New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Euonymus

Euonymus americanus
Euonymus alatus

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/01/2013

Back to Celastraceae

Nomenclature

Note: The Spermatophyta Committee rejected (Taxon 49: 270-271 (2000)) a proposal to conserve the gender of Euonymus as feminine. The Code currently regards the name to be masculine since it lists the type as E. europaeus, and the Committee decided not to amend this usage (cf. Mitchell & Tucker, 1997).

Euonymus L., Sp. Pl. 197. 1753. Gen. Pl. 91. 1754. (“Evonymus”) (orth. cons.). LECTOTYPE: Euonymus europaeus L., designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Vyenomus C. Presl, Abh. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. ser. 5. 3: 462. 1845.

Pragmatropa Pierre, Fl. Forest. Cochinch. ad t. 309. 1894, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). TYPE: Vyenomus pendula (Wall.) C. Presl (=Euonymus pendulus Wall.).

Melanocarya Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 31(1): 453. 1858. TYPE: Melanocarya alata (Thunb.) Turcz. (=Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb.

Pragmotessara Pierre, Fl. Forest. Cochinch. ad t. 309. 1894. TYPE: Not designated.

Genitia Nakai, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 13: 21. 1943. TYPE: Genitia tanakae (Maxim.) Nakai (=Euonymus tanakae Maxim.)

Key to the species of Euonymus

 1. Procument, trailing, or climbing shrub...2
1. Upright shrub...3

2. Flowers and fruits in dense cymes of 5-12 flowers; leaves elliptic or elliptic-ovate...Euonymus fortunei
2. Flowers and fruits 1-3 on long stalks; leaves obovate...Euonymus obovatus

3. Twigs with 2-4 corky wings...Euonymus alatus
3. Twigs lacking corky wings...4

4. Leaves finely hairy beneath...Euonymus atropurpureus
4. Leaves glabrous beneath...5

5. Petioles 1-3 mm...Euonymus americanus
5. Petioles 7+ mm...Euonymus europaeus

List of Euonymus Species

References to Euonymus

  • Anonymous 1897. Spindle tree (Euonymus europaeus L.). Kew Bull. 1897: 167-8. (Reprint from St. Jame's Gazette, November 7, 1896.)
  • Berkeley, E. 1953. Morphological studies in the Celastraceae. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 69: 185-208.
  • Bisky, J. A. 1887. Notes from Queens County, Long Island. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 14: 13-14.
  • Blakelock, R. A. 1951. A synopsis of the genus Euonymus L. Kew Bull. 1951: 210-90.
  • Bowden, W. M. 1940. Diploidy, polyploidy, and winter hardiness relationships in the flowering plants. Amer. J. Bot. 27: 357-71.
  • Bowen, W. R. 1962. Origin and development of winged cork in Euonymus alatus. Bot. Gaz. 124(4): 256-61.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1964. The genera of Celastrales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 45: 206-234.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1964. Polyembryony in Euonymus (Celastraceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 45: 251-9.
  • Flower, F. B.; Gilman, E. F.; Leone, I. A. 1981. Landfill gas, what it does to trees and how its injurious effects may be prevented. J. Arboric. 7(2): 43-52.
  • Freeman, C. C. et.al. 1998. Vascular plants new to Kansas. Sida 18: 593-604.
  • Gorchov, D. L. 1987. Sequence of fruit ripening in bird-dispersed plants: consistency among years. Ecology 68: 223-5.
  • Graenicher, S. 1902. Flowers adapted to flesh-flies. Bull. Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. 2: 29-38.
  • Hall, B. A. 1947. The floral anatomy of the Aceraceae and some related families. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY25 plates + 82 p.
  • Ishikura, N. 1971. Anthocyanin pattern in the genera Ilex and Euonymus. Phytochemistry 10: 2513-2517.
  • Johnson, R. A.; Willson, M. F.; Thompson, J. N.; Bertin, R. I. 1985. Nutritional values of wild fruits and consumption by migrant frugivorous birds. Ecology 66: 819-27.
  • Lawrence, G. H. M. 1955. Euonymus europaea, E. hamiltoniana, and relatives. Baileya 3: 113-4.
  • Leonova, T. G. 1960. A contribution to the knowledge of the genus Euonymus L. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 45: 750-8.
  • Loesener, T. 1942. Celastraceae. Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 20b: 87-197. (In German)
  • Loesener, T. 1902. Ubersicht uber die bis jetzt bekannten chinesischen Celastraceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30: 446-474. (In German)
  • Loesener, T. 1892. Celastraceae. Nat. Pflanzenfam. III. 5.: 189-222. (In German)
  • Ma, J. 2001. A revision of Euonymus. Thaiszia J. Bot. 11: 1-264.
  • Mansfeld, R. 1939. Zur Nomenklatur der Farn- und Blutenpflanzen Deutschlands. V. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 46: 286-309.
  • Martine, C. T. et.al. 2008. Fifteen woody species with potential for invasiveness in New England. Rhodora 110: 345-353.
  • McNair, G. T. 1930. Comparative anatomy within the genus Euonymus. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 19: 221-60.
  • Meehan, T. 1890. Contributions to the life-histories of plants. IV. On parallel habits in allied species from widely separated localities. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1889: 64-6.
  • Nakai, T. 1941. Subdivisions of the genus Euonymus. J. Jap. Bot. 17: 615-9. (In Japanese and Latin)
  • Nash, G. V. 1918. Euonymus alata. Addisonia 3: 7-8.
  • Nikolaeva, M. G. 1956. Biology of seed germination of Euonymus in connection with its specific characteristics and geographic origin. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 41: 393-403. (In Russian)
  • Paclt, J. 1998. 1351 Proposal to amend the gender of Euonymus, nom. cons. (Celastraceae), to feminine. Taxon 47: 473-4.
  • Pesina, K. 1957. Influence of arillus and time of planting on germination of European Euonymus (Euonymus europaea L.). Preslia 29: 186-92. (In Czech; English summary)
  • Reveal, J. L. 1990. On the lectotypification of Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq. Phytologia 69(5): 343-5.
  • Robertson, C. 1896. Flowers and insects. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 7: 151-179.
  • Sargent, C. S. 1891. Euonymus. Silva N. Am. 2: 9-12.
  • Sargent, C. S. 1896. Euonymus obovatus. Gard. & Forest 9: 384-5.
  • Sprague, T. A. 1928. The correct spelling of certain generic names. II. Kew Bull. 1928: 285-96.
  • Sprague, T. A. 1908. The correct spelling of certain generic names: 6. Euonymus or Evonymus. Bull. Misc. Inform. 1928: 294-6.
  • Suringar, J. V. 1931. Nomenklaturalia. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 43: 199-217. (In German)
  • Trelease, W. 1892. Revision of North American Illicineae and Celastraceae. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 5: 343-57.
  • Webb, C. J. 1979. Breeding system and seed set in Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 132(4): 299-303.
  • Zabel, H. 1889. Euonymus obovatus, Nutt. Gartenflora 38: 638-40.
  • Zijlstra, G.; Tolsma, J. 1991. (997) Proposal to conserve the spelling of 4618 Euonymus (Celastraceae). Taxon 40: 137-9.