Family: Annonaceae

Asimina triloba
Asimina triloba   (L.) Dunal  -  Pawpaw

Photo © by Peter Nelson
Taken at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, NY, 1971.

By Katherine Gould, Angela Steward, & Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 04/03/2013

List of Annonaceae Genera

References to Annonaceae

  • Anonymous 1997. Grow grow pawpaw! Organic Gardening February: 19-20.
  • Bartram, W. 1791. Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida. James and Johnson, Philadelphia.
  • Bowden, W. M. 1948. Chromosome numbers in the Annonaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 35: 377-81.
  • Bowden, W. M. 1940. Diploidy, polyploidy, and winter hardiness relationships in the flowering plants. Amer. J. Bot. 27: 357-71.
  • Bowden, W. M. 1949. Triploid mutants among diploid seedling populations of Asimina triloba. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 76: 1-6.
  • Bowden, W. M.; Miller, B. 1951. Distribution of Pawpaw, Asimina triloba L. Dunal, in southern Ontario. Canad. Field-Naturalist 65: 27-31.
  • Brett, M.; Callaway, D. J. 1992. Our native pawpaw: the next new commercial fruit? Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 52: 20-29.
  • Callaway, M. B. 1990. The pawpaw: Asimina triloba. Kentucky State University, Frankfort, KY. , 22 pages.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1975. Stomatal distribution and size in southern Appalachian hardwoods. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 1153-6.
  • Carpenter, S. B.; Smith, N. D. 1981. A comparative study of leaf thickness among southern Appalachian hardwoods. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 1393-6.
  • Chih-Hua, T.; Johnson, D. M. 2003. Comparative development of aseptate and septate anthers of Annonaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 90: 832-848.
  • Corner, E. J. H. 1949. The annonaceous seed and its four integuments. New Phyt. 48: 332-64.
  • Cypher, B. L.; Cypher, E. A. 1999. Germination rates of tree seeds ingested by coyotes and raccoons. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 142: 71-76.
  • Doyle, J. A.; Thomas, A. L. 1997. Significance of palynology for phylogeny of Annonaceae: experiments with removal of pollen characters. Pl. Syst. Evol. 206: 133-59.
  • Dunal, M. F. 1817. Monographie de la famille des Anonacees. Treuttei & Wurtz, Paris. , 144 pages.
  • Duncan, W. H. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Univ. of Georgia Press, Athens.
  • Duncan, W. H.; Duncan, M. B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern United States. Athens, GA. , 322 pages.
  • Elias, T. S. 1982. Field Guide to North American edible wild plants. Outdoor Life Books, New York.
  • Exell, A. W. 1927. William Bartram and the genus Asimina in North America. J. Bot. 65: 65-70.
  • Finneseth, C. L. H.; Layne, D. R.; Geneve, R. L. 1996. Germination and seedling emergence in pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal). Proc. So. Nurs. Assoc. Conf. 41: 61-4.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America, Volume 3. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford University Press, New York. , 590 pages.
  • Fries, R. E. 1939. Revision der Arten einiger Annonaceen-Gattungen. Acta Horti. Berg. 12(3): 546-554.
  • Goodrich, K. R. 2006. When flowers smell fermented: the chemistry and ontogeny of yeasty floral scent in pawpaw (Asimina triloba: Annonaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 167: 33-46.
  • Gray, A. 1886. The genus Asimina. Bot. Gaz. 11: 161-4.
  • Greller, A. M.; Buegler, R.; Johnson, E.; Matarazzo, R.; Anderson, K. 1992. Two unusual plant communities in Tottenville, Staten Island, New York, with Celtis occidentalis and Asimina triloba. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 119: 446-457.
  • Hayat, M. A.; Canright, J. E. 1968. The developmental anatomy of the Annonaceae. II. Well-developed seedling structure. Bot. Gaz. 129(3): 193-205.
  • Hayat, M. A.; Canright, J. E. 1965. The developmental anatomy of the Annonaceae. I. Embryo and early seedling structure. Amer. J. Bot. 52: 228-37.
  • Herms, W. B. 1907. Contribution to the life history of Asimina triloba. Ohio Naturalist 8: 211-7.
  • Hitchcock, A. S. 1893. The opening of the buds of some woody plants. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 6(5): 133-41.
  • Hoppes, W. G. 1988. Seedfall pattern of several species of bird-dispersed plants in an Illinois woodland. Ecology 69: 320-329.
  • Hosaka, N. 2005. The ecological significance of clonal growth in the understory tree, pawpaw (Asimina triloba). Northeastern Naturalist 12: 11-22.
  • Hupp, C. R. 1986. Upstream variation in bottomland vegetation patterns, northwestern Virginia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 113: 421-30.
  • Jacquart, E. M.; Armentano, T. V.; Spingarn, A. L. 1992. Spatial and temporal tree responses to water stress in an old-growth deciduous forest. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 127: 158-71.
  • Johnson, D. M. 2003. Phylogenetic significance of spiral and distichous architecture in the Annonaceae. Syst. Bot. 28: 503-511.
  • Kingsbury, J. M. 1966. Poison ivy, poison sumac and other rash-producing plants. Cornell Extension Bulletin 1154: 1-16.
  • Kral, R. 1960. A revision of Asimina and Deeringothamnus (Annonaceae). Brittonia 12(4): 233-78.
  • Lampton, R. K. 1953. Developmental morphology of ovule and seed in Asimina triloba Dunal. J. Tennessee Acad. Sci. 28: 182-3. (Abstract)
  • Lampton, R. K. 1957. Floral morphology in Asimina triloba Dunal. 1. Development of ovule and embryo sac. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 84: 151-156.
  • Layne, D. R. 1996. Development of pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal) as a fruit crop. Northern Nut Growers Ann. Rept. 87: 27-43.
  • Leverett, F. 1906. The northern limit of the pawpaw tree. Science 23: 919-20. (See also other authors, loc. cit. 23:920; 23:749-751. 1906; 24:48. 1906.)
  • Little, E. L. 1979. Checklist of United States Trees (Native and Naturalized). USDA, Forest Serv. Agr. Handb. 541, Washington, D.C.. , 375 pages.
  • Little, Elbert. L. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541: 58.
  • Locke, J. F. 1936. Microsporogenesis and cytokinesis in Asimina triloba. Bot. Gaz. 98: 159-68. (Also in Atti Accad. Sci. Fis. Napoli, ser. 11, 1:1-9. 1936.)
  • Long Island Botanical Society Flora Committee. 1996. Preliminary atlas of the Magnoldiideae on Long Island, N.Y. Part 1. Long Island Botanical Society Newsletter 6(6): 41-4.
  • Maycock, P. F. 1963. The phytosociology of the deciduous forests of extreme southern Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 41: 379-438.
  • Mitchell, R. S.; Beal, E. D. (eds.) (1979): 1979. Magnoliaceae through Ceratophyllaceae of New York State. Vol. NY State Museum Bull. 435. Vol. Contributions to a Flora of New York State II.. Univ. of the state of NY, Albany, NY.
  • Nash, G. V. 1896. Revision of the genus Asimina in North America. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 23: 234-42.
  • Rao, P. R. M. 1982. Seed and fruit anatomy in Asimina triloba, with a discussion on the affinities of Annonaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 103: 47-57.
  • Robertson, C. 1896. Flowers and insects. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 7: 151-179.
  • Rogstad, S. H. 1993. Variability in timing of sexual phases in the North American pawpaw, Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal (Annonaceae). Trillium 2(1): 5-7.
  • Rogstad, S. H.; Wolff, K.; Schaal, B. A. 1991. Geographical variation in Asimina triloba Dunal (Annonaceae) revealed by the M13 "DNA fingerprinting" probe. Amer. J. Bot. 78: 1391-6.
  • Sansregret, J. 1971. The curious Pawpaw. Amer. Forests 77(4): 37.
  • Schopmeyer, C. S. 1974. Seeds of woody plants of the United States. Agric. Handb. 450. USDA, Washington, D.C.. , 883 pages.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Manual of the Southeastern Flora. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.
  • Smith, G. H. 1928. Vascular anatomy of Ranalian flowers, - II. Ranunculaceae (continued), Menispermaceae, Calycanthaceae, Annonaceae. Bot. Gaz. 85: 152-77.
  • Smith, L. H. 1976. Morphological description of stamens of the Annonaceae. Florida Scientist 39: 6(abst.).
  • Sobajma, Y. 1955. Studies on the pawpaw (Asimina triloba Dunal.). III. On the time of flower bud differentiation and bearing habit. Saikyo Univ. Facul. Agric. Sci. Rep. 7: 81-6. (In Japanese; English summary)
  • Sobajma, Y.; Kunimura, N. 1953. Studies on the pawpaw (Asimina triloba Dunal.). I. (1) Flowering season and microsporogenesis in pawpaw, (2) Insect visitors on the flowers of pawpaw. Saikyo Univ. Facul. Agric. Sci. Rep. 5: 33-46. (In Japanese)
  • Sobajma, Y.; Kunimura, N. 1954. Studies on the pawpaw (Asimina triloba Dunal.). II. On the fruit setting by the self pollination and germination test of pollen. Saikyo Univ. Facul. Agric. Sci. Rep. 6: 29-37. (In Japanese)
  • Sullivan, J. 1993. Asimina triloba. ()
  • Thorne, R. F. 1974. A phylogenetic classification of the Annoniflorae. Aliso 8: 147-209.
  • Uphof, J. C. 1933. The North American species of the genus Asimina. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 45: 61-76. (In German)
  • Walker, J. W. 1972. Chromosome numbers, phylogeny, phytogeography of the Annonaceae and their bearing on the (original) basic chromosome number of angiosperms. Taxon 21: 57-65.
  • Walker, J. W. 1971. Pollen morphology, phytogeogrphy, and phylogeny of the Annonaceae. Contr. Gray Herb. 202: 1-131.
  • Wilbur, R. L. 1970. Taxonomic and nomenclatural observations on the eastern North American genus Asimina (Annonaceae). J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 86: 88-96.
  • Wilder, C. M.; Holtzclaw, F . W.; Clebsch, E. E. C. 1999. Succession, sapling density and growth in canopy gaps along a topographic gradient in a second growth east Tennessee forest. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 142: 201-212.
  • Willson, M. F.; Schemske, D. W. 1980. Pollinator limitation, fruit production, and floral display in pawpaw (Asimina triloba). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 107: 401-8.
  • Wood, C. E. 1958. The genera of the woody Ranales of the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 39(3): 296-346.
  • Young, D. R. 1987. Daily and seasonal variations in the water relations of the understory tree, Asimina triloba. Acta Oecol., Oecol. Pl. 8: 59-68.
  • Young, D. R. 1985. Crown architecture, light interception, and stomatal conductance patterns for sympatric deciduous and evergreen species in a forest understory. Canad. J. Bot. 63: 2425-9.
  • Young, D. R.; Yavitt, J. B. 1987. Differences in leaf structure, chlorophyll, and nutrients for the understory tree Asimina triloba. Amer. J. Bot. 74: 1487-91.
  • Zimmerman, G. A. 1941. Hybrids of the American pawpaw. J. Heredity 32: 83-91.
  • van Heusden, E. C. H. 1992. Flowers of Annonaceae: morphology, classification, and evolution. Blumea Suppl.7: 1-218.
  • van Setten, A. K.; Maas, P. J. M. 1990. Studies in Annonaceae. XIV. Index to generic names of Annonaceae. Taxon 39: 675-90.
  • van Setten, A. K.; Setten, A. K. van; Koek-Noorman, J. 1992. Fruits and seeds of Annonaceae: Morphology and its significance for classification and identification. Studies in Annonaceae XVII. Biblioth. Bot. 142: 1-154.