Genus: Celtis

Celtis occidentalis
Celtis occidentalis L.

Photo © by Steven Clemants
Taken at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, NY, 1999.

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/01/2013

Back to Celtidaceae


Celtis L., Sp. Pl. 1043. 1753. Gen. Pl. 467. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Celtis australis L. designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Key to the species of Celtis


List of Celtis Species

References to Celtis

  • Abrams, M. D.; Kubiske, M. E.; Mostoller, S. A. 1994. Relating wet and dry year ecophysiology to leaf structure in contrasting temperate tree species. Ecology 75: 123-33.
  • Altpeter, L. S. 1944. Use of vegetation in control of streambank erosion in Northern New England. J. Forest. 42(2): 99-107.
  • Bechtel, A. R. 1921. The floral anatomy of the Urticales. Amer. J. Bot. 8: 386-410.
  • Bell, D. T.; Johnson, F. L. 1975. Phenological patterns in the trees of the streamside forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 102: 187-93.
  • Boivin, B. 1867. Les Celtis du Canada. Naturaliste Canad. 94: 621-4.
  • Bruederle, L. P.; Stearns, F. W. 1985. Ice storm damage to a southern Wisconsin mesic forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112(2): 167-75.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1975. Stomatal distribution and size in southern Appalachian hardwoods. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 1153-6.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1979. Variation in shade leaf thickness among urban trees growing in metropolitan Lexington, Kentucky. Castanea 44: 94-8.
  • Chadwick, L. C. 1939. New England hurricane damage to trees. Arborist's News 4(1): 1-4.
  • Chernik, V. V. 1980. Peculiarities of structure and development of the pericarp of the representatives of the family Ulmaceae and Celtidaceae. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 65(4): 521-31. (In Russian)
  • Chernik, V. V. 1975. Arrangement and reduction of perianth and androecium parts in representatives of Ulmaceae Mirbel and Celtidaceae Link. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 60(11): 1561-73. (In Russian; English summary. See also Inter. Bot. Congress:12 Leningrad- abstract)
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1940. Hackberry. Amer. Forests 46: 414-5.
  • Cowan, M. R.; Gabel, M. L.; et al. 1997. Growth and biomineralization of Celtis occidentalis (Ulmaceae) pericarps. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 137: 266-73.
  • Cusick, A. W. 1986. Distributional and taxanomic notes on the vascular flora of West Virginia. Castanea 51: 56-65.
  • Cypher, B. L.; Cypher, E. A. 1999. Germination rates of tree seeds ingested by coyotes and raccoons. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 142: 71-76.
  • Earle, F. S. 1904. Proceedings of the club. Torreya 4: 12.
  • Elias, T. S. 1970. The genera of Ulmaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 51: 18-40.
  • Fernald, M. L.; Schubert, B. G. 1948. Studies of American types in British herbaria. Rhodora 50: 149-76, 181-208, 217-33.
  • Giannasi, D. 1978. Generic relationships in the Ulmaceae, based on flavonoid chemistry. Taxon 27: 331-44.
  • Green, W. E. 1947. Effect of water impoundment on tree mortality and growth. J. Forest. 45: 118-20.
  • Greller, A. M.; Buegler, R.; Johnson, E.; Matarazzo, R.; Anderson, K. 1992. Two unusual plant communities in Tottenville, Staten Island, New York, with Celtis occidentalis and Asimina triloba. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 119: 446-457.
  • Hill, E. 1900. Celtis pumila Pursh, with notes on allied species. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 27: 496-505.
  • Hitchcock, A. S. 1893. The opening of the buds of some woody plants. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 6(5): 133-41.
  • Hoppes, W. G. 1988. Seedfall pattern of several species of bird-dispersed plants in an Illinois woodland. Ecology 69: 320-329.
  • Hosner, J. F. 1959. Survival, root, and shoot growth of six bottomland tree species following flooding. J. Forest. 57: 927-8.
  • Houle, G.; Bouchard, F. 1990. Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) at the northeastern limit of its distribution in North America: Population structure and radial growth patterns. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2685-92. (French summary)
  • Hupp, C. R. 1986. Upstream variation in bottomland vegetation patterns, northwestern Virginia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 113: 421-30.
  • Johnson, F. L.; Bell, D. T. 1976. Tree growth and mortality in the streamside forest. Castanea 41: 34-41.
  • Johnson, R. A.; Willson, M. F.; Thompson, J. N.; Bertin, R. I. 1985. Nutritional values of wild fruits and consumption by migrant frugivorous birds. Ecology 66: 819-27.
  • Killingbeck, K. T. 1985. Autumnal resorption and accretion of trace metals in gallery forest tress. Ecology 66: 283-6. (Cu, Fe, Mn, & Zn)
  • Lodhi, M. A. K. 1977. The influence and comparison of individual forest trees on soil properties and possible inhibition of nitrification due to intact vegetation. Amer. J. Bot. 64(3): 260-4.
  • Maycock, P. F. 1963. The phytosociology of the deciduous forests of extreme southern Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 41: 379-438.
  • McGregor, R. L. 1985. Multiple seedlings in Celtis (Ulmaceae): with notes on Ulmus americana. Contr. Univ. Kansas Herb. 17: 1-5.
  • McInteer, B. B. 1947. Soil preference of some plants as seen in Kentucky. Castanea 12: 1-8.
  • Mitchell, R. S. (eds.) (1988): 1988. Platanaceae through Myricaceae of New York State. New York State Museum Bull. No. 464. The University of the State of New York, the State Education Department, Albany. , 98 pages.
  • Muller, C. H. 1939. Mechanically initiated bark growth in Celtis. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 22: 436-7.
  • Pammel, L. H.; King, C. M. 1918. The germination of some trees and shrubs and their juvenile forms. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 25: 291-340.
  • Priemer, F. 1893. Die anatomischen Verholtnisse der Laubblotter der Ulmaceen (einschl. Celtideen) und die Beziehungen zu ihrer Systematik. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 17: 419-75. (In German)
  • Rosario, L. C. 1988. Celtis occidentalis. ()
  • Rothrock, J. T. 1908. Hackberry, sugar-berry (C. occidentalis L.). Forest Leaves 11: 136-7.
  • Sakai, A.; Weiser, C. J. 1973. Freezing resistance of trees in North America with reference to tree regions. Ecology 54: 118-26.
  • Sargent, C. S. 1893. Celtis. Silva N. Am. 7: 63-75.
  • Sargent, C. S. 1919. Notes on North American trees, IV. Bot. Gaz. 67: 208-42.
  • Sax, K. 1933. Chromosome numbers in Ulmus and related genera. J. Arnold Arbor. 14: 82-4.
  • Schaffner, J. H. 1904. Twigs of the common hackberry. Ohio Naturalist 5: 215-6.
  • Schneck, J. 1897. The hackberries as ornamental and shade trees. Meehans' Monthly 7: 231-2.
  • Schweitzer, E. M. 1971. Comparative anatomy of Ulmaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 52: 523-85.
  • Smith, N. F. 1951. Hackberry- Celtis occidentalis, Linnaeus. Michigan Conservation 20: 31-2.
  • Snetsinger, R.; Himelick, E. B. 1957. Observations on witches'-broom of hackberry (C. occidentalis). Pl. Dis. Reporter 41: 541-4.
  • Takahashi, M. 1989. Pollen morphology of Celtidaceae and Ulmaceae: a reinvestigation. In: Evolution, systematics and fossil history of the Hamamelidae. 2: Higher Hamamelidae. Clareson Press, Oxford. , 253-65 pages. (Syst. Assoc. Spec. Vol. 40B)
  • Ueda, K.; Kosuge, K.; Tobe, H. 1997. A molecular phylogeny of Celtidaceae and Ulmaceae (Urticales) based on rbcL nucleotide sequences. J. Pl. Res. 110: 171-8.
  • Wagner, W. H. 1974. Dwarf hackberry (Ulmaceae: Celtis tenuifolia) in the Great Lakes Region. Michigan Bot. 13: 73-99.
  • Wheeler, E.; LaPasha, C. A.; Miller, R. B. 1988. Woody anatomy of elm (Ulmus) and hackberry (Celtis) species native to the United States. IAWA Bull. 10: 5-26.
  • Wolf, F. A. 1910. Formation of adventitious roots by the hackberry tree. Pl. World 13: 174-5.