Genus: Carex

By Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 07/19/2013

Back to Cyperaceae


Carex Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 972. 1753.

List of Carex Species

Carex blanda Carex bullata Carex bushii Carex buxbaumii Carex caroliniana Carex cephalophora Carex collinsii Carex comosa Carex conoidea Carex crinita Carex debilis Carex folliculata Carex frankii Carex gracillima Carex grayi Carex gynandra Carex hirsutella Carex hystericina Carex intumescens Carex lacustris Carex laevivaginata Carex lasiocarpa Carex laxiculmis Carex lupulina Carex lurida Carex amphibola Carex annectens Carex appalachica Carex barrattii Carex pallescens Carex pellita Carex plantaginea Carex platyphylla Carex prasina Carex radiata Carex rosea Carex seorsa Carex silicea Carex squarrosa Carex stipata Carex striata var. brevis Carex stricta Carex swanii Carex tonsa Carex torta Carex trisperma Carex typhina Carex venusta Carex vesicaria Carex vestita Carex virescens Carex vulpinoidea Carex mitchelliana Carex kobomugi Carex macrocephala Carex sylvatica Carex bromoides Carex extensa Carex formosa Carex davisii Carex aestivalis Carex arctata Carex sprengelii Carex alopecoidea Carex conjuncta Carex prairea Carex diandra Carex siccata Carex deweyana Carex haydenii Carex nigra Carex aquatilis Carex limosa Carex magellanica ssp. irrigua Carex flacca Carex aurea Carex polymorpha Carex hirtifolia Carex scabrata Carex livida Carex panicea Carex meadii Carex woodii Carex tetanica Carex crawei Carex granularis Carex complanata Carex acutiformis Carex trichocarpa Carex hirta Carex tuckermanii Carex utriculata Carex retrorsa Carex baileyi Carex schweinitzii Carex pseudocyperus Carex louisianica Carex lupuliformis Carex shortiana Carex cryptolepis Carex viridula Carex flava Carex pedunculata Carex eburnea Carex willdenowii Carex backii Carex jamesii Carex leptalea Carex exilis Carex atlantica Carex echinata Carex sterilis Carex interior Carex pensylvanica Carex deflexa Carex umbellata Carex communis Carex lucorum Carex peckii Carex nigromarginata Carex albicans Carex reznicekii Carex oligosperma Carex retroflexa Carex secalina

Other Links

Carex - Biota of North America

Carex - Flora of North America

References to Carex

  • Bailey, L. H. 1886. A preliminary synopsis of North American Carices, including those of Mexico, Central America, and Greenland, with the American bibliography of the genus. Proc. American Acad. Arts Sci. 22: 59-157.
  • Bartgis, R. 1991. Cypripedium candidum and six other additions to the known flora of Maryland. Castanea 56: 220-1.
  • Bertin, R. I. 2007. Sex allocation in Carex (Cyperaceae): effects of light, water, and nutrients. Canad. J. Bot. 85: 377-384.
  • Bruederle, L. P. 1986. Allozyme variations in populations of the Carex cinita complex (Cyperaceae). Syst. Bot. 11: 583-594.
  • Bruederle, L. P.; Fairbrothers, D. E.; Hanks, S. L. 1989. A systematic circumscription of Carex mitchelliana (Cyperaceae) with reference to taxonomic status. Amer. J. Bot. 76: 124-132.
  • Cafferty, S.; Jarvis, C. E. 2004. Typification of Linnaean plant names in Cyperaceae. Taxon 53: 177-181.
  • Collins, S. L.; Good, R. E. 1987. Canopy-ground layer relationships of oak-pine forests in the New Jersey Pine Barens. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 117: 280-8.
  • Crins, W. J. 1989. Taxonomy of the Carex flava complex (Cyperaceae) in North America and northern Eurasia II. Taxonomic treatment. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 1048-1065.
  • Crins, W. J.; Ball, P. W. 1989. Taxonomy of the Carex flava complex (Cyperaceae) in North America and northern Eurasia. I. Numerical taxonomy and character analysis. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 1032-1047.
  • Dalton, P. A. 1983. Aquatic and wetland plants of the Arnold Arboretum. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 43: 7-44.
  • Derieg, N. J. 2008. Genetic diversity and endemism in North American Carex section Ceratocystis (Cyperaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 95: 1287-1296.
  • Dragon, J. A.; Barrington, D. S. 2009. Systematics of the Carex aquatilis and C. lenticularis lineages: geographically and ecologically divergent sister clades of Carex section Phacocystis (Cyperaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 96: 1896-1906.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002. Flora of North America. Volume 23. Cyperaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. , 608 pages. (ISBN 0195152077)
  • Ford, B. A. 2006. Phylogeny of Carex subg. Vignea (Cyperaceae) based on non-coding nrDNA sequence data. Syst. Bot. 31: 70-82.
  • Frye, C. T.; Lea, C. 2005. Field, taxonomic, and nomenclatural notes on Carex, section Stellulate (Cyperaceae) in Delaware, Maryland, the District of Columbia, and West Virginia. Northeastern Naturalist 12: 361-373.
  • Gregory, M.; Metcalfe, C. R. 1967. Bibliography for the anatomy of the Cyperaceae. Notes from the Jodrell Laboratory 5: 1-17.
  • Handel, S. N.; Fisch, S. B.; Schatz, G. E. 1981. Ants disperse a majority of herbs in a mesic forest community in New York State. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 108: 430-437.
  • Harms, V. L. 1986. Plantago maritima and Carex mackenzei new for Sakatchewan: Additonal rare inland stations for two seacoast salt marsh species. Rhodora 88: 315-323.
  • Hendrichs, M. 2004. Carex, subgenus Carex (Cyperaceae) - a phylogenetic approach using ITS sequences. Pl. Syst. Evol. 246: 89-107.
  • Hendrichs, M. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships in Carex, subgenus Vignea (Cyperaceae), based on ITS sequences. Pl. Syst. Evol. 246: 109-125.
  • Hipp, A. L. 2006. Phylogeny and classification of Carex section Ovales (Cyperaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 167: 1029-1048.
  • Hough-Snee, N.; Cooper, D. D. 2011. Perigynium removal improves seed germination in awl-fruit sedge (Carex stipata). Native Plants J. 12: 41-43.
  • King, M. G.; Roalson, E. H. 2008. Exploring evolutionary dynamics of nrDNA in Carex subgenus Vignea (Cyperaceae). Syst. Bot. 33: 514-524.
  • Kirschbaum, C. D. 2007. The taxonomy of Carex trisperma (Cyperaceae). J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 389-405.
  • Leck, M. A. 1996. Germination of macrophytes from a Delaware River tidal freshwater wetland. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 48-67.
  • Leggett, W. H. 1870. Revised catalogue of plants growing within thirty miles of New York City. By the Torrey Botanical Club. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 1:2,7-11,15-18,23-26,32-34,40-42,47-48. 1870. <em>Ib: 11-4,19-22,28-30,35-7,43-4. 1871. <em>Ibid</em> 4:3-5,16-7,23-5. 1873. <em>Ibid</em> 5:28-9,36-7. 1874. <em>Ibid</em> .
  • Long, B. 1916. Distribution of {Carex aggregata in the Philadelphia region. Torreya 16: 131-136. (With reference to Hunterdon Co., NJ)
  • Mackenzie, K. K. 1914. A new northeastern sedge. Torreya 14: 155-159.
  • McIninch, S. M. 1994. Tussock formation of Carex stricta. Wetland Journal 6: 18,23.
  • Mueller, M. H. 2002. The potential role of ducks in wetland seed dispersal. Wetlands 22: 170-178.
  • Myers, J. A. 2004. Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America. Oecologia 139: 35-44.
  • Naczi, R. F. C. 2009. Insights on using morphologic data for phylogenetic analysis in sedges (Cyperaceae). Bot. Rev. 75: 67-95.
  • Naczi, R. F. C. 2002. Native flowering plant species new or otherwise significant in Kentucky. Sida 20: 397-402.
  • Nuzzo, V. A. 2009. Earthworm invasion as the driving force behind plant invasion and community change in northeastern North American forests. Conserv. Biol. 23: 966-974.
  • Powers, M. D.; Nagel, L. M. 2008. Disturbance dynamics influence Carex pensylvanica abundance in a northern hardwood forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 135: 317-327.
  • Reznicek, A. A. 1990. Evolution in sedges (Carex, (Cyperaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 68: 1409-1432.
  • Reznicek, A. A.; Ball, P. W. 1974. The taxonomy of Carex series Lupulinae in Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 52: 2387-2399.
  • Reznicek, A. A.; Ball, P. W. 1980. The taxonomy of Carex section Stellulate in North America north of Mexico. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 14: 153-203.
  • Reznicek, A. A.; Catling, P. M. 1986. Carex striata, the correct name for C. waleriana (Cyperaceae). Rhodora 88: 405-406.
  • Roalson, E. H. 2008. A synopsis of chromosome number variation in the Cyperaceae. Bot. Rev. 74: 209-393.
  • Rossbach, G. B. 1936. Northeastward extensions in the Maine flora. Rhodora 38: 453-4.
  • Rothrock, P. E. 2009. Taxonomic study of the Carex tenera group (Cyperaceae). Syst. Bot. 34: 297-311.
  • Smith, T. W.; Waterway, M. J. 2008. Evaluating species limits and hybridization in the Carex complanata complex using morphology, amplified fragment length polymorphisms, and restriction fragment analysis. Botany 86: 809-826. (Carex bushii, C. caroliniana, C. complanata, C. hirsutella, C. oxylepis, C. swanii)
  • Smith, T. W.; Waterway, M. J. 2008. Evaluating the taxonomic status of the globally rare Carex roanensis and allied species using morphology and amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Syst. Bot. 33: 525-535.
  • Standley, L. A. 1983. A clarification of the status of Carex crinita and C. gynandra (Cyperaceae). Rhodora 85: 229-241.
  • Standley, L. A. 1987. Taxonomy of the Carex lenticularis complex in eastern North America. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 673-686.
  • Starr, Julian R.; Ford, B. A. 2009. Phylogeny and evolution in Cariceae (Cyperaceae): current knowledge and future directions. Bot. Rev. 75: 110-137.
  • Starr, Julian R.; Harris, S. A.; Simpson, D. A. 2004. Phylogeny of the unispicate taxa in Cyperaceae tribe Caricaea 1: generic relationships and evolutionary scenarios. Syst. Bot. 29: 528-544.
  • Waterway, M. J. 2009. Phylogeny, species richness, and ecological specialization in Cyperaceae tribe Cariceae. Bot. Rev. 75: 138-159.
  • Werier, D. 2006. Carex reznicekii, a new widespread species of Carex section Acrocystis (Cyperaceae) from eastern North America. Sida 22: 1049-1070.
  • Wiegand, K. M. 1924. Some changes in nomenclature. Rhodora 26(301): 1-5.
  • Wootton, L. 2007. First report of Carex macrocephala in eastern North America with notes on its co-occurrence with Carex kobomugi in New Jersey. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134: 126-134.
  • Yen, A. C.; Olmstead, R. G. 2000. Molecular systematics of Cyperaceae tribe Cariceae based on two chloroplast DNA regions: ndhF and trnL intron-intergenic spacer. Syst. Bot. 25: 479-494.
  • Zika, P. F. 2003. Notes on the provenance of some eastern wetland species disjunct in western North America. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130: 43-46.