Genus: Aralia

Aralia - Aralia

By Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 07/19/2013

Back to Araliaceae


Aralia L., Sp. Pl. 273. 1753. Gen. Pl. 134. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Aralia racemosa L. designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Dimorphanthus Miq., Comm. Phytogr. 95, t. 12. 1840-1841 nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1). TYPE: Not designated.

Key to the species of Aralia

(woody species only)

1. Leaflets pubescent beneath, veins run to the ends of serrations...Aralia elata
1. Leaflets nearly glabrous beneath, veins anastomose...Aralia spinosa

List of Aralia Species

References to Aralia

  • Barrett, S. C. H. 1982. Breeding systems and flowering phenology of boreal forest herbs. Bot. Soc. Amer., Misc. Publ. 162: 28.
  • Barrett, S. C. H. 1984. Variation in floral sexuality of diclinous Aralia (Araliaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71: 278-88. (Also Cornus, Maianthemum, Medeola, & Trientalis)
  • Barrett, S. C. H.; Helenurm, K. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs I. Breeding systems and pollination. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2036-2046.
  • Barrett, S. C. H.; Helenurm, K. 1981. Floral sex ratios and life history of Aralia nuducaulis (Araliaceae). Evolution 35: 752-762.
  • Barrett, S. C. H.; Thompson, J. D. 1982. Spatial pattern, floral sex ratios and fecundity in dioecious Aralia nudicaulis L. (Araliaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 60: 1662-1670.
  • Bawa, K. S. 1982. Sexual dimorphism in Aralia nudicaulis L. (Araliaceae). Evolution 36: 371-378.
  • Boileau, F.; Crete, M.; Huot, J. 1994. Food habits of the black bear, Ursus americanus, and habitat use in Gaspesie Park, eastern Quebec. Canad. Field-Naturalist 108: 162-9. (French summary)
  • Briand, C. H. 1998. Allometry of axis length, diameter, and taper in the devil's walking stick (Aralia spinosa; Araliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 85: 1201-1206.
  • Briand, C. H. 1999. Biomechanical properties of the trunk of the devil's walking stick (Aralia spinosa; Araliaceae) during the crown-building phase: implications for tree architecture. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1677-1682.
  • Briand, C. H.; Soros, C. L. 2001. Spatial variation of prickle abundance on leaves of the devil's walking stick (Aralia spinosa; Araliaceae) during the trunk-builing phase. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128: 219-225.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1981. A comparative study of leaf thickness among southern Appalachian hardwoods. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 1393-6.
  • Davidar, P.; Morton, E. S. 1986. The relationship between fruit crop sizes and fruit removal rates by birds. Ecology 67: 262-5.
  • Davies, P. A. 1942. Origin and development of prickles of Aralia spinosa. Trans. Kentucky Acad. Sci. 10: 29.
  • Dibello, F. J.; Arthur, S. M.; Krohn, W. B. 1990. Food habits of sympatric coyotes, red foxes, and bobcats in Maine. Canad. Field-Naturalist 104: 403-8.
  • Edwards, J. 1984. Spatial pattern and clone structure of the perennial herb, Aralia nudicaulis L. (Araliaceae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 111: 28-33.
  • Erbar, C.; Leins, P. 1988. Flower development studies in Aralia and Hedera (Araliaceae). Flora 180(5-6): 391-406. (In German; English summary)
  • Flanagan, L. B.; Bain, J. F. 1988. The biological flora of Canada 8. Aralia nudicaulis L., wild sasparilla. Canad. Field-Naturalist 102: 45-59.
  • Flanagan, L. B.; Moser, W. 1985. Flowering phenology, floral display and reproductive success in dioecious, Aralia nudicaulis L. (Araliaceae). Oecologia 68: 23-28.
  • Graham, S. A. 1966. The Araliaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 47: 126-36.
  • Harms, H. 1896. Zur Kenntnis der Gattungen Aralia und Panax. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 23: 1-23. (In German)
  • Heit, C. E. 1968. Thirty-five years' testing of tree and shrub seed. J. Forest. 66(8): 632-3.
  • Helenurm, K.; Barrett, S. C. H. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs II. Phenology of flowering and fruiting. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2047-2056.
  • Holm, T. 1891. Contributions to the knowledge of the germination of some North American plants. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 2: 57-108.
  • Jotani, Y. 1992. The name of less prickly form of Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem. J. Jap. Bot. 67: 365. (In Japanese)
  • Krefting, L. W.; Roe, E. I. 1949. The role of some birds and mammals in seed germination. Ecol. Monogr. 19: 269-286.
  • Lamont, E. E.; Fitzgerald, J. M. 2001. Noteworthy plants reported from the Torrey Range- 2000. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128: 409-414.
  • Lovell, J. H. 1898. The insect visitors of flowers. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 25: 382-390.
  • Malloch, D.; Malloch, B. 1981. The mycorrhizal status of boreal plants: species from northeastern Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 2167-72.
  • McInteer, B. B. 1947. Soil preference of some plants as seen in Kentucky. Castanea 12: 1-8.
  • Meehan, T. 1871. On the flowers of Aralia spinosa L. and Hedera helix L. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 7: 315-6.
  • Moore, Gerry; Glenn, Steven D.; Ma, J. 2009. Distribution of the native Aralia spinosa and non-native Aralia elata (Araliaceae) in the northeastern United States. Rhodora 111: 145-154.
  • Sargent, C. S. 1893. Aralia. Silva N. Am. 5: 57-62.
  • Smith, A. C. 1944. Araliaceae. N. Amer. Fl. 28B: 3-41. (see also notes in Brittonia 2: 247-261. 1936)
  • Smith, E. B. 1982. Juvenile and adult leaflet phases in Aralia spinosa (Araliaceae). Sida 9(4): 330-2.
  • Sobey, D. G.; Barkhouse, P. 1977. The structure and rate of growth of the rhizomes of some forest herbs and dwarf shrubs of the New Brunswick-Nova Scotia border region. Canad. Field-Naturalist 91: 377-83.
  • Sullivan, J. 1992. Aralia spinosa. ()
  • Thaler, G. R.; Plowright, R. C. 1980. The effect of aerial insecticide spraying for spruce budworm control on the fecundity of entomophilous plants in New Brunswick. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 2022-2027.
  • Thomson, J. D. 1988. Effects of variation in inflorescence size and floral rewards on the visitation rates of traplining pollinators of Aralia hispida. Evolutionary Ecology 2: 65-76.
  • Thomson, J. D. 1982. Behavior of bumble bee pollinators of Aralia hispida Vent. (Araliaceae). Oecologia 54: 326-336.
  • Thomson, J. D. 1990. Temporal patterns of nectar and pollen production in Aralia hispida: implications for reproductive success. Ecology 70: 1061-1068.
  • Thomson, J. D.; Barrett, S. C. H. 1981. Temporal variation of gender in Aralia spinosa Vent. (Araliaceae). Evolution 35: 1094-107.
  • Thomson, J. D.; Barrett, S. C. H. 1981. Temporal variation of gender in Aralia hispida Vent. (Araliaceae). Evolution 35: 1094-1107.
  • Wen, J. 1993. Generic delimitation of Aralia (Aralialceae). Brittonia 45(1): 47-55.
  • Wen, J. 1991. Systematics of Aralia(Araliaceae). Ph.D. Dissertation Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH324 p.
  • Wen, J. 2001. Evolution of the Aralia-Panax complex (Araliaceae) as inferred from nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences. Edinburgh J. Bot. 58: 243-257.
  • Wen, J. 2011. Systematics and biogeography of Aralia L. (Araliaceae): revision of sections Aralia, Humiles, Nanae, and Sciadodendron. Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 57: 1-172. (ISSN 0097-1618)
  • Wen, J.; Nowicke, J. W. 1999. Pollen ultrastructure of Panax (the ginseng genus, Araliaceae), an eastern Asian and eastern North American disjunct genus. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1624-1636. (Also <em>Aralia</em>)
  • Wen, J.; Reveal, J. L. 1992. Typification of the Linnaean species of Aralia (Araliaceae). Taxon 41: 69-75.
  • Wen, J.; Shi, S.; Jansen, R. K.; Zimmer, E. A. 1998. Phylogeny and biogeography of Aralia sect. Aralia (Araliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 85: 866-75.
  • White, P. S. 1981. The life history and adaptive geometry of Aralia spinosa L.
  • White, P. S. 1984. The architecture of devil's walking stick Aralia spinosa (Araliaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 65(3): 403-18.
  • White, P. S. 1988. Prickle distribution in Aralia spinosa (Araliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 75(2): 282-5.
  • Yamazaki, T. 1994. On a subunarmed form of Aralia elata (Miq.) Seem. J. Jap. Bot. 69: 180-182. (In Japanese)
  • Yi, T. 2004. Chromosomal evolution in Araliaceae and close relatives. Taxon 53: 987-1005.
  • Zebryk, T. M. 2003. Aralia spinosa: an introduced woody species with invasive potential in Massachusetts. Rhodora 105: 395-398.