New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Cyperaceae

By Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 04/29/2013

List of Cyperaceae Genera

References to Cyperaceae

  • Angelo, R.; Boufford, D. E. 2007. Atlas of the flora of New England: Cyperaceae. Rhodora 109: 237-360.
  • Bailey, L. H. 1886. A preliminary synopsis of North American Carices, including those of Mexico, Central America, and Greenland, with the American bibliography of the genus. Proc. American Acad. Arts Sci. 22: 59-157.
  • Bartgis, R. 1991. Cypripedium candidum and six other additions to the known flora of Maryland. Castanea 56: 220-1.
  • Bartgis, R. L.; Hutton, E. E. 1988. Additions to the known flora of West Virginia. Castanea 53: 295-8.
  • Baskin, C. C. et.al. 1998. Effect of seasonal temperature changes on germination responses of buried seeds of Agalinis fasciculata (Scrophulariaceae), and a comparison with 12 other summer annuals native to eastern North America. Plant Species Biol. 13: 77-84.
  • Baskin, C. C.; Baskin, J. M.; Chester, E. W. 2000. Effect of flooding on the annual dormancy cycle and on germination of seeds of the summer annual Schoenoplectus purshianus (Cyperaceae). Aquatic Botany 67: 109-116.
  • Baskin, J. M. et.al. 1989. Role of temperature, light, and date seeds were exhumed from soil on germination of four wetland perennials. Aquatic Botany 35: 387-394.
  • Beetle, A. A. 1949. Annotated list of original descriptions in Scirpus. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 41: 453-493.
  • Beetle, A. A. 1944. Three neglected names in Scirpus. Rhodora 46: 145-146.
  • Beetle, A. A. 1947. Scripus. North American Flora 18: 481-504.
  • Beetle, A. A. 1942. Studies in the genus Scirpus L. V. Notes on the section Actaeogeton Reich. Amer. J. Bot. 29: 653-656.
  • Bertin, R. I. 2007. Sex allocation in Carex (Cyperaceae): effects of light, water, and nutrients. Canad. J. Bot. 85: 377-384.
  • Blake, S. F. 1918. Notes on the Calyton Herbarium. 8. Azalea lutea L. Rhodora 20: 21-8, 48-54, 65-73. (Other Families and Genera discussed)
  • Bradley, L. J. 1949. Cyperus brevifolius in Fairfield County, Connecticut. Rhodora 51: 119-20.
  • Britton, Nathaniel L. 1888. New or noteworthy North American phanerogams. I. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 15: 97-104.
  • Brownell, V. R. et.al. 1996. Recent discoveries of southern vascular plants at their northern limits in the granite barrens area of Lennox and Addington County, Ontario. Canad. Field-Naturalist 110: 255-259.
  • Browning, J. K. 1995. Achene structure and taxonomy in North American Bolboschoenus (Cyperaceae). Brittonia 47: 433-445.
  • Bruederle, L. P. et.al. 1986. Allozyme variations in populations of the Carex cinita complex (Cyperaceae). Syst. Bot. 11: 583-594.
  • Bruederle, L. P.; Fairbrothers, D. E.; Hanks, S. L. 1989. A systematic circumscription of Carex mitchelliana (Cyperaceae) with reference to taxonomic status. Amer. J. Bot. 76: 124-132.
  • Bryson, C. T. et.al. 1997. Kyllinga, a genus of neglected weeds in the continental United States. Weed Technol. 11: 838-842.
  • Cafferty, S.; Jarvis, C. E. 2004. Typification of Linnaean plant names in Cyperaceae. Taxon 53: 177-181.
  • Catling, P. M. et.al. 2010. A reconsideration of the taxonomic status of Eleocharis tuberculosa var. pubnicoensis (Cyperaceae). Rhodora 112: 22-33.
  • Chester, E. W.; Wofford, B. E.; McKinney, L. E.; Campbell, D. 1996. Rare and noteworthy vascular plants from the Fort Campbell Military Reservation, Kentucky and Tennessee. Sida 17: 269-274.
  • Collins, S. L.; Good, R. E. 1987. Canopy-ground layer relationships of oak-pine forests in the New Jersey Pine Barens. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 117: 280-8.
  • Crins, W. J. 1989. Taxonomy of the Carex flava complex (Cyperaceae) in North America and northern Eurasia II. Taxonomic treatment. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 1048-1065.
  • Crins, W. J.; Ball, P. W. 1989. Taxonomy of the Carex flava complex (Cyperaceae) in North America and northern Eurasia. I. Numerical taxonomy and character analysis. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 1032-1047.
  • Delahoussaye, A. J.; Delahoussaye, AJ 1967. Cyperus subgenus Kyllinga (Cyperaceae) in the continential United States. Sida 3: 128-136.
  • Derieg, N. J. et.al. 2008. Genetic diversity and endemism in North American Carex section Ceratocystis (Cyperaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 95: 1287-1296.
  • Dragon, J. A.; Barrington, D. S. 2009. Systematics of the Carex aquatilis and C. lenticularis lineages: geographically and ecologically divergent sister clades of Carex section Phacocystis (Cyperaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 96: 1896-1906.
  • Fairey, J. E. 1969. Scleria pauciflora Muhl. And its varieties in North America. Castanea 34: 87-90.
  • Fairey, J. E. 1967. The genus Scleria in the southeastern United States. Castanea 32: 37-71.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1929. The representatives of Eleocharis palustris in North America. Rhodora 31: 57-77.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1942. Transfers in Scirpus sect. Actaeogeton. Rhodora 44: 479-484.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1947. Unverified bibliogaphy of Scirpus. Rhodora 49: 49-52.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1944. Fimbristylis baldwiniana not the same as F. annua. Rhodora 44: 144-145.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1899. Eleocharis ovata and its American allies. Proc. American Acad. Arts 34: 485-497.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1899. Scirpus eriophorum and some related forms. Proc. American Acad. Arts 34: 498-503.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002. Flora of North America. Volume 23. Cyperaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. , 608 pages. (ISBN 0195152077)
  • Ford, B. A. et.al. 2006. Phylogeny of Carex subg. Vignea (Cyperaceae) based on non-coding nrDNA sequence data. Syst. Bot. 31: 70-82.
  • Frye, C. T.; Lea, C. 2005. Field, taxonomic, and nomenclatural notes on Carex, section Stellulate (Cyperaceae) in Delaware, Maryland, the District of Columbia, and West Virginia. Northeastern Naturalist 12: 361-373.
  • Gale, S. 1944. Rhynchospora, section Eurhynchospora, in Canada, the United States and the West Indies. Rhodora 46: 86-134, 159-197, 207-249, 255-278.
  • Garbisch, E. W.; McIninch, S. M. 1994. The establishment of Scirpus tabernaemontani (formerly Scirpus validus) from large and small rhizomes as a function of water depth. Wetland Journal 6: 17-21.
  • Gregory, M.; Metcalfe, C. R. 1967. Bibliography for the anatomy of the Cyperaceae. Notes from the Jodrell Laboratory 5: 1-17.
  • Hagerup, O. 1944. Notes on some boreal polyploides. Hereditas 30: 152-60.
  • Haines, A. 2001. Eleocharis aestuum (Cyperaceae), a new tidal river shore spikesedge of the eastern United States. Novon 11: 45-49.
  • Handel, S. N.; Fisch, S. B.; Schatz, G. E. 1981. Ants disperse a majority of herbs in a mesic forest community in New York State. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 108: 430-437.
  • Harborne, J. B. 1971. Distribution and taxonomic significance of flavonoids in the leaves of the Cyperaceae. Phytochemistry 10: 1569-1574.
  • Harms, L. J. 1972. Cytotaxonomy of the Eleocharis tenuis complex. Amer. J. Bot. 59: 483-487.
  • Harms, L. J. 1972. Chromosomally aberrant progeny of selfed trisomic Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. Cytologia 37: 235-243.
  • Harms, V. L. et.al. 1986. Plantago maritima and Carex mackenzei new for Sakatchewan: Additonal rare inland stations for two seacoast salt marsh species. Rhodora 88: 315-323.
  • Hendrichs, M. et.al. 2004. Carex, subgenus Carex (Cyperaceae) - a phylogenetic approach using ITS sequences. Pl. Syst. Evol. 246: 89-107.
  • Hendrichs, M. et.al. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships in Carex, subgenus Vignea (Cyperaceae), based on ITS sequences. Pl. Syst. Evol. 246: 109-125.
  • Hicks, G. C. 1928. Chromosome studies in the Cyperaceae, with special reference to Scirpus. Bot. Gaz. 86: 295-317.
  • Hicks, G. C. 1929. Cytological studies in Cyperus, Eleocharis, Dulichium, and Eriophorum. Bot. Gaz. 88: 132-149.
  • Hinchliff, C. E.; Roalson, E. H. 2009. Stem architecture in Eleocharis subgenus Limnchloa (Cyperaceae): evidence of dynamic morphological evolution in a group of pantropical sedges. Amer. J. Bot. 96: 1487-1499.
  • Hipp, A. L. et.al. 2006. Phylogeny and classification of Carex section Ovales (Cyperaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 167: 1029-1048.
  • Holm, T. 1899. Studies in the Cyperaceae. X. Fimbristylis. Amer. J. Sci. 7: 435-450.
  • Hough-Snee, N.; Cooper, D. D. 2011. Perigynium removal improves seed germination in awl-fruit sedge (Carex stipata). Native Plants J. 12: 41-43.
  • Huygh, W. et.al. 2010. Nomenclature and typification of names of genera and subdivisions of genera in Cypereae (Cyperaceae): 1. Names of genera in the Cyperus clade. Taxon 59: 1883-1890.
  • Keddy, P. A.; Constabel, P. 1986. Germination of ten shoreline plants in relation to seed size, soil particle size and water level: an experimental study.
  • Kellogg, C. H. et.al. 2003. Effects of water level, shade and time on germination and growth of freshwater marsh plants along a simulated successional gradient. J. Ecol. 91: 274-282.
  • Kessler, J. W. 1988. A treatment of Scleria (Cyperaceae) for North America north of Mexico. Sida 12: 391-407.
  • King, M. G.; Roalson, E. H. 2008. Exploring evolutionary dynamics of nrDNA in Carex subgenus Vignea (Cyperaceae). Syst. Bot. 33: 514-524.
  • Kirschbaum, C. D. 2007. The taxonomy of Carex trisperma (Cyperaceae). J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 389-405.
  • Koyama, T. 1962. The genus Scirpus Linn., some North American aphylloid species. Canad. J. Bot. 40: 913-937.
  • Koyama, T. 1963. The genus Scirpus Linn., critical species of the section Pterolepis. Canad. J. Bot. 40: 913-937.
  • Kral, R. 1971. A treatment of Abildgaardia, Bulbostylis, and Fimbristylis (Cyperaceae) for North America. Sida 4: 57-227.
  • Kral, R. 1978. A synopsis of Fuirena (Cyperaceae) for the Americas north of South America. Sida 7: 309-354.
  • Lamont, E. E.; Fitzgerald, J. M. 2001. Noteworthy plants reported from the Torrey Range- 2000. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128: 409-414.
  • Larson, J. L. 1999. Woolgrass: a plant profile. Ecological Restoration 17: 210-215. (Scirpus cyperinus)
  • Leck, M. A. 1996. Germination of macrophytes from a Delaware River tidal freshwater wetland. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 48-67.
  • Lehr, J. H. 1963. Cyperus strigosus L. var. robustior Britt. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 90: 264-265.
  • Lentz-Cipollini, K. A.; Dunson, W. A. 2006. Abiotic features of seasonal pond habitat and effects on endangered northeastern bulrush, Scirpus ancistrochaetus Schuyler, in central Pennsylvania. Castanea 71: 272-281.
  • Li, M. R.; Wedin, D. A.; Tieszen, L. L. 1999. C3 and C4 photosynthesis in Cyperus (Cyperaceae) in temperate eastern North America. Canad. J. Bot. 77: 209-218.
  • Lieffers, V. J.; Shay, J. M. 1981. The effects of water level on the growth and reproduction of Scirpus maritimus var. paludosus. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 118-121.
  • Long, B. 1918. History of the American record of Scirpus mucronatus. Rhodora 20: 41-48.
  • Long, B. 1916. Distribution of {Carex aggregata in the Philadelphia region. Torreya 16: 131-136. (With reference to Hunterdon Co., NJ)
  • Lowe, D. B. et.al. 1999. Kyllinga brevifolia, K. squamulata, and K. pumila seed germination as influenced by temperature, light, and nitrate. Weed Science 47: 657-661.
  • Mackenzie, K. K. 1914. A new northeastern sedge. Torreya 14: 155-159.
  • Mackenzie, K. K. 1931. Cyperaceae. North American Flora 18: 1-478.
  • McIninch, S. M. 1994. Tussock formation of Carex stricta. Wetland Journal 6: 18,23.
  • Miller, G. L. 1977. Early plant succession on a dredging spoils island in the Seneca River of upstate New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 386-391. (58 spp.)
  • Miller, M. 1972. Scirpus validus and Scirpus acutus - a question of distinctness. J. Minnesota Acad. Sci. 38: 21-23.
  • Moyle, J. B. 1945. Some chemical factors influencing the distribution of aquatic plants in Minnesota. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 34: 402-420.
  • Muasya, A. M. et.al. 2009. Phylogeny of Cyperaceae based on DNA sequence data: current progress and future prospects. Bot. Rev. 75: 2-21.
  • Muasya, A. M.; Simpson, D. A.; Chase, M. W. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships in Cyperus L. s.l. (Cyperaceae) inferred from plastid DNA sequence data. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 138: 145-153.
  • Mueller, M. H. et.al. 2002. The potential role of ducks in wetland seed dispersal. Wetlands 22: 170-178.
  • Myers, J. A. et.al. 2004. Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America. Oecologia 139: 35-44.
  • Naczi, R. F. C. 2009. Insights on using morphologic data for phylogenetic analysis in sedges (Cyperaceae). Bot. Rev. 75: 67-95.
  • Naczi, R. F. C. et.al. 2002. Native flowering plant species new or otherwise significant in Kentucky. Sida 20: 397-402.
  • Neff, K. P.; Baldwin, A. H. 2005. Seed dispersal into wetlands: Techniques and results for a restored tidal freshwater marsh. Wetlands 25: 392-404.
  • Nelson, J. B. 1993. Noteworthy Collections, South Carolina. Castanea 58: 59-63.
  • Nuzzo, V. A. et.al. 2009. Earthworm invasion as the driving force behind plant invasion and community change in northeastern North American forests. Conserv. Biol. 23: 966-974.
  • Padgett, D. E.; Crow, G. E. 1994. A vegetation and floristic analysis of a created wetland in southeastern New Hampshire. Rhodora 96: 1-29.
  • Padgett, D. J.; Crow, G. E. 1993. Some unwelcome additions to the flora of New Hampshire. Rhodora 95: 348-351.
  • Powers, M. D.; Nagel, L. M. 2008. Disturbance dynamics influence Carex pensylvanica abundance in a northern hardwood forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 135: 317-327.
  • Raymond, M. 1958. Additional notes on some S.E. Asiatic Scirpus. Nat. Canad. 86: 225-242.
  • Reznicek, A. A. 1990. Evolution in sedges (Carex, (Cyperaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 68: 1409-1432.
  • Reznicek, A. A.; Ball, P. W. 1974. The taxonomy of Carex series Lupulinae in Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 52: 2387-2399.
  • Reznicek, A. A.; Ball, P. W. 1980. The taxonomy of Carex section Stellulate in North America north of Mexico. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 14: 153-203.
  • Reznicek, A. A.; Catling, P. M. 1986. Carex striata, the correct name for C. waleriana (Cyperaceae). Rhodora 88: 405-406.
  • Roalson, E. H. 2008. A synopsis of chromosome number variation in the Cyperaceae. Bot. Rev. 74: 209-393.
  • Roalson, E. H. et.al. 2010. Phylogenetic relationships in Eleocharis (Cyperaceae): C4 photosynthesis origins and patterns of diversification in the spikerushes. Syst. Bot. 35: 257-271.
  • Roalson, E. H.; Friar, E. A. 2000. Infrageneric classification of Eleocharis (Cyperaceae) revisited: evidence from internal stranscribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Syst. Bot. 25: 323-336.
  • Rothrock, P. E. et.al. 2009. Taxonomic study of the Carex tenera group (Cyperaceae). Syst. Bot. 34: 297-311.
  • Ruber, E.; Gillis, G.; Montagna, P. A. 1981. Production of dominant emergent vegetation and of pool algae on a northern Massachusetts salt marsh. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 108: 180-188.
  • Schuyler, A. E. 1962. A new species of Scirpus in northeastern United States. Rhodora 64: 43-49.
  • Schuyler, A. E. 1962. Sporadic culm formation in Scirpus longii. Bartonia 32: 1-5.
  • Schuyler, A. E. 1967. A taxonomic revision of North American species of Scirpus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 119: 295-323.
  • Schuyler, A. E. 1974. Scirpus cylindricus: An ecologically restricted eastern North American tuberous Bulrush. Bartonia 43: 29-37.
  • Schuyler, A. E. 1974. Typification and application of the names Scirpus americanus Pers., S. olneyi Gray, and S. Pungens Vahl. Rhodora 76: 51-52.
  • Schuyler, A. E. 1964. Notes on five species of Scirpus in eastern North America. Bartonia 33: 1-5.
  • Schuyler, A. E. 1966. The taxonomic delineation of Scirpus lineatus and Scirpus pendulus. Notul. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 390: 1-3.
  • Schuyler, A. E. 1964. A biosystematic study o fthe Scirpus cyperinus complex. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 115: 283-311.
  • Simpson, D. A.; Inglis, C. A. 2001. Cyperaceae of economic, ethnobotanical and horticultural importance: a checklist. Kew Bull. 56: 257-360.
  • Smith, S. G. 1969. Natural Hybridization in the Scirpus lacustris complex in North Central United States. In: Curent Topics in Plant Science. Academic Press, NY. ,
  • Smith, S. G.; Hayasaka, E. 2002. New combinations within North American Schoenoplectus smithii and S. purshianus (Sect. Actaeogeton, Cyperaceae) and comparison with eastern Asian allies. Novon 12: 106-111.
  • Smith, T. W.; Waterway, M. J. 2008. Evaluating species limits and hybridization in the Carex complanata complex using morphology, amplified fragment length polymorphisms, and restriction fragment analysis. Botany 86: 809-826. (Carex bushii, C. caroliniana, C. complanata, C. hirsutella, C. oxylepis, C. swanii)
  • Smith, T. W.; Waterway, M. J. 2008. Evaluating the taxonomic status of the globally rare Carex roanensis and allied species using morphology and amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Syst. Bot. 33: 525-535.
  • Standley, L. A. 1983. A clarification of the status of Carex crinita and C. gynandra (Cyperaceae). Rhodora 85: 229-241.
  • Standley, L. A. 1987. Taxonomy of the Carex lenticularis complex in eastern North America. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 673-686.
  • Starr, Julian R.; Ford, B. A. 2009. Phylogeny and evolution in Cariceae (Cyperaceae): current knowledge and future directions. Bot. Rev. 75: 110-137.
  • Starr, Julian R.; Harris, S. A.; Simpson, D. A. 2004. Phylogeny of the unispicate taxa in Cyperaceae tribe Caricaea 1: generic relationships and evolutionary scenarios. Syst. Bot. 29: 528-544.
  • Stoll, R. J. et.al. 1980. Foods of ruffed grouse Bonasa umbellus in Ohio USA. Ohio Fish Wildlife Rep. 1980: 1-18.
  • Strong, M. T. 1994. Taxonomy of Scirpus, Ttrichophorum, and Schoenoplectus (Cyperaceae) in Virginia. Bartonia 58: 29-68.
  • Strong, M. T. 1993. New combinations in Schoenoplectus (Cyperaceae). Novon 3: 202-203.
  • Svenson, H. K. 1932. Monographic studies in the genus Eleocharis - II. Rhodora 34: 192 - 203, 215 - 227.
  • Svenson, H. K. 1957. Cyperaceae. Tribe 2, Scirpeae. North American Flora 18: 505-556.
  • Thomas, W. W. et.al. 2009. A preliminary molecular phylogeny of the Rhynchosporeae (Cyperaceae). Bot. Rev. 75: 22-29.
  • Tucker, G. C. 1985. Cyperus flavicomus, the correct name for Cyperus albomarginatus. Rhodora 87: 539-541.
  • Tucker, G. C. 1992. Scirpus (Cyperaceae) in Connecticut. Newsletter Conn. Bot. Soc. 20: 3-10.
  • Tucker, G. C. 1987. The genera of Cyperaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 68: 361-445.
  • Waterway, M. J. et.al. 2009. Phylogeny, species richness, and ecological specialization in Cyperaceae tribe Cariceae. Bot. Rev. 75: 138-159.
  • Werier, D. 2006. Carex reznicekii, a new widespread species of Carex section Acrocystis (Cyperaceae) from eastern North America. Sida 22: 1049-1070.
  • Wiegand, K. M. 1924. Some changes in nomenclature. Rhodora 26(301): 1-5.
  • Wilcox, D. A.; Pavolic, N. B.; Muieggler, M. L. 1985. Selected ecological characteristics of Scirpus cyperinus and its role as an invader of disturbed wetlands. Wetlands 5: 87-97.
  • Wilson, S. D. 1991. Plasticity morphology and distribution in twelve lakeshore plants. Oikos 62: 292-298.
  • Wootton, L. 2007. First report of Carex macrocephala in eastern North America with notes on its co-occurrence with Carex kobomugi in New Jersey. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134: 126-134.
  • Yen, A. C.; Olmstead, R. G. 2000. Molecular systematics of Cyperaceae tribe Cariceae based on two chloroplast DNA regions: ndhF and trnL intron-intergenic spacer. Syst. Bot. 25: 479-494.
  • Zika, P. F. 2003. Notes on the provenance of some eastern wetland species disjunct in western North America. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130: 43-46.