)
  • Freman, J. D. 1975. Revision of <em>Trillium</em> subgenus <em>Phyllantherum</em> (Liliaceae). Brittonia 27: 1-62.
  • Garbari, F.; Greuter, W. 1970. On the taxonomy and typification of <em>Muscari</em> Miller (Liliaceae) and allied genera, and on the typification of generic names.
  • Gates, B. N. 1940. Dissemination by ants of the seed of <em>Trillium grandiflorum</em>. Rhodora 42: 194-196.
  • Gates, B. N. 1941. Observations in 1940 on the dissemination by ants of the seeds of <em>Tillium grandiflorum</em>. Rhodora 43: 206-207.
  • Gates, B. N. 1943. Carunculate seed dissemination by ants. Rhodora 45: 438-445.
  • Gates, R. R. 1917. A revision of the genus <em>Polygonatum</em> in North America. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 44: 117-126.
  • Gates, R. R. 1917. A systematic study of the North American genus <em>Trillium</em>, its variability, and its relation to <em>Paris</em> and <em>Medeola</em>. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 4: 43-92.
  • Godt, M. J. W.; Hamrick, J. L.; Bratton, S 1995. Genetic diversity in a threatened wetland species, <em>Helonias bullata</em>. Conserv. Biol. 9: 596-604.
  • Gordon, T. 1989. Survey of historic populations of <em>Helonias bullata</em> in New Jersey--1989.
  • Griffin, S. R.; Barrett, S. C. H. 2004. Post-glacial history of <em>Trillium grandiflorum</em> (Melanthiaceae) in eastern North America: inferences from phylogeography. Amer. J. Bot. 91: 465-473.
  • Griffin, S. R.; Barrett, S. C. H. 2002. Factors affecting low seed: ovule ratios in a spring woodland herb, <em>Trillium grandiflorum</em> (Melanthiaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 581-590.
  • Handel, S. N.; Fisch, S. B.; Schatz, G. E. 1981. Ants disperse a majority of herbs in a mesic forest community in New York State. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 108: 430-437.
  • Hayashi, K. 2000. Molecular systematics of <em>Lilium</em> and allied genera (Liliaceae): phylogenetic relationships among <em>Lilium</em> and related genera based on rbcL and matK gene sequence data. Pl. Spec. Biol. 15: 73-93.
  • Hayashi, K. et.al. 1998. Molecular systematics of the genus <em>Uvularia</em> and selected Liliales based on matK and rbcL gene sequence data. Pl. Spec. Biol. 13: 129-146.
  • Hayashi, K. et.al. 2001. Molecular systematics in the genus <em>Clintonia</em> and related taxa based on rcbL and matK gene sequence data. Pl. Spec. Biol. 16: 119-137.
  • Helenurm, K.; Barrett, S. C. H. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs II. Phenology of flowering and fruiting. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2047-2056.
  • Heus, P. 2003. Propagation protocol for Canada lily, (<em>Lilium canadense</em>). Native Plants J. 4: 107-109.
  • House, H. D. 1921. Nomenclatural notes on certain American plants. I. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 7: 126-35.
  • Huber, H. et.al. 2004. Timing of disturbance changes the balance between growth and survival of parent and offspring ramets in the clonal forest understory herb <em>Uvularia perfoliata</em>. Evolutionary Ecology 18: 521-539.
  • Hull, J. C. 2002. Photosynthetic induction dynamics to sunflecks of four deciduous forest understory herbs with different phenologies. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 913-924.
  • Ihara, M. A.; Ihara, K 1978. A biosystematic study on the pedicellate-flowered species of the North American <em>Trillium</em>. (1) Geographical distribution of major groups and their gynoecium norms. J. Geobot. 25: 139-172.
  • Irwin, R. E. 2000. Morphological variations and female reproductive success in two sympatric <em>Trillium</em> species: evidence for phenotypic selection in <em>Trillium erectum</em> and <em>Trillium grandiflorum</em> (Liliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 87: 205-214.
  • Johnson, R. G. 1969. A taxonomic and floristic study of the Liliaceae and allied families in the southeastern United States. Ph.D. Dissertation West Virginia Univ., Morgantown337 p.
  • Jones, B. 2003. Maximum likelihood inference for seed and pollen dispersal distributions. J. Agric. Biol. Environ. Statistics 8: 170-183.
  • Judd, W. S. 2001. The Asparagaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers in Botany 6: 223-244.
  • Judd, W. S. 2000. The Hypoxidaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers in Botany 5: 79-98.
  • Kapoor, B. M. et.al. 1987. Annotated list of the chromosome numbers of the vascular flora of northeastern America V. Naturaliste Canad. 114: 105-116.
  • Kato, H. et.al. 1995. Molecular systematics of the Trilliaceae sensu lato as inferred from rbcL sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 4: 184-193.
  • Kawano, S.; Iltis, H. H. 1964. Cytotaxonomic and geographic notes on <em>Uvularia</em> (Liliaceae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 91: 13-23.
  • Kim, S. C.; Lee, N. S. 2007. Generic delimitation and biogeography of <em>Maianthemum</em> and <em>Smilacina</em> (Ruscaceae sensu lato): preliminary results based on partial 3' matK gene and trnK 3' intron sequences of cpDNA. Pl. Syst. Evol. 265: 1-12.
  • Knight, T. M. 2004. The effects of herbivory and pollen limitation on a declining population of <em>Trillium grandiflorum</em>. Ecol. Applic. 14: 915-928.
  • Knight, T. M. 2003. Effects of herbivory and its timing across populations of <em>Trillium grandiflorum</em> (Liliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 90: 1207-1214.
  • Knight, T. M. 2003. Floral density, pollen limitation, and reproductive success in <em>Trillium grandiflorum</em>. Oecologia 442: 557-563.
  • La Frankie, J. V. 1986. Morphology and taxonomy of the New World species of <em>Maianthemum</em> (Liliaceae). J. Arnold Arbor 67: 371-439.
  • La Frankie, J. V. 1986. Transfer of the species of <em>Smilacina</em> to <em>Maianthemum</em> (Liliaceae). Taxon 35: 584-589.
  • Laidig, K. J. et.al. 2009. Hydrologic regimes associated with <em>Hellonias bullata</em> L. (swamp pink) and the potential impact of simulated water-level reductions. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136: 221-232.
  • Lapointe, L. et.al. 2010. Impact of growth and carbohydrate reserves on tolerance to simulated herbivory and subsequent recovery in Liliaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 97: 913-924.
  • Lapointe, L.; Lerat, S. 2006. Annual growth of the spring ephemeral <em>Erythronium americanum</em> as a function of temperature and mycorrhizal status. Canad. J. Bot. 84: 39-48.
  • Lazarte, J. E.; Palser, B. F. 1979. Morphology, vascular anatomy and embryology of pistillate and staminate flowers of <em>Asparagus officinalis</em>. Amer. J. Bot. 66: 753-764.
  • Liao, W. J. et.al. 2007. Biogeography and evolution of flower color in <em>Veratrum</em> (Melanthiaceae) through inference of a phylogeny based on multiple DNA markers. Pl. Syst. Evol. 267: 177-190.
  • Macior, L. W. 1978. Pollination ecology of vernal angiosperms. Oikos 30: 452-460.
  • Magnarelli, L. A. 1983. Nectar sugars and caloric reserves in natural populuations of <em>Aedes canadensis</em> and <em>Aedes stimulans</em> Diptera Culicidae. Environmental Entomology 12: 1482-1486.
  • Manning, J. C. et.al. 2009. A molecular phylogeny and a revised classification of Ornithogaloideae (Hyacinthaceae) based on an anlysis of four plastid DNA regions. Taxon 58: 77-107.
  • Mathew, B. 1992. A taxonomic and horticultural review of <em>Erythronium</em> L. (Liliaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 109: 453-471.
  • Meagher, T. R. 1991. Analysis of paternity within a natural population of <em>Chamaelirium luteum</em> II. Patterns of male reproductive success. Amer. Naturalist 137: 738-752.
  • Meerow, A. W. et.al. 1999. Systematics of Amaryllidaceae based on cladistic analysis of plastid rbcL and trnL-F sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1325-1345.
  • Moskowitz, D. 1996. Swamp pink (<em>Helonias bullata</em>): a federally-listed threatened species. Wetland Journal 8: 14-16.
  • Muller, R. N. 1978. The phenology, growth and ecosystem dynamics of <em>Erythronium americanum</em> in the northern hardwood forest. Ecol. Monogr. 48: 1-20.
  • Munson, R. W. 1989. Hemerocallis: The Daylily. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 160 pages.
  • Myers, J. A. et.al. 2004. Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America. Oecologia 139: 35-44.
  • Nishikawa, T. 1999. A molecular phylogeny of <em>Lilium</em> in the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. J. Molecular Evolution 49: 238-249.
  • Osaloo, S. K. et.al. 1999. Molecular systematics of Trilliaceae I. phylogenetic analyses of <em>Trillium</em> using matK gene sequences. J. Pl. Res. 112: 35-49.
  • Ownbey, M.; Aase, H. C. 1955. Cytotaxonomic studies in <em>Allium</em>. I. The <em>Allium canadense</em> alliance.
  • Ownbey, R. P. 1944. The Liliaceous genus <em>Polygonatum</em> in North America. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 31: 373-413.
  • Palmer, M. 1988. Seasonal pollen flow and progeny diversity in <em>Amianthium muscaetoxicum</em> ecological potential for multiple mating in a self-incompatible hermaphroditic perennial. Oecologia 77: 19-24.
  • Palmer, M. et.al. 1989. Temporal mechanisms influence gender expression and pollen flow within a self-incompatible perennial <em>Amianthium muscaetoxicum</em> Liliaceae. Oecologia 78: 231-236.
  • Paratley, R. D. 1986. Vegetation-environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 113: 357-371.
  • Parks, C. R. 1963. Yellow erythroniums of the eastern United States. Brittonia 15: 245-259.
  • Pemberton, R. W.; Irving, D. W. 1990. Elaiosomes on weed seeds and the potential for myrmecochory in naturalized plants.
  • Porter, T. C. 1881. <em>Helonias bullata</em> L., in Morris Co., N.J. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 8: 91-2.
  • Rahn, J. E. 1956. A study of the three-dimensional configurations of sporogenous cells in the anthers of <em>Trillium erectum</em> L. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 83: 355-376.
  • Redmond, A. M. et.al. 1989. The effects of pollination distance on seed productionin three populations of <em>Amianthium muscaetoxicum</em> Liliaceae. Oecologia 79: 260-264.
  • Reveal, J. L. 1993. <em>Streptopus lanceolatus</em>, new name (Aiton) Reveal, a new name for <em>Streptopus roseus</em> Michx. (Convallariaceae). Phytologia 74: 185-189.
  • Rick, C. M.; Hanna, G. C. 1943. Determination of sex in <em>Asparagus officinalis</em> L. Amer. J. Bot. 30: 711-714.
  • Robbins, W. W.; Borthwick, H. A. 1925. Development of the seed of <em>Asparagus officinalis</em>. Bot. Gaz. 80: 426-438.
  • Robertson, C. 1892. Flowers and insects. VII. Bot. Gaz. 17: 65-71.
  • Robertson, C. 1896. Flowers and insects. XVI. Bot. Gaz. 21: 266-274.
  • Rooney, T. P. 2001. Deer impacts on forest ecosystems: A North American perspective. Forestry (Oxford) 74: 201-208.
  • Rooney, T. P.; Dress, W. J. 1997. Patterns of plant diversity in overbrowsed primary and mature secondary hemlock-northern hardwood forest stands. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124: 43-51.
  • Rooney, T. P.; Waller, D. M. 2001. How experimental defoliation and leaf height effect growth and reproduction in <em>Trillium grandiflorum</em>. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128: 393-399.
  • Routhier, M. C.; Lapointe, L. 2002. Impact of tree leaf phenology on growth rates and reproduction in the spring flowering species <em>Trillium erectum</em> (Liliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 89: 500-505.
  • Ruhren, S.; Handel, S. N. 2003. Herbivory constrains survival, reproduction and mutualisms when restoring nine temperate forest herbs. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130: 34-42.
  • Schmid, W. G. 1991. The genus <em>Hosta</em>. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 428 pages. (ISBN 0881922013)
  • Silliman, F. E. 1957. <em>Chamaelirium luteum</em> (L.) Gray: A biological study. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill,
  • Small, E. 1976. Insect pollinators of the Mer Bleue peat bog of Ottawa. Canad. Field-Naturalist 90: 22-28.
  • Smouse, P. E. et.al. 1999. Parentage analysis in <em>Chamaelirium luteum</em> (L.) Gray (Liliaceae): Why do some males have higher reproductive contributions? J. Evol. Biol. 12: 1069-1077.
  • Smouse, P. E.; Meagher, T. R. 1994. Genetic analysis of male reproductive contributions in <em>Chamaelirium luteum</em> (L.) gray (Liliaceae). Genetics 136: 313-322.
  • Solt, S. 2002. Propagation protocol for <em>Trillium</em> (Liliaceae). Native Plants J. 3: 18-20.
  • Sterling, C. 1980. Comparative morphology of the carpel in the Liliaceae Helonieae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 80: 341-356.
  • Sterling, C. 1982. Comparative morphology of the carpel in the Liliaceae Veratreae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 84: 57-78.
  • Stern, F. C. 1956. Snowdrops and snowflakes- a study of the genera <em>Galanthus</em> and <em>Leucojum</em>. Royal Horticultural Society, London. , 128 pages.
  • Stout, A. B. 1941. The inflorescence in <em>Hemerocallis</em>-I. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 68: 305-316.
  • Streveler, B. E. 1966. A taxonomic study of the genus <em>Convallaria</em> (Liliaceae). M.S. Thesis Univ. Wisconsin, Madison,
  • Swanson, C. V. 1952. Asparagus as emergency pheasant food. J. Wildl. Managem. 16: 50-53.
  • Takahashi, M.; Kawano, S. 1989. Pollen morphology of the Melanthiaceae and its systematic implications. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 76: 863-876.
  • Tamura, M. N. et.al. 1997. Biosystematic studies on the genus <em>Polygonatum</em> (Convallariaceae) IV. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on restriction site mapping of the chloroplast gene trnK. Feddes Repert. 108: 159-168.
  • Tanaka, N. 1997. Taxonomic significance of some floral characters in <em>Helonias</em> and <em>Ypsilandra</em> (Liliaceae). J. Jap. Bot. 72: 110-116.
  • Taylor, C. A. 1956. The culture of false hellebore. Econ. Bot. 10: 155-165.
  • Tessier, J. T. 2008. Leaf habit, phenology, and longevity of 11 forest understory plant species in Algonquin State Forest, northwest Connecticut, USA. Botany 86: 457-465.
  • Thaler, G. R.; Plowright, R. C. 1980. The effect of aerial insecticide spraying for spruce budworm control on the fecundity of entomophilous plants in New Brunswick. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 2022-2027.
  • Therman, E. 1950. Chromosome numbers in American <em>Polygonatum</em> species. Amer. J. Bot. 37: 407-413.
  • Therman, E. 1956. Cytotaxonomy of the tribe Polygonatae. Amer. J. Bot. 43: 134-142.
  • Torok, L. S. 1996. De novo field survey for populations of <em>Helonias bullata</em> in New Jersey.
  • Travis, J. 1984. Breeding system pollination and pollinator limitation in a perennial herb <em>Amianthium muscaetoxicum</em> Liliaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 71: 941-947.
  • Utech, F. H. 1978. Comparison of the vascular floral anatomy of <em>Xerophyllum asphodeloides</em> (L.) Nutt. and <em>X. tenax</em> (Pursh) Nutt. (Liliaceae-Melanthioideae). Ann. Carnegie Mus. 47: 147-167.
  • Utech, F. H. 1975. Biosystematic studies in <em>Clintonia</em> (Liliaceae: Polygonatae) III. Cytogeography, chromosome numbers and chromosome morphology of the North American species of <em>Clintonia</em>. Cytologia 40: 765-786.
  • Utech, F. H. 1986. Floral morphology and vascular anatomy of <em>Amianthium muscaetoxicum</em> (Walter) A. Gray (Liliaceae-Veratreae) with notes on distribution and taxonomy. Ann. Carnegie Mus. 55: 481-504.
  • Vogt, R. 1915. The ecology and anatomy of <em>Polygonatum commutatum</em>. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4: 1-11.
  • Ward, D. B. 2010. Thomas Walter's species of Melanthium (Liliaceae). J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4: 303-307.
  • Waugh, F. A. 1899. A conspectus of the genus <em>Lilium</em>. Bot. Gaz. 27: 235-254, 340-360.
  • Webb, S. L.; Willson, M. F. 1985. Spatial heterogenity in post-dispersal predation in <em>Prunus</em> and <em>Uvularia</em> seeds. Oecologia 67: 150-3.
  • Whitney, G. G. 1984. The reproductive biology of raspberries and plant-pollinator community structure. Amer. J. Bot. 71: 887-894. (Also Prunus, Uvularia)
  • Widden, P. 1996. The morphology of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in <em>Clintonia borealis</em> and <em>Medeola virginiana</em>. Canad. J. Bot. 74: 679-685.
  • Wijesinghe, D. K.; Whigham, D. F. 2001. Nutrient foraging in woodland herbs: a comparison of three species of <em>Uvularia</em> (Liliaceae) with contrasting belowground morphologies. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1071-1079.
  • Wilbur, R. L. 1961. A new name for the puberulent sessile-leaved <em>Uvularia</em>. Rhodora 63: 36-39.
  • Wilbur, R. L. 1963. A revision of the North American genus <em>Uvularia</em> (Liliaceae). Rhodora 65: 158-188.
  • Windham, L; Breden, T 2000. A GIS-based threat analysis of <em>Helonias bullata</em> populations within Big Timber Creek Watershed, New Jersey. Bartonia 60: 37-48.
  • Woodcock, H. D. 1950. Lilies of the world: their cultivation and classification. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. , 431 pages.
  • Zimmerman, J. H. 1958. A monograph of <em>Veratrum</em>. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Wisconsin, Madison,
  • Zomlefer, W. B. 1997. The genera of Nartheciaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers in Botany 2: 195-211.
  • Zomlefer, W. B. 1998. The genera of Hemerocallidaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers in Botany 3: 113-145.
  • Zomlefer, W. B. 1997. The genera of Melanthiaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers in Botany 2: 133-177.
  • Zomlefer, W. B. et.al. 2010. (1928) Proposal to conserve the name <em>Veratrum</em> against <em>Melanthium</em> (Melanthiaceae). Taxon 59: 644-645.
  • Zomlefer, W. B. et.al. 2003. An overview of <em>Veratrum</em> s. l. (Liliales: Melanthiaceae) and an infrageneric phylogeny based on ITS sequence data. Syst. Bot. 28: 250-269.
  • Zomlefer, W. B. et.al. 2001. Generic circumscription and relationships in the tribe Melanthieae (Liliales, Melanthiaceae), with emphasis on <em>Zigadenus</em>: evidence from ITS and TRNL-F sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1657-1669.
  • Zomlefer, W. B.; Judd, W. H. 2002. Resurrection of segregates of the polyphyletic genus <em>Zigadenus</em> s.l. (Liliales: Melanthiaceae) and resulting new combinations. Novon 12: 299-308.
  • Zona, S. 2009. A seed atlas of <em>Hypoxis</em> from eastern North America. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136: 26-32.