Family: Campanulaceae

Lobelia cardinalis

Lobelia cardinalis L.

Photo by Gerry Moore

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 04/30/2013

List of Campanulaceae Genera

References to Campanulaceae

  • Abou el Enain, M. M. 2006. Interspecific and phylogenetic relationships in the genus Campanula L. s. str. (Campanulaceae): Karyological approach. Cytologia 71: 93-100.
  • Bailey, M. F. 2002. A cost of restoration of male fertility in a gynodioecious species, Lobelia siphilitica. Evolution 56: 2178-2186.
  • Barton, L. V. 1960. Storage of seeds of Lobelia cardinalis L. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 20: 395-401.
  • Baskin, C. C.; Baskin, J. M. 2005. Underdeveloped embryos in dwarf seeds and implications for assignment to dormancy class. Seed Sci. Res. 15: 357-360.
  • Bowden, W. M. 1959. Phylogenetic relationships of twenty-one species of Lobelia L. section Lobelia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 86: 94-108.
  • Bowden, W. M. 1959. Cytataxonomy of Lobelia L. section Lobelia I. Three diverse species and seven small-flowered species. Canad. J. Genet. Cytol. 1: 49-64.
  • Bradley, T. R. 1975. Hybridization between Triodanis perfoliata and Triodanis biflora (Campanulaceae). Brittonia 27: 110-114.
  • Caruso, C. M. 2006. Plasticity of inflorescence traits in Lobelia siphilitica (Lobeliaceae) in response to soil water availability. Amer. J. Bot. 93: 531-538.
  • Caruso, C. M. 2006. Plasticity of physiology in Lobelia: Testing for adaptation and constraint. Evolution 60: 980-990.
  • Caruso, C. M. 2003. Gender-specific floral and physiological traits: Implications for the maintenance of females in gynodioecious Lobelia siphilitica. Oecologia 135: 524-531.
  • Cody, W. J. 1982. A comparison of the northern limits of distribution of some vascular plant species found in southern Ontario. Naturaliste Canad. 109: 63-90.
  • Collins, J. F. 1896. Jasione montana in New England. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 23: 212-213.
  • Devlin, B. 1988. The effects of stress on reproductive characters of Lobelia cardinalis. Ecology 69: 1716-1720.
  • Devlin, B. 1989. Components of seed and pollen yield of Lobelia cardinalis variation and correlations. Amer. J. Bot. 76: 204-214.
  • Devlin, B.; Horton, J. B.; Stephenson, A. G. 1987. Patterns of nectar production of Lobelia cardinalis. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 117: 289-295.
  • Devlin, B.; Stephenson, A. G. 1984. Factors that influence the duration of the staminate and pistallate phases of Lobelia cardinalis flowers. Bot. Gaz. 145: 323-328.
  • Dudle, D. A. 2001. Genetics of sex determination in the gynodioecious species Lobelia siphilitica: Evidence from two populations. Heredity 86: 265-276.
  • Eddie, W. M. M. 2003. Phylogeny of Campanulaceae s. str. inferred from its sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 554-575.
  • Etterson, J. R.; Galloway, L. F. 2002. The influence of light on paternal plants in Campanula americana (Campanulaceae): pollen characteristics and offspring traits. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1899-1906.
  • Evanhoe, L.; Galloway, L. F. 2002. Floral longevity in Campanula americana (Campanulaceae): a comparison of morphological and functional gender phases. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 587-591.
  • Farmer, A. M.; Spence, D. H. N. 1987. Flowering, germination and zonation of the submerged aquatic plant Lobelia dortmanna L. J. Ecol. 75: 1065-1076.
  • Galloway, L. F.; Cirigliano, T.; Gremski, K. 2002. The contribution of display size and dichogamy to potential geitonogamy in Campanula americana. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 133-139.
  • Gara, B.; Muenchow, G. 1990. Chasmogamy-cleistogamy in Triodanis perfoliata Campanulaceae some CH-CL comparison in fitness parameters. Amer. J. Bot. 77: 1-6.
  • Good-Avila, S. V. 2003. Effects of inbreeding on male function and self-fertility in the partially self-incompatible herb Campanula rapunculoides (Campanulaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 90: 1736-1745.
  • Good-Avila, S. V. 2008. Characterization of self-incompatability in Campanula rapunculoides (Campanulaceae) through genetic analysis and microscopy. Canad. J. Bot. 86: 1-13.
  • Good-Avila, S. V.; Stephenson, A. G. 2002. The inheritance of modifiers conferring self-fertility in the partially self-incompatible perennial, Campanula rapunculoides L. (Campanulaceae). Evolution 56: 263-272.
  • Johnson, S. G. 1995. The effect of petal-size manipulation on pollen removal, seed set, and insect-visitor behavior in Campanula americana. Oecologia 102: 174-179.
  • Johnston, M. O. 1991. Natural selection on traits in two species of Lobelia with different pollinators. Evolution 45: 1468-1479.
  • Johnston, M. O. 1991. Pollen limitation of female reproduction in Lobelia cardinalis and Lobelia siphilitica. Ecology 72: 1500-1503.
  • Johnston, M. O. 1992. Effects of cross and self-fertilization on progeny fitness in Lobelia cardinalis and Lobelia siphilitica. Evolution 46: 688-702.
  • Kapoor, B. M. 1987. Annotated list of the chromosome numbers of the vascular flora of northeastern America V. Naturaliste Canad. 114: 105-116.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2011. Revision of the infrageneric classification of Lobelia L., (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 98: 37-62.
  • Lammers, T. G. 2006. Validation of names at subspecific rank in North American Campanulaceae. Novon 16: 69-73.
  • McVaugh, R. 1936. Studies in the taxonomy and distribution of the eastern North American species of Lobelia. Rhodora 38: 241-263; 276-298; 305-329; 346-362.
  • McVaugh, R. 1940. A key to the North American species of Lobelia sect. (Hemipogon). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 24: 681-702.
  • McVaugh, R. 1945. The genus Triodanis Rafinesque, and its relationships to Specularia and Campanula. Wrightia 1: 13-52.
  • Michaels, H. J. 1993. Interfamilial relationships of the Asteraceae: insights from rbcL sequence variation. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 742-751.
  • Miller, J. S.; Stanton-Geddes, J. L. 2007. Gynodioecy in Lobelia siphilitica and L. Spicata (Lobeliaceae) from western Massachusetts. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134: 349-361.
  • Molano-Flores, B 2002. Pollination biology and flower visitors of the gynodioecious species Lobelia spicata Lam. (Campanulaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129: 187-193.
  • Moyle, J. B. 1945. Some chemical factors influencing the distribution of aquatic plants in Minnesota. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 34: 402-420.
  • Muenscher, W. C. 1936. Seed germination in Lobelia with special reference to the influence of light on Lobelia inflata. J. Agric. Res. 52: 627-631.
  • Mutikainen, P.; Delph, L. F. 1998. Inbreeding depression in gynodioecious Lobelia siphilitica: among-family differences override between-morph differences. Evolution 52: 1572-1582.
  • Myers, J. A. 2004. Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America. Oecologia 139: 35-44.
  • Parnell, J. 1982. Some observations on the breeding biology of Jasione montana. Journal of Life Sciences Royal Dublin Society 4: 1-8.
  • Parnell, J. A. N. 1985. Jasione montana L. J. Ecol. 73: 341-358.
  • Reifner, R. E.; Hill, S. R. 1983. Notes on infrequent and threatened plants of Maryland including new state records. Castanea 48: 117-37.
  • Roquet, C. 2008. Natural deliniation, molecular phylogeny and floral evolution in Campanula. Syst. Bot. 33: 203-217.
  • Sales, F. 2004. Jasione L. taxonomy and phylogeny. Turkish J. Bot. 28: 253-259.
  • Sales, F.; Hedge, I. C. 2001. Nomenclature and typification of western European Jasione (Campanulaceae). Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 59: 163-172.
  • Sand-Jensen, K. 2005. Contrasting oxygen dynamics in the freshwater isoetid Lobelia dortmanna and the marine seagrass Zostera marina. Ann. Bot. (London) 96: 613-623.
  • Schlichting, C. D.; Devlin, B. 1992. Pollen and ovule sources affect seed prodution of Lobelia cardinalis (Lobeliaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 79: 891-898.
  • Shetler, S. G. 1963. A checklist and key to the species of Campanula native or commonly naturalized in North America. Rhodora 65: 319-337.
  • Shetler, S. G.; Morin, N. R. 1986. Seed morphology in North American Campanulaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 653-688.
  • Shulkina, T. V.; Gaskin, J. F.; Eddie, W. M. M. 2003. Morphological studies toward an improved classification of Campanulaceae s. str. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 576-591.
  • Simons, A. M.; Johnston, M. O. 2000. Variation in seed traits of Lobelia inflata (Campanulaceae): sources and fitness consequences. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 124-132.
  • Simons, A. M.; Johnston, M. O. 2000. Plasticity and the genetis of reproductive behavior in the monocarpic perennial, Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco). Heredity 85: 356-365.
  • Simons, A. M.; Johnston, M. O. 2003. Suboptimal timing of reproduction in Lobelia inflata may be a conservative bet-hedging strategy. J. Evol. Biol. 16: 233-243.
  • Thompson, S. W.; Lammers, T. G. 1997. Phenetic analysis of morphological variation in the Lobelia cardinalis complex (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Syst. Bot. 22: 315-31.
  • Wysocki-Thompson, S.; Lammers, T. G. 1997. Phenetic analysis of morphological variation in the Lobelia cardinalis complex (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae). Syst. Bot. 22: 315-331.
  • Yetter, R. B. 1989. The expression of male-sterility in Lobelia siphilitica L. (Campanulaceae): a life history approach. Ph.D. Dissertation Miami Univ., Oxford, OH,