New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Rutaceae

Ptelea trifoliata
Ptelea trifoliata   L.  -  Hop-tree
Photo © by Brooklyn Botanic Garden
Taken by G. A. Kalmbacher.

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 03/05/2013

Key to the genera of Rutaceae

1. Twigs with thorns...Zanthoxylum
1. Twigs thornless...2

2. Leaflets 3...Ptelea
2. Leaflets 5 or more...Phellodendron

List of Rutaceae Genera

References to Rutaceae

  • Ambrose, J. D.; Kevan, P. G.; Gadawski, R. M. 1985. Hop tree (Ptelea trifoliata) in Canada: population and reproductive biology of a rare species. Canad. J. Bot. 63: 1928-1935.
  • Anonymous 1971. Amur cork-tree, Phellodendron amurense, rue family (Rutaceae). Morton Arbor. Quart. 7(3): 26-7.
  • Bailey, H. E.; Bailey, V. L. 1965. Phylogenetic studies on the genus Ptelea (Rutaceae). Chromatography as an aid to clarification of taxonomic relationships between varieties of Ptelea trifoliata subsp. angustifolia and subsp. pallida. Lloydia 28: 27-43.
  • Bailey, V. L. 1962. Revision of the genus Ptelea (Rutaceae). Brittonia 14: 1-45.
  • Bailey, V. L. 1960. Historical review of Ptelea trifoliata in botanical and medical literature. Econ. Bot. 14: 180-8.
  • Bailey, V. L.; Herlin, S. B.; Bailey, H. E. 1971. Ptelea trifoliata ssp. trifoliata (Rutaceae) in deciduous forest regions of eastern North America. Brittonia 22(4): 346-58.
  • Barber, C. A. 1892. The nature and development of corky excrescences on the stem of Zanthoxylum. Ann. Bot. 6: 155-66.
  • Beurton, C. 1996. Zur Unterscheidung von Zanthoxylem americanum Mill. und Z. simulans Hance (Fam. Rutaceae). Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 82: 57-62. (In German; English summary)
  • Boesewinkel, F. D. 1977. Development of ovule and testa in Rutaceae: 1. Ruta, Zanthoxylem, and Skimmia. Acta Bot. Neerl. 26(3): 193-211.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1962. The genera of Rutaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 43: 1-22.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1962. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Zanthoxylum and Glycosmis (Rutaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 43: 80-93.
  • Bruckner, C. 1991. Fruchtanatomische Studien an Dictamnus albus L., Zanthoxylem simulans Hance, Ptelea trifoliata L. und Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae). Feddes Repert. 102(7-8): 541-70. (In German; English summary)
  • Chase, M. W.; Morton, C. M.; Kallunki, J. A. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Rutaceae: a cladistic analysis of the subfamilies using evidence from rbcL and atpB sequence variation. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1191-1199.
  • Da Silva, M. F.; Das Gracas, F.; Gottlieb, O. R.; Ehrendorfer, F. 1988. Chemosystematics of the Rutaceae: suggestions for a more natural taxonomy and evolutionary interpretation of the family. Pl. Syst. Evol. 161: 97-134.
  • Damery, J. 2011. A taste of Sichuan: Zanthoxylum simulans. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 68: 32.
  • Deane, W. 1902. Remarkable persistence of the button-bush. Rhodora 4: 243-4.
  • Desai, S. 1962. Polyembryony in Xanthoxylum Mill. Phytomorphology 12: 184-9.
  • Desai, S. 1962. Cytology and embryology of the Rutaceae. Phytomorphology 12: 178-83.
  • Desai, S. 1960. Cytology of Rutaceae and Simarubaceae. Cytologia 25: 28-35.
  • Dreyer, D. L. 1969. Coumarins and alkaloids of the genus Ptelea. Phytochemistry 8: 1013-20.
  • Engler, A. 1874. Studien uber die Verwandtschaftsverholtnisse der Rutaceae, Simarubaceae, und Burseraceae nebst Beitrogen zur Anatomie und Systematik dieser Familien. Abh. Naturf. Ges. Halle 13: 111-58. (In German)
  • Fish, F.; Waterman, P. G. 1973. Chemosystematics in the Rutaceae II. The chemosystematics of the Zanthoxylum/Fagaria complex. Taxon 22: 177-203.
  • Fosberg, F. R. 1959. Typification of Zanthoxylum. Taxon 8: 103-5.
  • Gadek, P. A. et al. et.al. 1996. Sapindales: Molecular delimitation and infraordinal groups. Amer. J. Bot. 83(6): 802-11.
  • Gallet, F. 1913. Development et structure anatomique du tegument seminal des Rutacees. , Thesis Univ. Paris, +cole SupÚr. Pharm.66 p.
  • Gregor, H. J. 1989. Aspects of the fossil record and phylogeny of the family Rutaceae (Zanthoxyleae, Toddalioideae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 162: 251-65.
  • Groppo, M. et.al. 2008. Phylogeny of Rutaceae based on two noncoding regions from cpDNA. Amer. J. Bot. 95: 985-1005.
  • Guerra, M. D. S. 1984. New chromosome numbers in Rutaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 146: 13-30.
  • Gut, B. J. 1966. Beitrage zur Morphologie des Gynoeceums und der Blutenachse einiger Rutaceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 85: 151-247. (In German, English summary)
  • Harris, J. A. 1911. Teratological fruits of Ptelea. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 38: 385-7.
  • Hartl, D. 1957. Structure and origin of the endocarp of the Rutaceae. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 34: 35-49. (In German)
  • Hartl, D. 1958. Die ubereinstimmungen des Endokarps der Simarubaceen, Rutaceen, und Leguminosen. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 34: 453-5. (In German)
  • Holden, R. 1912. Some features in the anatomy of the Sapindales. Bot. Gaz. 53: 50-8.
  • Kowalska, M. 1963. Alkaloids in leaves and roots of Ptelea trifoliata. Acta Polon. Pharm. 20: 458.
  • Lehr, J. H. 1961. Local flora notes. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 88: 123-4.
  • Ma, J. et.al. 2006. A revision of Phellodendron (Rutaceae). Edinburgh J. Bot. 63: 131-151.
  • Ma, J.; Brach, A. R. 2007. The identity of cultivated Phellodendron (Rutaceae) in North America. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 357-365.
  • Mauritzon, J. 1935. Uber die Embryologie der Familie Rutaceae. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 29: 319-47.
  • McLeod, K. W.; Murphy, P. G. 1983. Factors affecting growth of Ptelea trifoliata seedlings. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 2410-5.
  • McLeod, K. W.; Murphy, P. G. 1977. Germination ecology of Ptelea trifoliata. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 97: 363-72.
  • McLeod, K. W.; Murphy, P. G. 1977. Establishment of Ptelea trifoliata on Lake Michigan sand dunes. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 97: 350-62.
  • Mitchell, R. S. 1999. A Phellodendron new to New York State found naturalized in Sterling Forest. New York Flora Association Newsletter 10: 1-2.
  • Mooken, J. D.; Bailey, V. L.; Bailey, H. E. 1969. Occurrence of furoquinoline alkaloids in Ptelea trifoliata. Lloydia 32: 526-7.
  • Moore, J. A. 1936. Floral anatomy and phylogeny in the Rutaceae. New Phyt. 35: 318-22.
  • Mulvey, R. K.; Zalewski, C. J. 1969. Kokusaginine: plant sources and its isolation from Ptelea trifoliata root bark. Econ. Bot. 23: 75-81.
  • Nene, P. M.; Tilak, V. D. 1977. Placentation in the Rutaceae. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Plant Science) 85(6): 378-83.
  • Noack, H. 1990. Das Portrait. Phellodendron amurense Ruprecht. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 79: 165-7.
  • Popp, J. W.; Reinartz, J. A. 1988. Sexual dimorphism in biomass allocation and clonal growth of Xanthoxylem americanum. Amer. J. Bot. 75(11): 1732-41.
  • Porter, D. M. 1976. Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) in North America north of Mexico. Brittonia 28(4): 443-7.
  • Potter, O. F. 1866. Medicinal uses of Ptelea trifoliata. The Medical Reporter. St. Louis, Missouri 1: 19-20.
  • Price, J. R. 1963. The distribution of alkaloids in the Rutaceae. In: Chemical Plant Taxonomy. Academic Press, London. , 429-52 pages.
  • Reeder, J. R. 1955. Xanthoxylem Miller (1768). Taxon 4: 237.
  • Reinartz, J. A.; Popp, J. W. 1987. Structure of clones of northern prickly ash (Xanthoxylum americanum). Amer. J. Bot. 74(3): 414-28.
  • Robertson, C. 1896. Flowers and insects. XVII. Bot. Gaz. 22: 154-65.
  • Santamour, F. S. 1966. Cytological notes II. Phellodendron. Morris Arbor. Bull. 17(1): 13.
  • Schroeder, E. M. 1937. Germination of fruits of Ptelea species. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 8: 355-9.
  • Schulze, H. 1902. Beitroge zur Blattanatomie der Rutaceen. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 12: 55-98.
  • Seiwa, K.; Kikuzawa, K. 1991. Phenology of tree seedlings in relation to seed size. Canad. J. Bot. 69(3): 532-8.
  • Shinners, L. H. 1957. Xanthoxylem Miller (1768). Taxon 6: 135-7.
  • Sprague, T. A. 1920. Phellodendron. Kew Bull. 1920: 231-5.
  • Stace, H. M.; Armstrong, J. A.; James, S. H. 1993. Cytoevolutionary patterns in Rutaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 187: 1-28.
  • Starshova, N. P. 1979. Germination biology of seeds of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. (Rutaceae). Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 64(8): 1159-68. (In Russian)
  • Starshova, N. P. 1972. To the antecology of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. in the middle Volga: 2. The ecology of pollination. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 58(1): 43-52. (In Russian)
  • Starshova, N. P. 1972. To the antecology of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. in the middle Volga. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 57(11): 1402-12. (In Russian)
  • Urban, I. 1883. Zur Biologie und Morphologie der Rutaceen. Jahr. Konigl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 2: 366-403.
  • Waterman, P. G. 1990. Chemosystematics of the Rutaceae: comments on the interpretation of Da Silva & al. Pl. Syst. Evol. 173: 39-48.
  • Waterman, P. G. 1975. New combinations in Zanthoxylem L. (1753). Taxon 24: 361-6.
  • Waterman, P. G. 1975. Alkaloids of the Rutaceae: their distribution and systematic significance. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 3: 148-80.
  • Waterman, P. G. 1977. A review of the chemosystematics of the genus Zanthoxylem L. (Rutaceae). In: The role and goals of tropical botanic gardens... proceedings... Aug. 1974. Rimba Iluma University, Kuala Lumpur. , 109-29 pages.
  • Waterman, P. G.; Grundon, M. F. (eds.) (1983): 1983. Chemistry and chemical taxonomy of the Rutales. London.
  • Wilson, P. 1911. Rutaceae. N. Amer. Fl. 25: 173-224.
  • Wilson, P. 1911. Notes on Rutaceae- V. Species characters in Ptelea and Taravalia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 38: 295-7.
  • Yamazaki, T. 1988. Floral anatomy of the genus Zanthoxylum L. Jap. J. Bot. 63(12): 399-408. (In Japanese; English summary)