Genus: Ficus

By Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/20/2012

Back to Moraceae


Ficus L., Sp. Pl. 1059. 1753. Gen. Pl. 482. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Ficus carica L. designated by Britton & Brown (1918).

List of Ficus Species

References to Ficus

  • Beck, N. G.; Lord, E. M. 1988. Breeding system in Ficus carica, the common fig: 1. Floral diversity. Amer. J. Bot. 75(12): 1904-12.
  • Beck, N. G.; Lord, E. M. 1988. Breeding system in Ficus carica, the common fig: 2. Pollination events. Amer. J. Bot. 75(12): 1913-22.
  • Berg, C. C. 1989. Classification and distribution of Ficus. Experientia (Basel) 45(7): 605-11.
  • Berg, C. C. 1990. Reproduction and evolution in Ficus (Moraceae): traits connected with the adequate rearing of pollinators. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 55: 169-85.
  • Bronstein, J. L.; McKey, D. 1989. The comparative biology of figs. The fig/pollinator mutualism: a model system for comparative biology. Experientia (Basel) 45(7): 601-4.
  • Condit, I. J. 1932. The structure and development of flowers in Ficus carica L. Hilgardia 6: 443-81.
  • Cowart, N. M.; Graham, J. H. 1999. Within- and among-individual variation in fluctuating asymmetry of leaves in the fig (Ficus carica L.). Int. J. Plant Sci. 160: 116-121.
  • Datwyler, S. L.; Weiblen, G. D. 2004. On the origin of the fig: phylogenetic relationships of Moraceae from NDHF sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 91: 767-777.
  • Debor, H. W.; Grosse, B. 1977. Bibliography of the international literature on the fig (Ficus sp.). (Ref. in Bibliogr. Agric., 41(12):120149. 1977.)
  • Galil, J.; Neeman, G. 1977. Pollen transfer and pollination in the common fig (Ficus carica L.). New Phyt. 79(1): 163-71.
  • Herre, E. A. et al. 1996. Molecular phylogenies of figs and their pollinator wasps. J. Biogeogr. 23: 521-30.
  • Khadari, B. et al. 1995. When figs wait for pollinators: the length of fig receptivity. Amer. J. Bot. 82(8): 992-9.
  • Kjellberg, F. et al. 1987. The stability of the symbiosis between dioecious figs and their pollinators: a study of Ficus carica L. and Blastophaga psenes L. Evolution 41: 693-704.
  • Kjellberg, F.; Maurice, S. 1989. Seasonality in the reprodutive phenology of Ficus: its evolution and consequences. Experientia (Basel) 45(7): 653-60.
  • Morton, J. 1987. Fruits of warm climates.
  • Neeman, G.; Galil, J. 1978. Seed set in the 'male syconia' of the common fig Ficus carica L. (Caprificus). New Phyt. 81(2): 375-80.
  • Philpott, J. 1953. A blade tissue study of leaves of forty-seven species of Ficus. Bot. Gaz. 115(1): 15-35.
  • Ramirez, B. W. 1978. A new classification of Ficus. Annual Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 64(2): 296-310.
  • Sanford, S. N. F. 1933. Ficus carica in Massachusetts. Rhodora 35(409): 40.
  • Valdeyron, G.; Lloyd, D. G. 1979. Sex differences and flowering phenology in the common fig, Ficus carica L. Evolution 33(2): 673-85.
  • Verkerke, W. 1989. Structure and function of the fig. Experientia (Basel) 45(7): 612-22.
  • Ware, A. B.; Kaye, P. T.; Compton, S. G.; Van Noort, S. 1993. Fig volatiles: their role in attracting pollinators and maintaining pollinator specificity. Pl. Syst. Evol. 186: 147-56.
  • Wiebes, J. T. 1979. Co-evolution of figs and their insect pollinators. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 10: 1-12.