New York Metropolitan Flora

Gaylussacia bigeloviana (Fernald) Sorrie & Weakley - Dwarf Huckleberry, Gopherberry

Gaylussacia bigeloviana
Photo by Steven D. Glenn

Native , Rare

By Steven Clemants

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 07/30/2012

Back to Gaylussacia

Gaylussacia bigeloviana
= Gaylussacia dumosa (Andrews) Torr. & A. Gray var. bigeloviana Fernald

Common Names

Dwarf Huckleberry, Gopherberry

Field Identification

A shrub with stalked resin-glands on the lower leaf surface and blue fruit.

Food uses

Disclaimer: The information provided here is for reference and historical use. We do not recommend nor do we condone the use of this species for food purposes without first consulting a physician.

(Uphof, 1968)

The fruits are eaten.


Nomenclature

¤Vaccinium dumosum Lodd., A catalogue of plants and seeds which are sold by Conrad Loddiges, London. 1777.4-1783.8.[cited in (Ludwig, 1783)]. *Vaccinium dumosum Andrews, Bot. Repos. 2: pl. 112. 1800. *Gaylussacia dumosa (Andrews) A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts, n.s. 3: 50. 1846. *Adnaria dumosa (Andrews) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 382. 1891. *Lasiococcus dumosus (Andrews) Small, Man. S.E. Fl. 1008. 1933. TYPE: Living material (Lectotype: Andrews, Bot. Repos. 2: pl. 112. 1800), selected by (Fernald, 1911).

*Gaylussacia dumosa var. bigeloviana Fernald, Rhodora 13: 99. 1911. TYPE: United States. Maine: base of West Quoddy Head, Lubec, 26 Jul 1909, Fernald & Wiegand 2038 (Holotype: GH! #00015032; Isotypes: US!). [glands on upper surface of leaf and bracts persistent]

Misapplied Names

*Vaccinium hirtellum Aiton, Hort. Kew., ed. 2, 2: 357. 1811. *Decamerium hirtellum (Aiton) Nutt., Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. n.s., 8: 260. 1842. *Gaylussacia hirtella (Aiton) A. Gray & Torr. in Torr., Fl. New York 1: 448. 1843. TYPE: Location and collector unknown (Holotype: BM?).

Description

HABIT perennial, deciduous, chamaephyte, shrubs, autotrophic, monoclinous, with adventitious roots and with fibrous roots, 0.35-0.4 m tall, not modified or with rhizomes.

STEMS erect, round, not winged, "regular". Prickles absent. Bark striate, not exfoliating, gray. Branches ascending, gray, round, not winged, 2-3 mm in diam. Twigs orange, not odoriferous, round, 1 mm in diam., smooth, hairs short and unbranched, spreading, unicellular, uniseriate, white, moderately dense, throughout, glabrescent, without glands. Pith present, orange-yellow, round, continuous. Thorns absent. Aerial roots absent. Sap translucent. Resin absent.

BUDS terminal and axillary buds monomorphic. Terminal Bud present, ovoid, 1.1 mm long, pointed. Axillary buds present, 1, ovoid, 1-1.3 mm long, pointed. Bud scales 4, orange-red, imbricate, ovate, chartaceous, acute, glabrous, without glands, scales appear to be resinous. Bud scale scars. Leaf scars obdeltate, 0.3 mm high, 0.5-0.7 mm wide, none. Vascular bundle scars 1, circular, 0.1 mm tall.

LEAVES alternate, 1 per node, spaced ± evenly along stem, divergent from stem, simple. Stipules absent. Leaves sessile. Leaf: abaxial surface green, adaxial surface green, blades narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate or elliptic or obovate or widely elliptic or widely obovate or circular or very widely obovate, plane, symmetric, 0.9-4.9 cm long, 0.8-1.8 cm wide, coriaceous, base cuneate, margin ciliate, apex acute and mucronate, abaxial surface hairs short and unbranched and hairs long and unbranched, erect and spreading, unicellular and multicellular, uniseriate and multiseriate, white, sparse (non-glandular) or moderately dense (glandular), along midveins (non-glandular) or throughout (glandular), glabrescent, glands present, glands at apex of hairs, orange, adaxial surface hairs short and unbranched and hairs long and unbranched, erect and spreading, unicellular and multicellular, uniseriate and multiseriate, white, moderately dense, along midveins (non-glandular) or throughout (glandular), not glabrescent, glands present, glands at apex of hairs, orange. Brochidodromous venation, veins 3-4. Leaf lobes absent. Spines absent. Tendrils absent.

INFLORESCENCES monomorphic, regular or, if dimorphic, female inflorescence simple, raceme, axillary. Peduncle present, 0.5-0.7 cm long. Rachis present, 2.5-3.5 cm long, with bracts. Bracts sessile, blades: abaxial surface green, adaxial surface green, elliptic or widely elliptic or circular, plane, 6-15 mm long, 4-7 mm wide, base cuneate, margin ciliate (and glandular-ciliate), apex acute, abaxial surface hairs short and unbranched (non-glandular) or hairs long and unbranched (glandular), abaxial hairs erect and spreading, unicellular and multicellular, uniseriate and multiseriate, white and orange, moderately dense, throughout, not glabrescent, glands present, glands at apex of hairs, orange, adaxial surface hairs short and unbranched and hairs long and unbranched, erect and spreading, unicellular and multicellular, uniseriate and multiseriate, white and orange, moderately dense, throughout, not glabrescent, glands present, glands at apex of hairs, orange. Pedicel 4-9 mm long, hairs short and unbranched and hairs long and unbranched, hairs erect and spreading, unicellular and multicellular, uniseriate and multiseriate, white and orange, moderately dense, throughout, not glabrescent, glands present, glands at apex of hairs, orange. Bracteoles 2, sessile, other (variable), not connate, bracteoles: abaxial surface green, bracteole: adaxial surface green, linear or narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate, plane, 2.8-3 mm long, 0.4-0.7 mm wide, base cuneate, margin ciliate, apex acute. Cupules absent.

FLOWERS serotinous, formed on long shoots, monomorphic, with sepals and petals readily distinguishable from one another, bisexual, flowers white, 5-merous, 6.5-6.6 mm long, 2.7-4.5 mm wide, 3-8 flowers per inflorescence, perianth of two whorls. Calyx present, actinomorphic, campanulate, of fused sepals, persistent, abaxial and adaxial surfaces the same color, 2.2-3.5 mm long, 3.9 mm wide, tube 0.8 mm long, calyx limb 1.6 mm long, 4.1 mm wide. Sepals or sepal lobes 5, shallowly deltate, 1.5 mm long, 1.8 mm wide, base truncate, margin ciliate, apex acute, abaxial surface hairs long and unbranched, erect, multicellular, multiseriate, orange, sparse, throughout, not glabrescent, glands present, glands at apex of hairs, orange, adaxial surface hairs long and unbranched, erect, multicellular, multiseriate, orange, sparse (?), throughout, not glabrescent, glands present, glands at apex of hairs, orange. Epicalyx absent. Corolla present, actinomorphic, urceolate, of fused petals, deciduous, abaxial and adaxial surfaces the same color, white, 5-6.5 mm long, 3.7-7.5 mm wide, corolla limb 1 mm long, 3.7 mm wide. Petals or petal lobes 5, "normal", deltate, 1.8 mm long, 2 mm wide, base truncate, margin entire, apex acute, abaxial surface glabrous, without glands, adaxial surface glabrous, without glands. Gynoecium syncarpous. Carpels 5. Stigmas 1, capitate. Styles not persistent, 1, 6.5 mm long. Ovary inferior, 0.7 mm long, 1.7 mm wide, nectiferous disk present. Locules 10. Placentation axile. Androecium obdiplostemonous. Stamens 10, 4.8-4.9 mm long. Anthers elongate, opening by pores, bithecal, orange, minutely papillose. Filaments free, straight, orange, hairs short and unbranched, erect, unicellular, uniseriate. Staminodes absent.

FRUITS bacca (berry), blue, globose, 7-9 mm long, 7-9 mm wide, glabrous, without glands.

SEEDS 10, yellowish orange, ovoid, 1.8-2 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, wingless, not tailed, rugose.

Habitat

(Gauthier, 1983)

Swamps, bogs, and swampy thickets (the typical variety is usually found in dry habitats). Often associated with Sphagnum, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Vaccinium oxycoccus. Wet sphagnum peat.

Rarity Status

Heritage global rank -- G5

Connecticut -- threatened

New Jersey -- not listed

New York -- endangered? (Heritage rank: S1)

Species Biology

Flowering

May [week 3] - June [week 4].

Pollination

Unknown.

Fruiting

Aug [week 3] - Sep [week 3].

Dispersal

Unknown.

Germination

Unknown.