Family: Simaroubaceae

Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus altissima   (Mill.) Swingle  -  Tree-of-heaven
Photo © by Brooklyn Botanic Garden

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/29/2013

List of Simaroubaceae Genera

References to Simaroubaceae

  • Adamik, K. J.; Brauns, F. E. 1957. Ailanthus glutinosa (tree of heaven) as a pulpwood. Part II. Tappi 40: 522-7. (Part I, Tappi 38(9):150A-153A. 1955.)
  • Albright, T. P. 2010. The ecological niche and reciprocal prediction of the disjunct distribution of an invasive species: the example of Ailanthus altissima. Biological Invasions 12: 2413-2427.
  • Anderson, E. 1961. The tree of heaven, Ailanthus altissima. A blessing and a curse. Missouri Bot. Gard. Bull. 49: 105-7.
  • Anonymous 1996. Tree that grew in Brooklyn is dying all over New York. New York Times 145(50452): 1, 23. (June 8, 1996)
  • Bory, G.; Clair-Maczulajtys, D. 1990. Importance of foliar nectaries in the physiology of tree of heaven (Ailanthus glandulosa Desf., Simaroubaceae). Bull. Soc. Bot. France Lett. Bot. 137(2-3): 139-55.
  • Bory, G.; Clair-Maczulajtys, D. 1982. Morphology, structure and ontogeny of the floral nectaries of Ailanthus glandulosa. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 818-24. (See also Can. J. Bot. 61:683-. 1983. In French; English summary)
  • Bory, G.; Clair-Maczulajtys, D. 1981. Production and different types of seeds in relation with dissemination in Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, (Simaroubaceae). Rev. Gen. Bot. 88(1049-1050-1051): 297-311. (In French; English summary)
  • Bory, G.; Clair-Maczulajtys, D. 1980. Morphology, ontogeny and cytology of trichomes of Ailanthus altissima. Phytomorphology 30(1): 67-78.
  • Bory, G.; Clair-Maczulajtys, D. 1978. Morphology, anatomy and development of extrafloral nectaries in Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. (Simaroubaceae). Rev. Gen. Bot. 85: 137-56. (In French; English summary)
  • Bory, G.; Clair-Maczulajtys, D. 1986. The composition of the nectar and the role of the extrafloral nectaries of Ailanthus glandulosa. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 247-53. (In French; English summary)
  • Bourdeau, P. F.; Laverick, M. L. 1958. Tolerance and photosynthetic adaptability to light intensity in white pine, red pine, hemlock, and ailanthus seedlings. Forest Sci. 4: 196-207.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1962. The genera of Simaroubaceae and Burseraceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 43: 173-86.
  • Burch, P. L.; Zedaker, S. M. 2003. Removing the invasive tree Ailanthus altissima and restoring natural cover. J. Arboric. 29: 18-24.
  • Call, L. J.; Nilsen, E. T. 2003. Analysis of spatial patterns and spatial association between the invasive tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) and the native black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 150: 1-14.
  • Chase, M. W.; Morton, C. M.; Kallunki, J. A. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Rutaceae: a cladistic analysis of the subfamilies using evidence from rbcL and atpB sequence variation. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1191-1199.
  • Clair-Maczulajtys, D.; Bory, G. 1983. The extrafloral nectaries on the petioles of Ailanthus glandulosa. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 683-91.
  • Clayton, J. W. 2007. Molecular phylogeny of the tree-of-heaven family (Simaroubaceae) based on chlorplast and nuclear markers. Int. J. Plant Sci. 168: 1325-1339.
  • Corbett, S. L.; Manchester, S. R. 2004. Phytogeography and fossil history of Ailanthus (Simaroubaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 671-690.
  • Cronquist, A. 1944. Studies in the Simaroubaceae - IV. Resume of the American genera. Brittonia 5: 128-47.
  • Davies, P. A. 1939. Leaf position in Ailanthus altissima in relation to the Fibonacci series. Amer. J. Bot. 26: 67-74.
  • Davies, P. A. 1937. Leaf arrangements in Ailanthus altissima. Amer. J. Bot. 24: 401-7.
  • Davies, P. A. 1943. Floral glands in Ailanthus altissima. Trans. Kentucky Acad. Sci. 11: 12-6.
  • Davies, P. A. 1945. Leaf glands on Ailanthus altissima. Trans. Kentucky Acad. Sci. 12: 31-3.
  • Davies, P. A.; Bennett, E. 1929. Abnormal branching in Ailanthus. J. Heredity 20: 348-9.
  • Davies, P. A.; Theiss, E. W. 1937. Factors affecting the method of branching in Ailanthus altissima. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 64: 229-33.
  • Davis, W. T. 1886. Fasciation in Ailanthus and Sumach. Proc. Nat. Sci. Assoc. Staten Island December, 1986
  • Desai, S. 1960. Cytology of Rutaceae and Simarubaceae. Cytologia 25: 28-35.
  • DiTomaso, J. M.; Kyser, G. B. 2007. Control of Ailanthus altissima using stem herbicide application techniques. Arbor. Urban For. 33: 55-63.
  • Dubroca, E.; Bory, G. 1981. Carbohydrate and nitrogen compounds and resistance to dought in Ailanthus altissima. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 9: 283-8. (In French)
  • Engler, A. 1874. Studien uber die Verwandtschaftsverholtnisse der Rutaceae, Simarubaceae, und Burseraceae nebst Beitrogen zur Anatomie und Systematik dieser Familien. Abh. Naturf. Ges. Halle 13: 111-58. (In German)
  • Facelli, J. M. 1994. Multiple indirect effects of plant litter affect the establishment of woody seedlings in old fields. Ecology 75: 1727-35.
  • Fernando, E. S.; Gadek, P. A.; Quinn, C. J. 1995. Simaroubaceae, an artificial construct: evidence from rbcL sequence variation. Amer. J. Bot. 82(1): 92-103.
  • Fernando, E. S.; Quinn, C. J. 1995. Picramniaceae, a new family, and a recircumscription of Simaroubaceae. Taxon 44: 177-81.
  • Fernando, E. S.; Quinn, C. J. 1992. Pericarp anatomy and systematics of the Simaroubaceae sensu lato. Austral. J. Bot. 40: 263-89.
  • Gadek, P. A. et al. 1996. Sapindales: Molecular delimitation and infraordinal groups. Amer. J. Bot. 83(6): 802-11.
  • Hartl, D. 1958. Die ubereinstimmungen des Endokarps der Simarubaceen, Rutaceen, und Leguminosen. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 34: 453-5. (In German)
  • Heisey, R. M. 1990. Evidence for allelopathy by tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). J. Chem. Ecol. 16
  • Heisey, R. M. 1996. Identification of an allelopathic compound from Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae) and characterization of its herbicidal activity. Amer. J. Bot. 83: 192-200.
  • Heisey, R. M. 1997. Allelopathy and the secret life of Ailanthus altissima. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 57: 28-36.
  • Herron, P.M. 2007. Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England. Diversity and Distributions 13: 633-644.
  • Hoshovsky, M. C. 1988. Element stewardship abstract for Ailanthus altissima - tree-of-heaven.
  • Hu, S. Y. 1979. Ailanthus. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 39: 29-50.
  • Huebner, C. D. 2003. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data. Castanea 68: 1-14.
  • Huebner, C. D. 2007. Mycorrhizal associations in Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae) from forested and non-forested sites. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 134: 27-33.
  • Illick, J. S.; Brouse, E. F. 1926. The Ailanthus tree in Pennsylvania.
  • Kiviat, E. 2004. Occurrence of Ailanthus altissima in a Maryland freshwater tidal estuary. Castanea 69: 139-142.
  • Knapp, L. B.; Canham, C. D. 2000. Invasion of an old-growth forest in New York by Ailanthus altissima: sapling growth and recruitment in canopy gaps. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127: 307-315.
  • Kostel-Hughes, F.; Young, T. P.; Carreiro, M. M.; Wehr, J. D. 1996. Experimental effects of urban and rural forest leaf litter on germination and seedling growth of native and exotic northeastern tree species. (Abstract)
  • Kostel-Hughes, F.; Young, T. P.; Wehr, J. D. 2005. Effects of leaf litter depth on the emergence and seedling growth of deciduous forest tree species in relation to seed size. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132: 50-61.
  • Kota, N. L. 2007. Germination and early growth of Ailanthus altissima and tulip poplar in three levels of forest disturbance. Biological Invasions 9: 197-211.
  • Kowarik, I. 1995. Clonal growth in Ailanthus altissima on a natural site in West Virginia. J. Veg. Sci. 6(6): 853-6.
  • Kriz, V.; Chlebek, M.; Pekar, M. 1957. Ailanthus from the viewpoint of breeding. Lesn. Prßce 36: 116-8. (In Czech.)
  • Lawrence, J. G.; Colwell, A.; Sexton, O. J. 1991. The ecological impact of allelopathy in Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 78(7): 948-58.
  • Lawrey, J. D. 1977. Trace metal accumulation by plant species from a coal strip-mining area in Ohio. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 368-375.
  • Lewis, K. C. 2006. Tree-of-heaven control using herbicide injection. Ecological Restoration 24: 54-56.
  • Marshall, P. E.; Furnier, G. R. 1981. Growth response of Ailanthus altissima seedlings to SO2. Environm. Pollut., A. 25: 149-53.
  • Marshall, P. E.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1977. Changes in structure and function of epigeous cotyledons of woody angiosperms during early seedling growth. Canad. J. Bot. 55(2): 208-15.
  • Marshall, P. E.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1976. Compositional changes in cotyledons of woody angiosperms. Canad. J. Bot. 54(21): 2473-7.
  • Marshall, P. E.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1974. The role of cotyledons in growth and development of woody angiosperms. Canad. J. Bot. 52(1): 239-45.
  • Mergen, F. 1959. A toxic principle in the leaves of Ailanthus. Bot. Gaz. 121(1): 32-6. (Allelopathy of concentrated <em>Ailanthus</em> extract on 35 spp. of gymnosperms & 11 spp. of angiosperms;)
  • Merriam, R. W. 2003. The abundance, distribution and edge associations of six non-indigenous, harmful plants across North Carolina. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130: 283-291.
  • Moore, J. E.; Lacey, E. P. 2009. A comparison of germination and early growth of four early successional tree species of the southeastern United States in different soil and water regimes. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 162: 388-394.
  • Nair, N. C.; Joseph, T. S.; Joshi, R. K. 1958. Floral morphology of some members of the Simaroubaceae. Bot. Gaz. 120(2): 88-99.
  • Newton, E. 1986. Arboreal riffraf or ultimate tree? Audubon 88: 12-9.
  • Ostfeld, R. S.; Manson, R. H.; Canham, C. D. 1997. Effects of rodents on survival of tree seeds and seedlings invading old fields. Ecology 78: 1531-42.
  • Pan, E.; Bassuk, N. 1986. Establishment and distribution of Ailanthus altissima in the urban environment. J. Environ. Hort. 4: 1-4.
  • Pan, E.; Bassuk, N. 1985. Effects of soil type and compaction on the growth of Ailanthus altissima seedlings. J. Environ. Hort. 3: 158-62.
  • Patterson, D. T. 1976. The history and distribution of five exotic weeds in North Carolina. Castanea 41: 177-80.
  • Peigler, R. 1993. A defense of Ailanthus. Amer. Horticulturist 72: 38-43.
  • Petersen, F. P.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1985. A serotaxonomic appraisal of the "Amentiferae". Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112: 43-52.
  • Pisula, N. L.; Meiners, S. J. 2010. Relative allelopathic potential of invasive plant species in a young disturbed woodland. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 137: 81-87.
  • Rabe, E. P. 1985. Distribution and growth response of Ailanthus altissima in the urban environment. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY87 p. (Also Acer & Liquidambar)
  • Shah, B. 1997. The checkered career of Ailanthus altissima. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 57: 20-7.
  • Small, C. J. 2010. Alleolopathic influences of the invasive Ailanthus altissima on a native and a non-native herb. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 137: 366-372. (Also Dipsacus & Verbesina)
  • Small, J. K. 1911. Simaroubaceae. N. Amer. Fl. 25: 227-39.
  • Sprague, T. A. 1928. The correct spelling of certain generic names. II. Kew Bull. 1928: 285-96.
  • Swingle, W. T. 1916. The early European history and the botanical name of the tree of heaven, Ailanthus altissima. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 6: 490-8.
  • Voigt, G. K.; Mergen, F. 1961. Seasonal variation in toxicity of Ailanthus leaves to pine seedlings. Bot. Gaz. 123(4): 262-5.
  • Webber, I. E. 1936. Systematic anatomy of the woods of the Simarubaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 23: 577-87.
  • Webster, C. R. 2007. Invasion biology and control of invasive woody plants in eastern forests. Native Plants J. 8: 97-106.
  • Wodehouse, R. P. 1945. Hayfever plants. Chronica Botanica, Waltham, MA. , 245 pages.