Genus: Trillium

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/25/2013

Back to Trilliaceae


Trillium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 339. 1753.

List of Trillium Species

References to Trillium

  • Bailey, P. C. 1958. Differential chromosome segments in eight species of Trillium. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 85: 201-214.
  • Bailey, P. C. 1954. A further study of the chromosome morphology of some species of Trillium. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 81: 68-75.
  • Barrett, S. C. H.; Helenurm, K. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs I. Breeding systems and pollination. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2036-2046.
  • Burke, D. J. 2008. Effects of Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard; Brassicaceae) on mycorrhizal colonization and community structure in three herbaceous plants in a mixed deciduous forest. Amer. J. Bot. 95: 1416-1425.
  • Carter, A. 1892. Notes on pollination. Bot. Gaz. 17: 19-22.
  • Case, F. W.; Case, R. B. 1997. Trilliums. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 286 pages. (ISBN 0881923745)
  • Demars, B. G. 1996. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal status of spring ephemerals in two Ohio forests. Ohio J. Science 96: 97-99.
  • Farmer, S. B.; Schilling, E. E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of Trilliaceae based on morphological and molecular data. Syst. Bot. 27: 674-692.
  • Freman, J. D. 1975. Revision of Trillium subgenus Phyllantherum (Liliaceae). Brittonia 27: 1-62.
  • Fukuda, I. 2001. The origin and evolution in Trillium 2. Chromosome variation of Trillium undulatum in North America. Cytologia 66: 319-327.
  • Gates, B. N. 1943. Carunculate seed dissemination by ants. Rhodora 45: 438-445.
  • Gates, B. N. 1940. Dissemination by ants of the seed of Trillium grandiflorum. Rhodora 42: 194-196.
  • Gates, B. N. 1941. Observations in 1940 on the dissemination by ants of the seeds of Tillium grandiflorum. Rhodora 43: 206-207.
  • Gates, R. R. 1917. A systematic study of the North American genus Trillium, its variability, and its relation to Paris and Medeola. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 4: 43-92.
  • Griffin, S. R.; Barrett, S. C. H. 2002. Factors affecting low seed: ovule ratios in a spring woodland herb, Trillium grandiflorum (Melanthiaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 581-590.
  • Griffin, S. R.; Barrett, S. C. H. 2004. Post-glacial history of Trillium grandiflorum (Melanthiaceae) in eastern North America: inferences from phylogeography. Amer. J. Bot. 91: 465-473.
  • Griffin, S. R.; Barrett, S. C. H. 2004. Genetic variation in Trillium erectum (Melanthiaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 82: 316-321.
  • Handel, S. N.; Fisch, S. B.; Schatz, G. E. 1981. Ants disperse a majority of herbs in a mesic forest community in New York State. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 108: 430-437.
  • Helenurm, K.; Barrett, S. C. H. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs II. Phenology of flowering and fruiting. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2047-2056.
  • Ihara, M. A.; Ihara, K 1978. A biosystematic study on the pedicellate-flowered species of the North American Trillium. (1) Geographical distribution of major groups and their gynoecium norms. J. Geobot. 25: 139-172.
  • Irwin, R. E. 2000. Morphological variations and female reproductive success in two sympatric Trillium species: evidence for phenotypic selection in Trillium erectum and Trillium grandiflorum (Liliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 87: 205-214.
  • Irwin, R. E. 2001. Field and allozyme studies investigating optimal mating success in two sympatric spring-ephemeral plants, Trillium erectum and T. grandiflorum. Heredity 87: 178-189.
  • Kato, H. 1995. Molecular systematics of the Trilliaceae sensu lato as inferred from rbcL sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 4: 184-193.
  • Kirschbaum, C. D.; Anacker, B. L. 2005. The utility of Trillium and Maianthemum as phyto-indicators of deer impact in northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Forest Ecol. & Manag. 217: 54-66.
  • Knight, T. M. 2003. Effects of herbivory and its timing across populations of Trillium grandiflorum (Liliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 90: 1207-1214.
  • Knight, T. M. 2004. The effects of herbivory and pollen limitation on a declining population of Trillium grandiflorum. Ecol. Applic. 14: 915-928.
  • Knight, T. M. 2003. Floral density, pollen limitation, and reproductive success in Trillium grandiflorum. Oecologia 442: 557-563.
  • Lapointe, L. 2010. Impact of growth and carbohydrate reserves on tolerance to simulated herbivory and subsequent recovery in Liliaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 97: 913-924.
  • Myers, J. A. 2004. Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America. Oecologia 139: 35-44.
  • Osaloo, S. K. 1999. Molecular systematics of Trilliaceae I. phylogenetic analyses of Trillium using matK gene sequences. J. Pl. Res. 112: 35-49.
  • Rahn, J. E. 1956. A study of the three-dimensional configurations of sporogenous cells in the anthers of Trillium erectum L. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 83: 355-376.
  • Reaume, T. 2003. The biology of Trillium cernuum (Liliaceae). Blue Jay 61: 143-167.
  • Robertson, C. 1896. Flowers and insects. XVI. Bot. Gaz. 21: 266-274.
  • Rooney, T. P. 2001. Deer impacts on forest ecosystems: A North American perspective. Forestry (Oxford) 74: 201-208.
  • Rooney, T. P.; Waller, D. M. 2001. How experimental defoliation and leaf height effect growth and reproduction in Trillium grandiflorum. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128: 393-399.
  • Routhier, M. C.; Lapointe, L. 2002. Impact of tree leaf phenology on growth rates and reproduction in the spring flowering species Trillium erectum (Liliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 89: 500-505.
  • Sage, T. L. 2001. Stigmatic self-incompatibility and mating patterns in Trillium grandiflorum and Trillium erectum (Melanthiaceae). Ann. Bot. (London) 88: 829-841.
  • Sawyer, N. W. 2010. Reproductive ecology of Trillium recurvatum (Trilliaceae) in Wisconson. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 163: 146-160.
  • Solt, S. 2002. Propagation protocol for Trillium (Liliaceae). Native Plants J. 3: 18-20.
  • Steven, J. C. 2003. Density-dependent pollinator visitation and self-incompatibility in upper Great Lakes populations of Trillium grandiflorum. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130: 23-29.
  • Tessier, J. T. 2008. Leaf habit, phenology, and longevity of 11 forest understory plant species in Algonquin State Forest, northwest Connecticut, USA. Botany 86: 457-465.
  • Thompson, J. A.; Sharpe, W. E. 2005. Soil fertility, white-tailed deer, and three Trillium species: a field study. Northeastern Naturalist 12: 379-390.
  • Vellend, M. 2003. Dispersal of Trillium seeds by deer: Implications for long-distance migration of forest herbs. Ecology 84: 1067-1072.
  • Zettler, J. A. 2001. Yellow jackets (Vespula spp.) disperse Trillium (spp.) seeds in eastern North America. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 146: 444-446.