Genus: Myrica

Myrica pensylvanica
Myrica pensylvanica   Loisel. ex Duhamel  -  Northern Bayberry

Photo © by Peter Nelson
Taken in Avalon, NJ, 1985.

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/06/2012

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Myrica L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1024. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 449. 1754. Gale Duhamel, Traité Arbr. Arbust. 1: 253. 1755, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). LECTOTYPE: Myrica gale L. designated by Britton & Brown (1913), or Myrica cerifera L. designated by Rehder (1949).

Morella Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 537, 548. Sep 1790. TYPE: Not designated.

Cerophora Raf., Alsogr. Amer. 11. 1838. TYPE: Not designated.

Cerothamnus Tidestr., Elys. Marian., Ferns 40. 1910. TYPE: Not designated.

Angeia Tidestr., Elys. Marian., Ferns 37. 1910. TYPE: Angeia palustris (Lam.) Tidestr., nom. illeg. (Myrica gale L.).

Key to the species of Myrica

List of Myrica Species

References to Myrica

  • Abbe, E. C. 1963. The male flowers and inflorescences of the Myricaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 50: 632. ((Abstr.))
  • Anonymous 1979. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in actinomycete-nodulated plants. Bot. Gaz. 140(Supplement): 1-126.
  • Baird, J. R. 1968. A taxonomic revision of the plant family Myricaceae of North America, north of Mexico. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. North Carolina,
  • Barton, L. V. 1932. The germination of bayberry seeds. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 4: 19-25.
  • Benson, D. 1978. Root nodules of Myrica pensylvanica (bayberry): structure, ultrastructure, and preparation of nitrogen-fixing homogenates. Ph.D. Thesis Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ,
  • Bond, G. 1967. Nitrogen fixation in some non-legume root nodules. Phyton 24: 57-66.
  • Bond, G. 1951. The fixation of nitrogen associated with the root nodules of Myrica gale L., with special reference to its pH relation and ecological significance. Ann. Bot. (London) 15: 447-59.
  • Bond, G. 1949. Root nodules of bog myrtle or sweet gale (Myrica gale L.). Nature 163: 730.
  • Bond, G. 1952. Some features of root growth in nodulated plants of Myrica gale L. Ann. Bot. 16: 467-75.
  • Bond, G.; Fletche, W. W.; Ferguson, T. P. 1954. The development and function of the root nodules of Alnus, Myrica and Hippophae. Pl. & Soil 5: 309-23.
  • Bottomley, W. 1912. The root nodules of Myrica gale. Ann. Bot. (London) 26: 111-7.
  • Burtt, B. 1939. Leaf-color forms in Myrica gale. J. Bot. 77: 91-3.
  • Carlquist, S. 2002. Wood and bark anatomy of Myricaceae: relationships, generic definitions, and ecological interpretations. Aliso 21: 7-29.
  • Carter, G. A.; Young, D. R. 1993. Foliar spectral reflectance and plant stress on a barrier island. Int. J. Plant Sci. 154(2): 298-305.
  • Collins, B. S.; Quinn, J. A. 1982. Displacement of Andropogon scoparius on the New Jersey piedmont by the successional shrub Myrica pensylvanica. Amer. J. Bot. 69: 680-9.
  • Crawford, E. R.; Young, D. R. 1998. Comparison of gaps and intact shrub thickets on an Atlantic coast barrier island. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 140: 68-77.
  • Crawford, E. R.; Young, D. R. 1998. Spatial/temporal variations in shrub thicket soil seed banks on an Atlantic coast barrier island. Amer. J. Bot. 85: 1739-1744.
  • Crocker, L. J.; Schwintzer, C. R. 1994. Soil conditions affect the occurrence of cluster roots in Myrica gale L. in the field. Soil Biol. Biochem. 26: 615-22.
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  • Del Tredici, P.; Torrey, J. G. 1976. On the germination of seeds of Comptonia peregrina, the sweet fern. Bot. Gaz. 137(3): 262-8.
  • Echternach, J. L.; Rose, R. K. 1987. Use of woody vegetation by beavers in southeastern Virginia USA. Virginia J. Sci. 38: 226-232.
  • Elias, T. S. 1971. The genera of Myricaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 52: 305-318.
  • Ferguson, D. K. 1998. The contribution of micromorphology to the taxonomy and fossil record of the Myricaceae. Taxon 47: 333-5.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1914. The glabrous-leaved sweet gale. Rhodora 16: 167.
  • Fletcher, W. 1955. The development and structure of the root-nodules of Myrica gale L. with special reference to the nature of the endophyte. Ann. Bot. (London) 19: 501-13.
  • Fordham, A. J. 1983. Of birds and bayberries: seed dispersal and propagation of three Myrica species. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 43: 20-3.
  • Hakansson, A. 1955. Endosperm formation in Myrica gale L. Bot. Not. 108: 616.
  • Halim, A. F.; Collins, R. P. 1973. Essential oil analysis of the Myricaceae of the eastern United States. Phytochemistry 12: 1077-83.
  • Hall, I. V. 1979. The Biology of Canadian weeds. 7. Myrica pensylvanica. In: The Biology of Canadian weeds. Contributions 1-32. Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa. , 77-83 pages. (Publication 1693)
  • Hawker, L. E.; Fraymouth, J. 1951. A re-investigation of the root-nodules of species of Elaeagnus, Hippophaë, Alnus, and Myrica, with special reference to the morphology and life histories of the causative organisms. J. Gen. Microbiol. 5: 369-86.
  • Houghton, W. M. 1988. The systematics of section Cerophora of the genus Myrica (Myricaceae) in North America. M.S. Thesis Univ. Georgia,
  • Hurd, T. M.; Schwintzer, C. R. 1997. Formation of cluster roots and mycorrhizal status of Comptonia peregrina and Myrica pensylvanica (Myricaceae) in Maine, USA. Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 99: 680-9.
  • Kershaw, E. 1909. The structure and development of the ovule of Myrica gale. Ann. Bot. (London) 23: 353-62.
  • Knapp, A. K.; Carter, G. A. 1998. Variability in leaf optical properties among 26 species from a broad range of habitats. Amer. J. Bot. 85: 940-946.
  • Krembs, A. 1901. The structure of stems of Myrica gale L. and Myrica cerifera L. Pharm. Arch. 4: 128-36.
  • Lawrence, B. M.; Weaver, K. M. 1974. Essential oils and their constituents. XII. A comparative chemical composition of the essential oils of Myrica gale and Comptonia perigrina. Pl. Med. (Stuttgart) 25: 385-8.
  • Leaf, G.; Gardner, I.; Bond, G. 1959. Observations on the composition and metabolism of the nitrogen-fixing nodules of Myrica. Biochem. J. 72: 662-7.
  • Leroy, J. F. 1949. De la morphologie florale et de la classification des Myricacees. Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 229: 1162-3.
  • Lloyd, D. G. 1981. The distribution of sex in Myrica gale. Pl. Syst. Evol. 138: 29-45.
  • MacDonald, A. D. 1977. Myricaceae: floral hypothesis for Gale and Comptonia. Canad. J. Bot. 55(20): 2636-51.
  • MacDonald, A. D. 1980. Organogenesis of the female reproductive structure of Myrica pensylvanica. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 2001-6.
  • MacDonald, A. D.; Sattler, R. 1973. Floral development of Myrica gale and the controversy over floral concepts. Canad. J. Bot. 51(10): 1965-75.
  • Mackintosh, A.; Bond, G. 1970. Diversity in the nodular endophytes in Alnus and Myrica. Phyton (Buenos Aires) 27: 79-90.
  • Mackun, I. R.; McNaughton, S. J.; Raynal, D. J.; Leopold, D. J. 1993. Comparative foliage and twig chemistry of co-occurring Myrica gale and Chamaedaphne calyculata. Canad. J. Bot. 71(1): 129-35.
  • Meurer-Grimes, B. 1995. New evidence for the systematic significance of acylated spermidines and flavonoids in pollen of higher Hamamelidae. Brittonia 47(2): 130-42.
  • Morris, M.; Eveleigh, D. E.; Riggs, S. C.; Tiffney, W. N. 1974. Nitrogen fixation in the bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) and its role in coastal succession. Amer. J. Bot. 61(8): 867-70.
  • Nieuwland, J. A. 1910. The name of our American wax bayberries. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 1: 238-43.
  • Pojar, J. 1974. Reproductive dynamics of four plant communities of southwestern British Columbia. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 1819-34.
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  • Sande, E.; Young, D. R. 1992. Effect of sodium chloride on growth and nitrogenase activity in seedlings of Myrica cerifera L. New Phyt. 120: 345-50.
  • Sargent, C. S. 1894. The wax-myrtles of the sea-coast of eastern North America. Gard. & Forest 7: 474-5.
  • Schwintzer, C. R. 1983. Primary productivity and nitrogen, carbon, and biomass distribution in a dense Myrica gale stand. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 2934-48.
  • Schwintzer, C. R. 1989. All field-collected actinorhizae examined on Comptonia peregrina and Myrica pensylvanica in Maine are spore negative. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 1460-4. (French summary)
  • Schwintzer, C. R.; Berry, A. M.; Disney, L. D. 1982. Seasonal patterns of root nodule growth, endophyte morphology, nitrogenase activity and shoot development in Myrica gale. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 746-57.
  • Schwintzer, C. R.; Lancelle, S. A. 1983. Effect of water-table depth on shoot growth, root growth, and nodulation on Myrica gale seedlings. J. Ecol. 71: 489-501.
  • Schwintzer, C. R.; Ostrofsky, A. 1989. Factors affecting germination of Myrica gale seeds. Canad. J. Forest Res. 19: 1105-9.
  • Schwintzer, C. R.; Tjepkema, J. D. 1997. Field nodules of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa and Myrica gale exhibit pronounced acetylene-induced declines in nitrogenase activity. Canad. J. Bot. 75: 1415-23.
  • Silvester, W. B.; Whitbeck, J.; Silvester, J. K.; Torrey, J. G. 1988. Growth, nodule morphology, and nitrogenase activity of Myrica gale with roots grown at various oxygen levels. Canad. J. Bot. 66: 1762-71.
  • Simpson, M. J. A.; MacIntosh, D. F.; Cloughley, J. B.; Stuart, A. E. 1996. Past, present and future utilisation of Myrica gale (Myricaceae). Econ. Bot. 50(1): 122-9.
  • Stewart, W. D. P. 1967. Nitrogen-fixing plants. Science 158: 1426-32.
  • Stokes, J. 1937. Cytological studies in the Myricaceae. Bot. Gaz. 99: 387-99.
  • Sundberg, M. D. 1985. Pollen of the Myricaceae. Pollen & Spores 27: 15-27.
  • Thieret, J. W. 1966. Habit variation in Myrica pensylvanica and Myrica cerifera. Castanea 31: 183-5.
  • Tjepkema, J. 1978. The role of oxygen diffusion from the shoots and nodule roots in nitrogen fixation by root nodules of Myrica gale. Canad. J. Bot. 56(11): 1365-71.
  • Tolliver, K. S.; Colley, D. M.; Young, D. R. 1995. Inhibitory effects of Myrica cerifera on Pinus taeda. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 133: 256-63.
  • Tolliver, K. S.; Martin, D. W.; Young, D. R. 1997. Freshwater and saltwater flooding response for woody species common to barrier island swales. Wetlands 17: 10-8.
  • Tolliver, K.; Young, D. R. 1996. Biotic mechanisms influencing seedling establishment during primary succession on a Virginia barrier island. ()
  • Torrey, J. G.; Callaham, D. 1978. Determinate development of nodule roots in actinomycete-induced root nodules of Myrica gale. Canad. J. Bot. 56(11): 1357-64.
  • Tyndall, R. W.; Teramura, A. H.; Mulchi, C. L.; Douglass, L. W. 1987. Effects of salt spray upon seedling survival, biomass, and distribution on Currituck Bank, North Carolina. Castanea 52: 77-86.
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  • Verdcourt, B.; Polhill, R. 1997. (1291-1292) Proposal to conserve the names Myrica and Gale (Myricaceae) with conserved types. Taxon 46: 347-8.
  • Vikhireva, V. V. 1957. Anatomical structure and development of the pistillate blossom of sweetgale, Myrica gale L. Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. 7, Morphol. Anat. Pl. 4: 270-87. (In Russian)
  • Wang, M.; Lincoln, D. E. 2004. Effects of light intensity and artificial wounding on monoterpene production in Myrica cerifera from two different ecological habitats. Canad. J. Bot. 82: 1501-1508.
  • Wilbur, R. L. 1994. The Myricaceae of the United States and Canada: genera, subgenera, and series. Sida 16: 93-107.
  • Wilbur, R. L. 2002. The identity and history of Myrica caroliniensis (Myricaceae). Rhodora 104: 31-41.
  • Williams, L. 1958. Bayberry wax and bayberries. Econ. Bot. 12: 103-7.
  • Wollenweber, E.; Kohorst, G.; Gisela, M.; Mann, K.; Bell, J. M. 1985. Leaf gland flavonoids in Comptonia peregrina and Myrica pensylvanica (Myricaceae). Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 117: 423-31.
  • Young, D. R. 1992. Photosynthetic characteristics and potential moisture stress for the actinorhizal shrub, Myrica cerifera (Myricaceae), on a Virginia barrier island. Amer. J. Bot. 79(1): 2-7.
  • Young, D. R.; Erickson, D. L.; Semones, S. W. 1994. Salinity and the small-scale distribution of three barrier island shrubs. Canad. J. Bot. 72(9): 1365-72.
  • Youngken, H. W. 1919. The comparative morphology, taxonomy, and distribution of the Myricaceae of the eastern United States. Contr. Bot. Lab. Morris Abor. Univ. Pennsylvania 4: 339-400.
  • van der Ploeg, D. T. E. 1996. Sex distribution in Myrica gale. Gorteria 22(3-4): 81-4. (In Dutch, English summary)