New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Carya

Carya tomentosa Carya cordiformis Carya tomentosa Carya ovata

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/01/2013

Back to Juglandaceae

Nomenclature

Carya Nutt., Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 2: 220. 1818, nom. cons. TYPE: Not designated.

Scoria Raf., New York Med. Rep. hex. 2, 5: 352. 1808 (typographic error for Hicoria). Hicorius Raf., Fl. Ludov. 109. 1817, nom. rej. (also spelled “Hicoria,” “Hicorya”). TYPE: Unknown.

List of Carya Species

References to Carya

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  • Ames, O. I. 1939. Survey of hurricane damage at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Arborist's News 4(1): 5-6.
  • Anonymous 1886. Proceedings of the Club. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 13: 228.
  • Anonymous 1977. Shagbark hickory, Carya ovata. Walnut family (Juglandaceae). Morton Arbor. Quart. 13(3): 45.
  • Ashe, W. W. 1923. The common names of some trees. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 39: 89-91.
  • Auganbaugh, J. 1967. All about hickory. Amer. Forests 73: 29, 30, 42, 44, 46.
  • Barnett, R. J. 1977. The effect of burial by squirrels on germination and survival of oak and hickory nuts. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 98: 319-30.
  • Barnett, R. J. 1976. Interactions between tree squirrels and oaks and hickories: the ecology of seed predation. Ph.D. Dissertation Duke Univ., Durham, NC,
  • Barton, L. V. 1936. Seedling production in Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch, Juglans cinerea L., and Juglans nigra L. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 8: 1-5.
  • Bell, D. T.; Johnson, F. L. 1975. Phenological patterns in the trees of the streamside forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 102: 187-93.
  • Berry, E. W. 1912. Notes on the geological history of the walnuts and hickories. Pl. World 15: 225-40.
  • Boerner, R. E. J.; Brinkman, J. A. 1996. Ten years of tree seedling establishment and mortality in an Ohio deciduous forest complex. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 309-17.
  • Britton, Nathaniel L. 1888. The genus Hicoria of Rafinesque. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 15: 277-85.
  • Bruederle, L. P.; Stearns, F. W. 1985. Ice storm damage to a southern Wisconsin mesic forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112(2): 167-75.
  • Brundrett, M.; Murase, G.; Kendrick, B. 1990. Comparative anatomy of roots and mycorrhizae of common Ontario trees. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 551-78. (French summary)
  • Brush, W. D. 1947. Shellbark hickory, Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud. Amer. Forests 53: 364-5.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1975. Stomatal distribution and size in southern Appalachian hardwoods. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 1153-6.
  • Cody, W. J. 1982. A comparison of the northern limits of distribution of some vascular plant species found in southern Ontario. Naturaliste Canad. 109: 63-90.
  • Coladoanto, M. 1992. Carya cordiformis. ()
  • Coladoanto, M. 1992. Carya tomentosa. ()
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1937. Pignut hickory, Hicoria glabra (Miller) Sweet. Amer. Forests 43: 546-7.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1937. Shagbark hickory, Hicoria ovata (Miller) Britton. Amer. Forests 43: 298-9.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1943. Pecan. Amer. Forests 49: 592-3.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1942. Mockernut hickory. Amer. Forests 48: 464-5.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1943. Bitternut hickoty. Amer. Forests 49: 494-5.
  • Conde, L. F.; Stone, D. E. 1970. Seedling morphology in the Juglandaceae, the cotyledonary node. J. Arnold Arbor. 51: 463-77.
  • Cook, O. F. 1923. Evolution of compound leaves in walnuts and hickories. J. Heredity 14: 77-88.
  • Cormier, C. R. 1987. Range extension for Carya cordiformis in New England. Rhodora 89(860): 441.
  • Cornwall, G. W.; Mosby, H. S. 1966. The eastern gray squirrel.
  • Croxton, W. C. 1939. A study of the tolerance of trees to breakage by ice accumulation. Ecology 20: 71-3. (spp. table reprinted in Arborist's News 4(3):24. 1939.)
  • Davison, S. E. 1981. Tree seedling survivorship at Hutcheson Memorial Forest New Jersey. William L. Hutcheson Memorial For. Bull. 6: 4-7.
  • Day, F. P.; Monk, C. D. 1977. Net primary production and phenology on a Southern Appalachian watershed. Amer. J. Bot. 64: 1117-25.
  • Delavan, C. C. 1916. The relation of the storage of the seeds of some of the oaks and hickories to their germination. Rep. Michigan Acad. Sci. 17: 161-3.
  • Dolan, R. W. 1994. Effects of proscribed burn on tree- and herb-layer vegetation in a post oak (Quercus stellata) dominated flatwoods. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 103: 25-32.
  • Elias, T. S. 1972. The genera of Juglandaceae in the southeastern United States J. Arnold Arbor. 53: 26-51.
  • Fleming, P.; Kanal, R. 1992. Newly documented species of vascular plants in the District of Columbia. Castanea 57: 132-46.
  • Gager, C. S. 1908. Teratological notes. Torreya 8: 132-6.
  • George, M. F.; Burke, M. J. 1977. Cold hardiness and deep supercooling in xylem of shagbark hickory. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 59: 319-25.
  • Gibbon, E. L. 1972. The taxonomic and ecological distinctness of Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch variety ovata and C. ovata variety australis (Ashe) Little. Ph.D. Dissertation North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC,
  • Good, N. F.; Good, R. E. 1972. Population dynamics of tree seedlings and saplings in a mature eastern hardwood forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 99: 172-8.
  • Grauke, L. J.; Pratt, J. W.; Mahler, W. J.; Ajayi, A. O. 1986. (808) Proposal to conserve the name of pecan as Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch and reject the orthographic variant Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch (Juglandaceae). Taxon 35: 174-7.
  • Greene, D. F.; Johnson, E. A. 1994. Estimating the mean annual seed production of trees. Ecology 75: 642-7.
  • Hans, A. S. 1970. Chromosome numbers in the Juglandaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 51: 534-9.
  • Hardin, J. W. 1952. The Juglandaceae and Corylaceae of Tennessee. Castanea 17: 78-89.
  • Hardin, J. W.; Stone, D. E. 1984. Atlas of foliar surface features in woody plants, VI. Carya (Juglandaceae) of North America. Brittonia 36: 140-53.
  • Heaslip, M. B. 1959. Effects of seed irradiation on germination and seedling growth of certain deciduous trees. Ecology 40(3): 383-8.
  • Heimsch, C. H.; Wetmore, R. H. 1939. The significance of wood anatomy in the taxonomy of the Juglandaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 26: 651-60.
  • Hill, J. F. 1982. Spacing of parenchyma bands in wood of Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, pignut hickory, as an indicator of growth rate and climatic factors. Amer. J. Bot. 69: 529-37.
  • Hitchcock, A. S. 1893. The opening of the buds of some woody plants. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 6(5): 133-41.
  • Holch, A. E. 1931. Development of roots and shoots of certain deciduous tree seedlings in different forest sites. Ecology 12(2): 259-98.
  • Holm, T. 1921. Morphological study of Carya alba and Juglans nigra. Bot. Gaz. 72: 375-89.
  • Hupp, C. R. 1986. Upstream variation in bottomland vegetation patterns, northwestern Virginia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 113: 421-30.
  • Hutchinson, A. H. 1918. Limiting factors in relation to specific ranges of tolerance of forest trees. Bot. Gaz. 66: 465-93.
  • Isenberg, I. H. 1956. Papermaking fibers. Econ. Bot. 10(2): 176-93.
  • Jaynes, R. A. (eds.) (1969): 1969. Handbook of North American nut trees. Northern Nut Growers Association, Knoxville, TN. , 421 pages.
  • Kasmer, J.; Kasmer, P.; Ware, S. 1984. Edaphic factors and vegetation in the piedmont lowland of southeastern Pennsylvania. Castanea 49: 147-57.
  • Keever, C. 1973. Distribution of major forest species in southeastern Pennsylvania. Ecol. Monogr. 43: 303-27.
  • Koidzumi, G. 1937. On the classification of Juglandaceae. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 6: 1-17.
  • Kribs, D. A. 1927. Comparative anatomy of the woods of the Juglandaceae. Trop. Woods 12: 16-21.
  • Langdon, L. M. 1939. Ontogenetic and anatomical studies of the flower and fruit of the Fagaceae and Juglandaceae. Bot. Gaz. 101: 301-327.
  • Langdon, L. M. 1934. Embryology of Carya and Juglans, a comparative study. Bot. Gaz. 96: 93-117.
  • Langdon, L. M. 1931. Development and vascular organization of foliar organs of Carya cordiformis. Bot. Gaz. 91: 277-94.
  • Latham, R. E. 1992. Co-occurring tree species change rank in seedling performance with resources varied experimentally. Ecology 73: 2129-44.
  • Lawrey, J. D. 1977. Trace metal accumulation by plant species from a coal strip-mining area in Ohio. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 368-375.
  • Lemon, P. C. 1961. Forest ecology of ice storms. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 88(1): 21-9.
  • Leone, I. A.; Flower, F. B.; Arthur, J. J.; Gilman, E. F. 1977. Damage to woody species by anaerobic landfill gases. J. Arboric. 3(12): 221-5.
  • Leroy, J. F. 1955. Etude sur la Juglandacees. A la recherche d'une conception morphologique de la fleur femelle et du fruit. Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Ser. B Bot. 6: 1-246.
  • Little, E. L. 1969. Two varietal transfers in Carya (hickory). Phytologia 19: 186-90.
  • Little, E. L. 1943. Notes on the nomenclature of Carya. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 29: 493-508.
  • Liu, Y.; Muller, R. N. 1993. Effect of drought and frost on radial growth of overstory and understory stems in a deciduous forest. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 129: 19-25.
  • Lumis, G. P.; Hofstra, G.; Hall, R. 1973. Sensitivity of roadside trees and shrubs to aerial drift of deicing salt. Hortscience 8: 475-7.
  • Lumis, G. P.; Hofstra, G.; Hall, R. 1975. Salt damage to roadside plants. J. Arboric. 1(1): 14-6.
  • Manchester, S. R. 1987. The fossil history of the Juglandaceae. Missouri Botanic Garden, St. Louis. , 137 pages.
  • Manning, W. E. 1982. Additional records of hickories in New England. Rhodora 84: 304-5.
  • Manning, W. E. 1973. The northern limit of the distribution of the mockernut hickory. Michigan Bot. 12: 203-9.
  • Manning, W. E. 1926. The morphology and anatomy of the flowers of the Juglandaceae. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY132 p.
  • Manning, W. E. 1938. The morphology of the flowers of Juglandaceae. I. The inflorescence. Amer. J. Bot. 25: 407-19.
  • Manning, W. E. 1978. The classification within the Juglandaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65: 1058-87.
  • Manning, W. E. 1940. The morphology of the flowers of Juglandaceae. II. The pistillate flowers and fruits. Amer. J. Bot. 27: 839-52.
  • Manning, W. E. 1962. Branched pistillate inflorescences in Juglans and Carya. Amer. J. Bot. 49: 975-7.
  • Manning, W. E. 1949. The status of Hicoria borealis Ashe. Rhodora 51: 85-9.
  • Manning, W. E. 1969. The big shellbark hickory in central Pennsylvania. Proc. Pennsylvania Acad. Sci. 43: 88-9.
  • Manning, W. E. 1979. The classification within the Juglandaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65(4): 1058-87.
  • Manning, W. E. 1948. The morphology of the flowers of Juglandaceae. III. The staminate flowers. Amer. J. Bot. 35: 606-21.
  • Manning, W. E. 1950. A key to the hickories north of Virginia with notes on the two pignuts, Carya glabra and C. ovalis. Rhodora 52: 188-99.
  • Manning, W. E. 1948. A hybrid between shagbark and bitternut hickory in southeastern Vermont. Rhodora 50(591): 60-2.
  • Manning, W. E. 1973. The northern limits of the distribution of hickories in New England. Rhodora 75(801): 34-51.
  • Manning, W. E. 1955. The distribution of the sand hickory, Carya pallida, in New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 82: 503-4.
  • Martin, W. L.; Sharik, T. L.; Oderwald, R. G.; Smith, D. W. 1982. Phytomass: structural relationships for woody plant species in the understory of an Appalachian oak forest. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 1923-7.
  • Maycock, P. F. 1963. The phytosociology of the deciduous forests of extreme southern Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 41: 379-438.
  • McCarthy, B. C. 1990. Reproductive ecology of Carya ovata and C. tomentosa (Juglandaceae): determinants of flower and fruit production. Ph.D. Dissertation Rutgers Univ., New Jersey,
  • McCarthy, B. C. 1994. Experimental studies of hickory recruitment in a wooded hedgerow and forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 121: 240-50.
  • McCarthy, B. C.; Quinn, J. A. 1989. Within- and among-tree variation in flower and fruit production in two species of Carya (Juglandaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 76: 1015-23.
  • McCarthy, B. C.; Quinn, J. A. 1990. Reproductive ecology of Carya (Juglandaceae): Phenology, pollination, and breeding system of two sympatric tree species. Amer. J. Bot. 77: 261-73.
  • McCarthy, B. C.; Quinn, J. A. 1992. Fruit maturation patterns of Carya spp. (Juglandaceae): An intra-crown analysis of growth and reproduction. Oecologia 91: 30-8.
  • McCarthy, B. C.; Wistendahl, W. A. 1988. Hickory (Carya spp.) distribution and replacement in a second-growth oak hickory forest of southeastern Ohio. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 119: 156-64.
  • McDaniel, J. C. 1956. The pollination of Juglandaceae varieties - Illinois observations and review of earlier studies. Northern Nut Growers Ann. Rept. 47: 118-32.
  • McInteer, B. B. 1947. Soil preference of some plants as seen in Kentucky. Castanea 12: 1-8.
  • Meurer-Grimes, B. 1995. New evidence for the systematic significance of acylated spermidines and flavonoids in pollen of higher Hamamelidae. Brittonia 47(2): 130-42.
  • Minckler, L. S.; Jensen, C. E. 1959. Reproduction of upland central hardwoods as affected by cutting, topography, and litter depth. J. Forest. 57: 424-8.
  • Mitchell, A. 1976. Tree genera: 4. The walnut family. Arboric. J. 2(10): 457-61.
  • Mitchell, A. F. 1971. Identifying the hickories. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Year Book 1970: 32-4.
  • Mitchell, R. S. (eds.) (1988): 1988. Platanaceae through Myricaceae of New York State. New York State Museum Bull. No. 464. The University of the State of New York, the State Education Department, Albany. , 98 pages.
  • Monk, C. D. 1981. Age structure of Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. in a young oak forest. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 106: 189-91.
  • Myster, R. W. 1994. Contrasting litter effects on old field tree germination and emergence. Vegetatio 114: 169-174.
  • Myster, R. W. 1993. Effects of litter, distance, density and vegetation patch type on postdispersal tree seed predation in old fields. Oikos 66: 381-388.
  • Myster, R. W.; McCarthy, B. C. 1989. Effects of herbivory and competition on survival of Carya tomentosa (Juglandaceae) seedlings. Oikos 56: 145-8.
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  • Noack, H. 1996. Das Portrait: Carya ovata (Miller) K. Koch, shagbark hickory, shellbark hickory, Schindelborkige Hickorynuss, Schuppenrinden-Hickorynuss. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 82: 195-9. (In German)
  • Pammel, L. H.; King, C. M. 1918. The germination of some trees and shrubs and their juvenile forms. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 25: 291-340.
  • Rankin, W. T.; Pickett, S. T. A. 1989. Time of establishment of red maple (Acer rubrum) in early oldfield succession. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 116: 182-6. (Also Carya, Juniperus, Nyssa, Prunus, & Quercus)
  • Reed, C. A. 1945. Hickory species and stock studies at the Plant Industry Station, Beltsville, MD. Northern Nut Growers Ann. Rept. 35: 88-121.
  • Rehder, A. A. 1945. Carya alba proposed as nomen ambiguum. J. Arnold Arbor. 26: 482-3.
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  • Whitehead, D. R. 1965. Pollen morphology in the Juglandaceae. II. Survey of the family. J. Arnold Arbor. 46: 369-410.
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