New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Echinacea

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 05/30/2013

Back to Asteraceae

Nomenclature

Echinacea Moench, Methodus, 591. 1794.

List of Echinacea Species

References to Echinacea

  • Baskin, C. C. et.al. 1993. Afterripening pattern during cold stratification of achenes of ten perennial Asteraceae from eastern North America, and evolutionary implication. Plant Species Biol. 8: 61-65.
  • Binns, S. E. et.al. 2001. Typification of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (Heliantheae: Asteraceae) and its implications for the correct naming of two Echinacea taxa. Taxon 50: 1169-1175.
  • Binns, S. E.; Baum, B. R.; Arnason, J. T. 2002. A taxonomic revision of Echinacea (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). Syst. Bot. 27: 610-632.
  • Leiss, K. A. et.al. 2005. Spatial distribution of nectar production in a natural Echium vulgare population: Implications for pollinator behaviour. Basic and Applied Ecology 6: 317-324.
  • Mechanda, S. M. et.al. 2004. Analysis of diversity of natural populations and commercial lines of Echinaceae using AFLP. Canad. J. Bot. 82: 461-484.
  • Urbatsch, L.; Baldwin, B. G.; Donoghue, M. J. 2000. Phylogeny of the coneflowers and relatives (Heliantheae: Asteraceae) based on nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and chloroplast DNA restriction site data. Syst. Bot. 25: 539-565.

General Discussion

Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. and Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, both native from the midwestern to southeastern United States, have been purported to have been introduced in our area.  However, the handful of reports from our area are ambiguous regarding their cultivated status, therefore these two species are excluded from our flora.