Genus: Symphoricarpos

By Katherine Gould & Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/22/2012

Back to Caprifoliaceae


Symphoricarpos Duhamel, Traité Arbr. Arbust. 2: 295, pl. 82. 1755 (also spelled “Symphoricarpa”). TYPE: Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench.

Symphoria Pursh, Fl. Am. Sept. (Pursh) 1: 162. 1814. TYPE: Unknown.

Key to the species of Symphoricarpos

 1. Current year’s twigs glabrous; corollas 5-8 mm; fruit white...Symphoricarpos albus var. laevigatus
1. Current year’s twigs minutely villous; corollas 2-4 mm; fruit red...Symphoricarpos orbiculatus

List of Symphoricarpos Species

References to Symphoricarpos

  • Artiushenko, Z. T. 1948. Morphological nature of the lower ovary in some representatives of the Caprifoliaceae family. (In Russian). Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 33: 202-12.
  • Bell, C. D. 2010. Towards a species level phylogeny of Symphoricarpos (Caprifoliaceae), based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA. Syst. Bot. 35: 442-450.
  • Blake, S. F. 1914. The earliest name of the snowberry. Rhodora 16: 117-9.
  • Bryant, F. C. 1996. Diets of female white-tailed deer in the cross-timbers region. Prairie Naturalist 28: 125-140.
  • Burtt, D. J. 1930. The origin of Symphoricarpos. Science 72: 220.
  • De Vos, F. 1951. The stem anatomy of some species of the Caprifoliaceae with reference to phylogeny and identification of the species. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY81 p.
  • Donoghue, M. J. 1985. Pollen diversity and exine evolution in Viburnum and the Caprifoliaceae sensu lato. J. Arnold Arbor. 66: 421-469.
  • Ferguson, I. K. 1966. The genera of the Caprifoliaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 47: 33-59.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1905. Symphoricarpos racemosus and its varieties in eastern America. Rhodora 7: 164-7.
  • Flemion, F. 1934. Physiological and chemical changes preceding and during the after-ripening of Symphoricarpos racemosus seeds. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 6: 91-102.
  • Flemion, F. 1942. Effect of the addition of nitrogen upon germination of seeds of Symphoricarpos racemosus. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 12: 485-9.
  • Flemion, F.; Parker, E. 1942. Germination studies of seeds of Symphoricarpos orbiculatus. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 12: 301-7.
  • Fukuoka, N. 1974. Taxonomy of the Caprifoliaceae. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 26(1-2): 18-27. (In Japanese)
  • Gasson, P. 1979. The identification of eight woody genera of the Caprifoliaceae by selected features of their root anatomy. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 78: 267-284.
  • Gilbert, O. L. 1995. Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake (S. rivularis Suksd., S. racemosus Michaux). J. Ecol. 83: 159-166.
  • Graenicher, S. 1900. The fertilization of Symphoricarpos and Lonicera. Bull. Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. 1: 141-156.
  • Gray, A. 1875. Revision of the genus Symphoricarpos. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 14: 9-12.
  • Hidayati, S. N. 2000. A comparative study of seed dormancy in five genera of Caprifoliaceae s.l. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Kentucky, Lexington,
  • Hidayati, S. N.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 2001. Dormancy-breaking and germination requirements for seeds of Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (Caprifoliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1444-1451.
  • Hull, E. D. 1947. Notes on the coral-berry (Symphoricarpos orbiculatus). Rhodora 49(581): 117-8.
  • Jones, G. N. 1940. A monograph of the genus Symphoricarpos. J. Arnold Arbor. 21: 201-52.
  • Nash, G. V. 1918. Symphoricarpos albus laevigatus. Addisonia 3: 27.
  • Palmer, J. R. 1994. Symphoricarpos orbiculatus) Moench (coralberry). BSBI News 67: 54.
  • Pennell, F. W. 1918. Symphoricarpos Symphoricarpos. Addisonia 3: 61-2.
  • Pfeiffer, N. E. 1934. Morphology of the seed of Symphoricarpos racemosus and relation of fungal invasion of the coat to germination capacity. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 6: 103-22.
  • Piper, J. K. 1986. Germination and growth of bird-dispersed plants effects of seed size and light on seedling vigor and biomass allocation. Amer. J. Bot. 73: 959-965.
  • Pixler, V. A. 1950. The Caprifoliaceae of West Virginia. Castanea 15: 80-91.
  • Reveal, J. L.; Moulton, G. E.; Schuyler, A. E. 1999. The Lewis and Clark collections of vascular plants: Names, types, and comments. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 149: 1-64.
  • Roels, P.; Smets, E. F. 1996. A floral ontogenetic study in the Dipsacales. Int. J. Plant Sci. 157: 203-218.
  • Sax, K.; Kribs, D. A. 1930. Chromosomes and phylogeny in Caprifoliaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 11: 147-153.
  • Sims, J. 1821. Symphoria racemosa. Bot. Mag. 48: pl. 2211.
  • Snyder, S. A. 1991. Symphoricarpos albus. ()
  • Svenson, H. K. 1937. Did Symphoricarpos albus come originally from Canada? Rhodora 39(467): 461-2.
  • Wilkinson, A. M. 1948. Floral anatomy and morphology of some species of the tribes Linnaeeae and Sambuceae of the Caprifoliaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 35: 365-371.
  • Wilkinson, A. M. 1945. The floral anatomy and morphology of some species of Cornus and of the Caprifoliaceae. , Thesis Cornell Univ.148 p.