New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Juglans

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/07/2013

Back to Juglandaceae

Nomenclature

Juglans L., Sp. Pl. 2: 997. 1753. Gen. Pl., 431. 1754. Nux Duhamel, Traité Arbr. Arbust. 2: 49. 1755, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). LECTOTYPE: Juglans regia L., designated by Britton & Brown (1913)

Pericarya Dochnahl, Sich. Filhr. Obstk. 4: 22, 24. 1860. TYPES: Unknown.

Pittocarya Dochnahl, Sich. Filhr. Obstk. 4: 22, 24. 1860. TYPES: Unknown.

Wallia Alef., Bonplandia 9: 336. 1861. TYPE: Not designated.

Key to the species of Juglans

1. Pith dark chocolate-brown; dense pad of short gray hairs above margin of old leaf scars; fruit oblong-ovoid...Juglans cinerea
1. Pith tan to creamy; lacking pad of hairs above margin of leaf scars; fruit globose...Juglans nigra

List of Juglans Species

References to Juglans

  • Abrams, M. D.; Kubiske, M. E.; Mostoller, S. A. 1994. Relating wet and dry year ecophysiology to leaf structure in contrasting temperate tree species. Ecology 75: 123-33.
  • Anonymous 1886. Proceedings of the Club. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 13: 228.
  • Axelrod, D. I. 1983. Biogeography of oaks in the arcto-tertiary province. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 629-57. (Many other genera disscussed)
  • Babcock, E. B. 1911. Walnut-oak hybrid experiments. Amer. Breed. Assoc. Rep. 6: 138-40.
  • Babcock, E. B. 1915. Walnut mutant investigations. Proc. Nat. Acad. U.S.A. 1: 535-7.
  • Baker, F. S. 1921. Black walnut: its growth and management.
  • Barton, L. V. 1936. Seedling production in Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch, Juglans cinerea L., and Juglans nigra L. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 8: 1-5.
  • Bell, D. T.; Johnson, F. L. 1975. Phenological patterns in the trees of the streamside forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 102: 187-93.
  • Berry, E. W. 1912. Notes on the geological history of the walnuts and hickories. Pl. World 15: 225-40.
  • Bey, C. F. 1979. Geographic variation in Juglans nigra in the midwestern United States. Silvae Genet. 28(4): 132-5.
  • Bode, H. R. 1958. Beirage zur Kenntnis allelopathischer Erscheinungen bei einigen Juglandaceen. Planta 51: 440-480.
  • Brooks, M. G. 1951. Effect of black walnut trees and their products on other vegetation. (See also E.J. Schreiner, Morris Arb. Bull. 4:94-96. 1949.)
  • Chase, S. B. 1947. Eastern black walnut germination and seedbed studies. J. Forest. 45(9): 661-8.
  • Chenoweth, B. 1995. Black walnut, The history, use, and unrealized potential of a unique American renewable natural resource. Sagamore Publishing, Champaign, IL. , 300+ pages.
  • Chester, E. W.; Wofford, B. E.; McKinney, L. E.; Campbell, D. 1996. Rare and noteworthy vascular plants from the Fort Campbell Military Reservation, Kentucky and Tennessee. Sida 17: 269-274.
  • Coder, K. D. 1983. Seasonal changes in juglone potential in leaves of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.). J. Chem. Ecol. 9: 1203-12.
  • Coladoanto, M. 1991. Juglans nigra. ()
  • Coladoanto, M. 1991. Juglans cinerea. ()
  • Conde, L. F.; Stone, D. E. 1970. Seedling morphology in the Juglandaceae, the cotyledonary node. J. Arnold Arbor. 51: 463-77.
  • Cook, M. T. 1921. Wilting caused by walnut trees. Phytopathology 11: 346.
  • Cook, O. F. 1923. Evolution of compound leaves in walnuts and hickories. J. Heredity 14: 77-88.
  • Cornwall, G. W.; Mosby, H. S. 1966. The eastern gray squirrel.
  • Cunningham, T. R.; Wittwer, R. F. 1984. Direct seeding oaks and black walnut on minesoils in eastern Kentucky. Reclamation & Reveg. Res. 3: 173-84.
  • Davey, A. J. 1935. Note on the structure of the epicotyl in Juglans nigra. New Phyt. 34: 201-10.
  • De Scisciolo, B.; Leopold, D. J.; Walton, D. C. 1990. Seasonal patterns of juglone in soil beneath Juglans nigra (black walnut) and influence of J. nigra on understory vegetation. J. Chem. Ecol. 16: 1111-30.
  • Debor, H. W. 1974. Bibliography of the international literature on walnuts. Bibliogr. Reihe Techn. Univ., Berlin. , Bd 4. x, 148 pages.
  • Den Uyl, D. 1962. Survival and growth of hardwood plantations on strip mine spoil banks of Indiana. J. Forest. 60(9): 603-6.
  • Dudek, D. M. et.al. 1998. Tree growth responses of Populus deltoides and Juglans nigra to streamflow and climate in a bottomland hardwood forest in central Ohio. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 140: 233-244.
  • Elias, T. S. 1972. The genera of Juglandaceae in the southeastern United States J. Arnold Arbor. 53: 26-51.
  • Fjellstrom, R. G.; Parfitt, D. E. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis and evolution of the genus Juglans (Juglandaceae) as determined from nuclear genome RFLPs. Pl. Syst. Evol. 197(1-4): 19-32.
  • Funk, D. T. 1966. Annotated bibliography of walnut and related species.
  • Furnier, G. R. et.al. 1999. Genetic evidence that butternut canker was recently introduced into North America. Canad. J. Bot. 77: 783-785.
  • Gabriel, W. J. 1975. Allelopathic effects of black walnut on white birches. J. Forest. 73: 234-7.
  • George, M. F.; Hong, S. G.; Burke, M. J. 1977. Cold hardiness and deep supercooling of hardwoods: its occurrence in provenance collections of red oak, yellow birch, black walnut, and black cherry. Ecology 58: 674-80.
  • Goodell, E. 1984. Walnuts for the Northeast. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 44: 3-19.
  • Graves, A. H. 1923. The Melanconis disease of the butternut (Juglans cinerea L.). Phytopathology 13: 411-35. (Also reprinted in Brooklyn Botanic Garden Contributions No. 31. 1923)
  • Hadfield, M. 1977. The black walnut. Quart. J. Forest. 71(4): 220-2.
  • Hallé, N. 1978. Endocarpic lacunae of the nut Juglans nigra L.: new observations. Adansonia 17(3): 263-72. (In French; English summary)
  • Hans, A. S. 1970. Chromosome numbers in the Juglandaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 51: 534-9.
  • Hardin, J. W. 1952. The Juglandaceae and Corylaceae of Tennessee. Castanea 17: 78-89.
  • Harlow, W. M. 1930. The formation of chambered pith in the twigs of butternut and black walnut. J. Forest. 28: 739-41.
  • Heimsch, C. H.; Wetmore, R. H. 1939. The significance of wood anatomy in the taxonomy of the Juglandaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 26: 651-60.
  • Hengst, G. E.; Dawson, J. O. 1994. Bark properties and fire resistance of selected tree species from the central hardwood region of North America. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24: 688-96.
  • Holch, A. E. 1931. Development of roots and shoots of certain deciduous tree seedlings in different forest sites. Ecology 12(2): 259-98.
  • Holm, T. 1921. Morphological study of Carya alba and Juglans nigra. Bot. Gaz. 72: 375-89.
  • Ikuse, M. 1954. On the pollen grains of some genera of Juglandaceae. J. Jap. Bot. 29: 333-5. (In Japanese; English summary)
  • Illick, J. S. 1921. The American walnuts. Amer. Forests 27: 699-704.
  • Jaynes, R. A. (eds.) (1969): 1969. Handbook of North American nut trees. Northern Nut Growers Association, Knoxville, TN. , 421 pages.
  • Koidzumi, G. 1937. On the classification of Juglandaceae. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 6: 1-17.
  • Krajicek, J. E. 1960. Some factors affecting oak and black walnut reproduction. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 34: 631-4.
  • Kramer, P. J. 1943. Amount and duration of growth of various species of tree seedlings. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 18: 239-51.
  • Kribs, D. A. 1927. Comparative anatomy of the woods of the Juglandaceae. Trop. Woods 12: 16-21.
  • Lamb, W. H. 1912. A tricarpellary walnut. Torreya 12: 290-1.
  • Langdon, L. M. 1934. Embryology of Carya and Juglans, a comparative study. Bot. Gaz. 96: 93-117.
  • Langdon, L. M. 1939. Ontogenetic and anatomical studies of the flower and fruit of the Fagaceae and Juglandaceae. Bot. Gaz. 101: 301-327.
  • Leroy, J. F. 1955. Etude sur la Juglandacees. A la recherche d'une conception morphologique de la fleur femelle et du fruit. Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Ser. B Bot. 6: 1-246.
  • Lucier, A. A.; Hinckley, T. M. 1982. Phenology, growth and water relations of irrigated and non-irrigated black walnut. Forest Ecol. & Manag. 4: 127-42.
  • Manchester, S. R. 1987. The fossil history of the Juglandaceae. Missouri Botanic Garden, St. Louis. , 137 pages.
  • Manning, W. E. 1926. The morphology and anatomy of the flowers of the Juglandaceae. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY132 p.
  • Manning, W. E. 1948. The morphology of the flowers of Juglandaceae. III. The staminate flowers. Amer. J. Bot. 35: 606-21.
  • Manning, W. E. 1979. The classification within the Juglandaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65(4): 1058-87.
  • Manning, W. E. 1978. The classification within the Juglandaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65: 1058-87.
  • Manning, W. E. 1938. The morphology of the flowers of Juglandaceae. I. The inflorescence. Amer. J. Bot. 25: 407-19.
  • Manning, W. E. 1962. Branched pistillate inflorescences in Juglans and Carya. Amer. J. Bot. 49: 975-7.
  • Manning, W. E. 1940. The morphology of the flowers of Juglandaceae. II. The pistillate flowers and fruits. Amer. J. Bot. 27: 839-52.
  • Massey, A. 1925. Antagnosim of the walnuts (Juglans nigra L. and Juglans cinerea L.) in certain plant associations. Phytopathology 15: 773-84.
  • McDaniel, J. C. 1956. The pollination of Juglandaceae varieties - Illinois observations and review of earlier studies. Northern Nut Growers Ann. Rept. 47: 118-32.
  • McDermott, F. A. 1913. A tetracarpellary walnut. Torreya 13: 137-9.
  • McDermott, F. A. 1914. Tri- and tetracarpellary walnuts. Torreya 14: 127.
  • Miller, L. 1994. Eastern black walnut seed size trial. Northern Nut Growers Ann. Rept. 85: 38-9.
  • Miller, R. B. 1976. Wood anatomy and identification of species of Juglans. Bot. Gaz. 137(4): 368-77.
  • Mitchell, A. 1976. Tree genera: 4. The walnut family. Arboric. J. 2(10): 457-61.
  • Mitchell, R. S. (eds.) (1988): 1988. Platanaceae through Myricaceae of New York State. New York State Museum Bull. No. 464. The University of the State of New York, the State Education Department, Albany. , 98 pages.
  • Molotkovskii, G. K.; Molotkovskii, I. G. 1952. Formation of bi-sexual blossoms in walnuts during the second blooming. Moskov. Obshch. Isp. Pri. Biol. 57: 74-8. (In Russian)
  • Morin, R. et.al. 2000. Low genetic diversity at allozyme loci in Juglans cinerea. Canad. J. Bot. 78: 1238-1243.
  • Muenscher, W. C.; Brown, B. I. 1943. Storage and germination of nuts of several species of Juglans. Proc. Northern Nut Growers Assoc. 34: 61-2.
  • Muller, C. H. 1969. Allelopathy as a factor in ecological process. Vegetatio 18: 348-57.
  • Nagel, K. 1914. Studien uber die Familie der Juglandaceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 50: 459-530. (In German)
  • Nelson, N. D. 1976. Gross influences on heartwood formation in black walnut and black cherry trees.
  • Nelson, N. D. 1978. Xylem ethylene, phenol-oxidizing enzymes, and nitrogen and heartwood formation in walnut and cherry. Canad. J. Bot. 56(6): 626-34.
  • Ostry, M. E. 1997. Butternut canker: history, biology, impact, and resistance. In: Knowledge for the future of black walnut. Proceedings of the 5th Black Walnut Symposium. Vol. 28-31 July 1996, Springfield, MO. USDA Forest Serv., North Central For. Exp. Sta., St. Paul, MN. , (Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-191.)
  • Ostry, M. E.; Mielke, M. E.; Skilling, D. D. 1994. Butternut- strategies for managing a threatened tree. USDA, Forest Serv., N. Central For. Exp. Stn., Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-165. (See also N. Nut Growers Assoc. 1994 Ann. Rep. 85:63-67)
  • Pallardy, S. G.; Rhoads, J. L. 1993. Morphological adaptations to drought in seedlings of deciduous angiosperms. Canad. J. Forest Res. 23: 1766-74.
  • Parker, W. C.; Pallardy, S. G. 1985. Stem vascular anatomy and leaf area in seedlings of six black walnut (Juglans nigra) families. Canad. J. Bot. 63: 1266-70.
  • Parker, W. C.; Pallardy, S. G. 1985. Genotypic variation in tissue water relations of leaves and roots of black walnut (Juglans nigra) seedlings. Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 64: 105-10.
  • Parker, W. C.; Pallardy, S. G. 1991. Gas exchange during a soil drying cycle in seedlings of four black walnut (Juglans nigra L.)families. Tree Physiology 9: 339-48.
  • Ponder, F. 1986. Effect of three weeds on the growth and mycorrhizal infection of black walnut seedlings. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 1888-92.
  • Rehder, A. A. 1928. Abnormal fruits of Juglans nigra. J. Arnold Arbor. 9: 27-9.
  • Rink, G. 1985. Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.).
  • Rowlee, W. W.; Hastings, G. T. 1898. The seeds and seedlings of some Amentiferae. Bot. Gaz. 26: 349-53.
  • Rypma, R. B. 1989. Are black walnut trees poisonous to holly? Holly Soc. J. 7: 4-14.
  • Schaffer, K. L.; George, M. F.; Peleg, M.; Garrett, H. E.; Cecich, R. A. 1996. Pistillate flower development in eastern black walnut. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 1514-9. (French summary)
  • Schuster, C. E. 1937. Differences in heterosis of walnut hybrids. J. Heredity 28: 216-7.
  • Shchepto'ev, F. L. 1954. Bisexual blossum of the walnut tree. Priroda Leningrad 43: 92-4. (In Russian)
  • Shuhart, D. V. 1932. Inner sculpturing of the fruit of Juglandaceae. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 12: 17-8.
  • Smith, C. C.; Follmer, D. 1972. Food preferences of squirrels. Ecology 53: 82-91.
  • Stanford, A. M. et.al. 2000. Phylogeny and biogeography of Juglans (Juglandaceae) based on matK and ITS sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 872-882.
  • Stapanian, M. A.; Smith, C. C. 1978. A model for seed scatterhoarding: coevolution of fox squirrels and black walnuts. Ecology 59: 884-96.
  • Stapanian, M. A.; Smith, C. C. 1984. Density-dependent survival of scatterhoarded nuts an experimental approach. Ecology 65: 1387-1396.
  • Stark, E. W. 1953. Wood anatomy of the Juglandaceae indigenous to the United States. Purdue Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 595: 1-42.
  • Stone, D. E. 1970. Evolution of cotyledonary and nodal vasculature in the Juglandaceae Amer. J. Bot. 57: 1219-25.
  • Stout, A. B. 1928. Dichogamy in flowering plants. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 55: 141-53.
  • Talalay, L.; Keller, D. R.; Munson, P. J. 1984. Hickory nuts, walnuts, butternuts, and hazelnuts: observations and experiments relevant to their aboriginal exploitation in eastern North America. In: Experiments and observations in aboriginal wild food utilization in eastern North America. Vol. 6(2). Vol. Prehistoric Research Series. Indiana Historical Soc., Indianapolis, IN. ,
  • Trelease, W. 1896. Juglandaceae of the United States. Annual Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 7: 25-46.
  • Van Sambeek, J. W.; Rink, G. 1982. Physiology and silviculture of black walnut for combined timber and nut production. Northern Nut Growers Ann. Rept. 72: 100-7.
  • Victory, E. R. et.al. 2006. Genetic homogenity in Juglans nigra (Juglandaceae) at nuclear microsatellites. Amer. J. Bot. 93: 118-126.
  • Werner, P. A.; Harbeck, A. L. 1982. The pattern of tree seedling establishment relative to staghorn sumac cover in Michigan old fields. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 108: 124-32.
  • Westfall, B. A.; Russell, R. L.; Auyong, T. K. 1961. Depressant agent from walnut hulls. Science 134: 1617.
  • Whitehead, D. R. 1965. Pollen morphology in the Juglandaceae. II. Survey of the family. J. Arnold Arbor. 46: 369-410.
  • Whitehead, D. R. 1963. Pollen morphology in the Juglandaceae. I. Pollen size and pore number variation. J. Arnold Arbor. 44: 101-10.
  • Woodroof, J. G. 1979. Tree nuts: production, processing, products. AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CT. , 731 pages.
  • Woodworth, R. H. 1930. Meiosis of microsporogenesis in the Juglandaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 17: 863-9.
  • Zarger, T. G.; Farmer, R. E.; Taft, K. A. 1969. Natural variation in seed characteristics and seed yield of black walnut in the Tennessee Valley. Proc. South. For. Tree Improv. Conf. 10: 34-40.