Family: Celastraceae

Celastrus scandens
Celastrus scandens L.  

Photo © by Peter Nelson.
Taken near Juda, WI, 1984

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/01/2013

Key to the genera of Celastraceae

1. Leaves alternate; vines...Celastrus
1. Leaves opposite; shrubs...Euonymous

List of Celastraceae Genera

References to Celastraceae

  • Andersson, A. 1931. Studien uber die Embryologie der Familien Celastraceae, Oleaceae, und Apocynaceae. Acta Universitatis Lundensis 27: 1-110. (In German)
  • Anonymous 1897. Spindle tree (Euonymus europaeus L.). Kew Bull. 1897: 167-8. (Reprint from St. Jame's Gazette, November 7, 1896.)
  • Antonen, A. 1990. Combating porcelain berry, bittersweet, and Lonicera maackii at Wave Hill.
  • Baillon, H. 1875. Monographie des Celastracees et des Rhamnacees. Hist. Pl. 6: 1-92. (In French)
  • Barton, L. V. 1939. Experiments at Boyce Thomson Institute on germination and dormancy in seed. Sci. Hort. (Amsterdam) 7: 186-193.
  • Berkeley, E. 1953. Morphological studies in the Celastraceae. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 69: 185-208.
  • Bisky, J. A. 1887. Notes from Queens County, Long Island. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 14: 13-14.
  • Blakelock, R. A. 1951. A synopsis of the genus Euonymus L. Kew Bull. 1951: 210-90.
  • Boole, J. A. 1955. Studies in the anatomy of the family Celastraceae. Ph.D. Thesis Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill,
  • Bowden, W. M. 1940. Diploidy, polyploidy, and winter hardiness relationships in the flowering plants. Amer. J. Bot. 27: 357-71.
  • Bowen, W. R. 1962. Origin and development of winged cork in Euonymus alatus. Bot. Gaz. 124(4): 256-61.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1964. The genera of Celastrales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 45: 206-234.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1964. Polyembryony in Euonymus (Celastraceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 45: 251-9.
  • Clebsch, E. E. C.; Walker, G. L.; Wofford, B. E. 1989. Noteworthy collections, Tennessee. Castanea 54: 48-50.
  • Croizat, L. C. M. 1943. The concept of inflorescence. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70: 496-509.
  • Cromer, J. A. 1974. American bittersweet, Celastrus scandens L. In: Shrubs and vines for northeastern wildlife. USDA Forest Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-9. USDA. , 10-1 pages.
  • Cusick, A. W. 1992. Noteworthey collections, West Virginia. Castanea 57: 148-9.
  • Davis, J. D.; Evert, R. F. 1970. Seasonal cycle of phloem development in woody vines. Bot. Gaz. 131(2): 128-38.
  • Dillingham, F. T. 1907. The staff tree, Celastrus scandens, as a former food supply of starving Indians. Amer. Naturalist 41: 391-3.
  • Dreyer, G. D.; Baird, L. M.; Fickler, C. 1987. Celastrus scandens and Celastrus orbiculatus: Comparisons of reproducive potential between a native and an introduced woody vine. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 114: 260-4.
  • Ellsworth, J. W.; Harrington, R. A.; Fownes, J. H. 2004. Survival, growth and gas exchange of Celastrus orbiculatus seedlings in sun and shade. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 151: 233-240.
  • Fike, J.; Niering, William A. 1999. Four decades of old field vegetation development and the role of Celastrus orbiculatus in the northeastern United States. J. Veg. Sci. 10: 483-492.
  • Fleming, P.; Kanal, R. 1992. Newly documented species of vascular plants in the District of Columbia. Castanea 57: 132-46.
  • Flower, F. B.; Gilman, E. F.; Leone, I. A. 1981. Landfill gas, what it does to trees and how its injurious effects may be prevented. J. Arboric. 7(2): 43-52.
  • Foderaro, L. W. 2004. Taking offensive in Westchester against the vines of wrath. New York Times 153: B1, B6. (Celastrus orbiculatus & Ampelopsis brevipedunculata)
  • Fogg, J. M. Jr. 1966. The silent travelers. Brooklyn Bot. Gard. Rec. 22: 4-7. (New Series)
  • Freeman, C. C. 1998. Vascular plants new to Kansas. Sida 18: 593-604.
  • Gorchov, D. L. 1987. Sequence of fruit ripening in bird-dispersed plants: consistency among years. Ecology 68: 223-5.
  • Graenicher, S. 1902. Flowers adapted to flesh-flies. Bull. Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. 2: 29-38.
  • Greenberg, C. H. 2001. Fruit fate, seed germination, and growth of an invasive vine: an experimental test of "sit and wait" strategy. Biological Invasions 3: 363-372.
  • Hall, B. A. 1947. The floral anatomy of the Aceraceae and some related families. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY25 plates + 82 p.
  • Harris, J. A. 1909. Correlation in the inflorescence of Celastrus scandens. Annual Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard. 20: 116-22.
  • Hart, H. T. 1928. Delayed germination in seeds of Peltandra virginica and Celastrus scandens. Publ. Puget Sound Biol. Sta. 6: 255-61.
  • Herr, J. M. 1959. Embryological evidence for the relationship of Aquifoliaceae to Celastraceae. Virginia J. Sci. 10: 259 (Abstr.).
  • Hitchcock, A. S. 1893. The opening of the buds of some woody plants. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 6(5): 133-41.
  • Hou, D. 1955. A revision of the genus Celastrus. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 42: 215-302.
  • Huebner, C. D. 2003. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data. Castanea 68: 1-14.
  • Ishikura, N. 1971. Anthocyanin pattern in the genera Ilex and Euonymus. Phytochemistry 10: 2513-2517.
  • Johnson, R. A.; Willson, M. F.; Thompson, J. N.; Bertin, R. I. 1985. Nutritional values of wild fruits and consumption by migrant frugivorous birds. Ecology 66: 819-27.
  • Joseph, H. C. 1928. Growing bittersweet (Celastrus scandens) from seed. Florists' Exch. & Hort. Trade World 68: 499.
  • Kline, V. 1983. Native American bittersweet. Arbor. News Univ. Wisconsin 32(4): 8-9.
  • LaFleur, N. 2009. Does frugivory by European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) facilitate germination in invasive plants? J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136: 332-341.
  • Ladwig, L. M.; Meiners, S. J. 2010. Liana host preference and implications for deciduous forest regeneration. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 137: 103-112.
  • Lawrence, G. H. M. 1955. Euonymus europaea, E. hamiltoniana, and relatives. Baileya 3: 113-4.
  • Leicht, S. A.; Silander, J. A. 2006. Differential responses of invasive Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) and native C. scandens to changes in light quality. Amer. J. Bot. 93: 972-977.
  • Leicht-Young, S. A. 2007. Comparative performance of invasive and native Celastrus species across environmental gradients. Oecologia 154: 273-282.
  • Leicht-Young, S. A. 2007. Distinguishing native (Celastrus scandens L.) and invasive (C. Orbiculatus Thunb.) bittersweet species using morphological characteristics. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134: 441-450.
  • Leicht-Young, S. A. 2009. Effects of an invasive plant species, Celastrus orbiculatus, on soil composition and processes. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 161: 219-231.
  • Leonova, T. G. 1960. A contribution to the knowledge of the genus Euonymus L. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 45: 750-8.
  • Lett, C. N. 2011. Mycorrhizae and soil phosphorus affect growth of Celastrus orbiculatus. Biological Invasions 13: 2339-2350.
  • Loesener, T. 1902. Ubersicht uber die bis jetzt bekannten chinesischen Celastraceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30: 446-474. (In German)
  • Loesener, T. 1892. Celastraceae. Nat. Pflanzenfam. III. 5.: 189-222. (In German)
  • Loesener, T. 1942. Celastraceae. Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 20b: 87-197. (In German)
  • Loesener, T. 1897. Uber die geographische Verbreitung einiger Celastraceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 24: 197-201. (In German)
  • Lundgren, M. R. 2004. Influence of land use and site characteristics on invasive plant abundance in the Quinebaug Highlands of southern New England. Northeastern Naturalist 11: 313-332.
  • Lutz, H. J. 1943. Injuries to trees caused by Celastrus and Vitis. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70: 436-9.
  • Ma, J. 2001. A revision of Euonymus. Thaiszia J. Bot. 11: 1-264.
  • Mansfeld, R. 1939. Zur Nomenklatur der Farn- und Blutenpflanzen Deutschlands. V. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 46: 286-309.
  • Martine, C. T. 2008. Fifteen woody species with potential for invasiveness in New England. Rhodora 110: 345-353.
  • McInteer, B. B. 1947. Soil preference of some plants as seen in Kentucky. Castanea 12: 1-8.
  • McNab, W. H. 1987. Oriental bittersweet: a growing threat to hardwood silviculture in the Appalachians. Northern J. Applied Forestry
  • McNair, G. T. 1930. Comparative anatomy within the genus Euonymus. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 19: 221-60.
  • Meehan, T. 1890. Contributions to the life-histories of plants. IV. On parallel habits in allied species from widely separated localities. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1889: 64-6.
  • Mehrhoff, L. J. 1986. Notes on the Connecticut Flora-IV. The genus Celastrus (Celastraceae) in Connecticut. Newsletter Conn. Bot. Soc. 14: 4-5.
  • Merriam, R. W. 2003. The abundance, distribution and edge associations of six non-indigenous, harmful plants across North Carolina. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130: 283-291.
  • Nakai, T. 1941. Subdivisions of the genus Euonymus. J. Jap. Bot. 17: 615-9. (In Japanese and Latin)
  • Nash, G. V. 1918. Euonymus alata. Addisonia 3: 7-8.
  • Nash, G. V. 1919. Celastrus articulatus. Addisonia 4: 9-10.
  • Nikolaeva, M. G. 1956. Biology of seed germination of Euonymus in connection with its specific characteristics and geographic origin. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 41: 393-403. (In Russian)
  • Nuzzo, V. A.; McClain, W.; Strole, T. 1996. Fire impact on groundlayer flora in a sand forest. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 136: 207-21.
  • Paclt, J. 1998. 1351 Proposal to amend the gender of Euonymus, nom. cons. (Celastraceae), to feminine. Taxon 47: 473-4.
  • Paclt, J. 1998. (1378) Proposal to conserve the name Celastrus (Celastraceae) as being of feminine gender. Taxon 47: 879-880.
  • Pande, A. 2007. Using map algebra to determine the mesoscale distribution in invasive plants: the case of Celastrus orbiculatus in southern Illinois, USA. Biological Invasions 9: 419-431.
  • Patterson, D. T. 1974. The ecology of Oriental bittersweet, Celastrus orbiculatus, a weedy introduced ornamental vine. Ph.D. Dissertation Duke Univ., Durham, NC,
  • Patterson, D. T. 1975. Photosynthetic acclimation to irradiance in Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. Photosynthetica 9: 140-4.
  • Patterson, D. T. 1973. Distribution of oriental bittersweet in the United States. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 89(4): 245.
  • Payer, J. 1857. Traite d'organogenie comparee de la fleur. Paris. , 748 pages. (In French)
  • Pesina, K. 1957. Influence of arillus and time of planting on germination of European Euonymus (Euonymus europaea L.). Preslia 29: 186-92. (In Czech; English summary)
  • Pisula, N. L.; Meiners, S. J. 2010. Relative allelopathic potential of invasive plant species in a young disturbed woodland. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 137: 81-87.
  • Pooler, M. R.; Dix, R. L.; Feely, J. 2002. Interspecific hybridization between the native bittersweet, Celastrus scandens, and the introduced invasive species, C. orbiculatus. Southeastern Naturalist 1: 69-76.
  • Ramaley, F. 1899. Seedlings of certain woody plants. Minnesota Bot. Stud. 2: 69-86.
  • Reveal, J. L. 1990. On the lectotypification of Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq. Phytologia 69(5): 343-5.
  • Robertson, C. 1896. Flowers and insects. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 7: 151-179.
  • Robertson, D. J.; Robertson, M. C.; Tague, T. 1994. Colonization dynamics of four exotic plants in a northern Piedmont natural area. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 121: 107-18.
  • Sargent, C. S. 1896. Euonymus obovatus. Gard. & Forest 9: 384-5.
  • Sargent, C. S. 1891. Euonymus. Silva N. Am. 2: 9-12.
  • Silveri, A.; Dunwiddie, P. W.; Michaels, H. J. 2001. Logging and edaphic factors in the invasion of an Asian woody vine in a mesic North American forest. Biological Invasions 3: 379-389.
  • Simmons, M. P. 2001. Phylogeny of the Celastraceae inferred from phytochrome B gene sequence and morphology. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 313-325.
  • Simmons, M. P. 2001. Phylogeny of the Celastraceae inferred from 26S nuclear ribosomal DNA, phytochrome B, rbcL, atpB, and morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19: 353-366.
  • Sprague, T. A. 1908. The correct spelling of certain generic names: 6. Euonymus or Evonymus. Bull. Misc. Inform. 1928: 294-6.
  • Sprague, T. A. 1928. The correct spelling of certain generic names. II. Kew Bull. 1928: 285-96.
  • Steward, A. M.; Clemants, Steven E.; Moore, G. 2003. The concurrent decline of the native Celastrus scandens and the spread of the non-native Celastrus orbiculatus in the New York City metropolitan area. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130: 143-146.
  • Stoll, R. J. 1980. Foods of ruffed grouse Bonasa umbellus in Ohio USA. Ohio Fish Wildlife Rep. 1980: 1-18.
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  • Tibbetts, T. J.; Ewers, F. W. 2000. Root pressure and specific conductivity in temperate lianas: exotic Celastrus orbiculatus (Celastraceae) vs. native Vitis riparia (Vitaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1272-1278.
  • Trelease, W. 1892. Revision of North American Illicineae and Celastraceae. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 5: 343-57.
  • Webb, C. J. 1979. Breeding system and seed set in Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 132(4): 299-303.
  • Webster, C. R. 2007. Invasion biology and control of invasive woody plants in eastern forests. Native Plants J. 8: 97-106.
  • White, O. E.; Bowden, W. M. 1947. Oriental and American bittersweet hybrids. J. Heredity 38: 125-7.
  • Willson, M. F.; Thompson, J. N. 1982. Phenology and ecology of color in bird-dispersed fruits, or why some fruits are red when they are "green". Canad. J. Bot. 60: 701-3.
  • Wyman, D. 1950. Fruiting habits of certain ornamental plants. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 10: 81-5.
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  • Zijlstra, G.; Tolsma, J. 1991. (997) Proposal to conserve the spelling of 4618 Euonymus (Celastraceae). Taxon 40: 137-9.
  • den Hartog, R. M.; Baas, P. 1978. Epidermal characters of the Celastraceae sensu lato. Acta Bot. Neerl. 27(5-6): 355-88.