Family: Malvaceae

Hibiscus syriacus
Hibiscus syriacus   L.  -  Rose-of-Sharon
Photo © by Peter Nelson
Taken in 1976.

By Kerry Barringer

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 03/11/2013

Key to the genera of Malvaceae

1. Shrub; petals 4-6 cm long...Hibiscus
1. Tree; petals 0.7-1.2 cm long...Tilia

List of Malvaceae Genera

References to Malvaceae

  • Alverson, W. S. 1999. Phylogeny of the core Malvales: evidence from NDHF sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1474-1486.
  • Baloch, H. A. 2001. Intrapopulation variation in Abutilon theophrasti seed mass and its relationship to seed germinability. Seed Sci. Res. 11: 335-343.
  • Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1984. Environmental conditions required for germination prickly sida Sida spinosa. Weed Science 32: 786-791.
  • Bates, D. M. 1978. Typification of Malvastrum A. Gray, one last time? Taxon 27: 495.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1966. On the typification of Malvastrum. Taxon 15: 311-315.
  • Cardina, J. 1996. Postdispersal predation of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) seeds. Weed Science 44: 534-539.
  • Cardina, J.; Sparrow, D. H. 1997. Temporal changes in velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) seed dormancy. Weed Science 45: 61-66.
  • Corbet, S. A. 1979. Humidity, nectar and insect visits to flowers, with special reference to Crataegus, Tilia, and Echium. Ecol. Entomol. 4: 9-22.
  • Dariev, A. S.; Vasil'ev, B. R.; Kolodyazhnyi, S. F. 1982. The characters of leaf structure as applied for the systematics of the tribe Hibisceae (Malvaceae). Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 67(8): 1036-46. (In Russian; English summary)
  • DeCandido, R. 1991. Hibiscus militaris L. (Malvaceae) new to New York State. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 118: 329.
  • Egler, F. E. 1990. High-temperature effects on germination and survival of weed seeds in soil. Weed Science 38: 429-435.
  • Egley, G. H. 1976. Germination of developing prickly sida seeds.
  • Egley, G. H. 1991. Emergence periodicity of six summer annual weed species.
  • Fryxell, P. A. 1997. The American genera of Malvaceae - II. Brittonia 49: 204-69.
  • Fryxell, P. A. 2002. An Abutilon nomenclator (Malvaceae). Lundellia 5: 79-118.
  • Guvenc, A. 2003. Root, stem and leaf anatomy of Abutilon theophrastii Medik. (Malvaceae). Pakistan J. Bot. 35: 351-359.
  • Hill, S. R. 1980. New taxa and combinations in Malvastrum A. Gray (Malvaceae: Malveae). Brittonia 32: 464-483.
  • Hunter-Cario, L. 2007. Propagation protocol for crimsoneyed rosemallow Hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae). Native Plants J. 8: 65-68.
  • Ingersoll, D. C.; Day, S. L. 2005. Propagation protocol for Virginia saltmarsh mallow (Kosteletzkya virginica). Native Plants J. 16: 245-246.
  • Islam, M. N. 1982. Nutritional evaluation of sea shore mallow seed Kosteletzkya virginica. J. Agric. Food Chem. 30: 1195-1198.
  • Judd, W. S.; Manchester, S. R. 1997. Circumscription of Malvaceae (Malvales) as determined by a preliminary cladistic analysis of morphological, anatomical, palynological, and chemical characters. Brittonia 49: 384-405. (Also Tiliaceae, Sterculiaceae & Bombacaceae)
  • Kearney, T. H. 1951. The American genera of Malvaceae. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 46: 93-131.
  • Khushk, M. T.; Vaughan, J. G. 1987. Seed structure in relation to the taxonomy of the Hibisceae (Hibiscus and Lagunaria). Pakistan J. Bot. 18(2): 309-19.
  • Klips, R. A. 1999. Pollen competition as a reproductive isolating mechanism between two sympatric Hibiscus species (Malvaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 86: 269-272.
  • Klips, R. A. 2005. Temporal and geographic variation in predispersal seed predation on Hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae) in Ohio and Maryland, USA..... Amer. Midl. Naturalist 154: 286-295.
  • Korean Hibiscus Research Society. (eds.) (1993): 1993. Summary of current researches on rose of Sharon (Hibiscus syriacus L.). (Series of English summaries from Korean articles ex J. Korean Soc. Hort. Sci.)
  • Krebs, G. 1994. Taxonomical studies on the subtribe Malvinae. Feddes Repert. 105: 7-18.
  • Kudoh, H.; Whigham, D. F. 1997. Microgeographic genetic structure and gene flow in Hibiscus moschetos (Malvaceae) populations. Amer. J. Bot. 84: 1285-1293.
  • Kudoh, H.; Whigham, D. F. 2001. A genetic analysis of hydrologically dispersed seeds of Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 88: 588-593.
  • Kumar, P.; Singh, D. 1991. Development and structure of seed coat in Malva L. Phytomorphology 41: 147-153.
  • La Duke, J. C.; Doebley, J. 1995. A chloroplast DNA based phylogeny of the Malvaceae. Syst. Bot. 20: 259-71.
  • Leon, R. G. 2004. Effect of temperature on the germination of common waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), giant foxtail (Setaria faberi), and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti). Weed Science 52: 67-73.
  • Liu, H.; Spira, T. P. 2001. Influence of seed age and inbreeding on germination and seedling growth in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 128: 16-24.
  • Mansfeld, R. 1939. Zur Nomenklatur der Farn- und Blutenpflanzen Deutschlands. V. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 46: 286-309.
  • McVaugh, R. 1968. Report of the committee for Spermatophyta. Conservation of generic names VIII. Taxon 17: 85-7.
  • Pfeil, B. E. 2002. Phylogeny of Hibiscus and the tribe Hibisceae (Malvaceae) using chloroplast DNA sequences of ndhF and the rpl16 intron. Syst. Bot. 27: 333-350.
  • Pigott, C. D. 2002. A review of chromosome numbers in the genus Tilia (Tiliaceae). Edinburgh J. Bot. 59: 239-246.
  • Poljakoff-Mayber, A. 1994. Seeds of Kosteletzkya virginica (Malvaceae): Their structure, germination, and salt tolerance: II. Germination and salt tolerance. Amer. J. Bot. 81: 54-59.
  • Poljakoff-Mayber, A. 1992. Seeds of Kosteletzkya virginica (Malvaceae): Their structure, germination, and salt tolerance: I. Seed structure and germination. Amer. J. Bot. 79: 249-256.
  • Ray, M. F. 1995. Systematics of Lavatera and Malva (Malvaceae, Malveae) - a new perspective. Pl. Syst. Evol. 198: 29-53.
  • Ruan, C. J. 2005. Floral morphology and stigma-anther separation in gynomonoecious-gynodioecious Kosteletzkya virginica (Malvaceae). S. African J. Bot. 71: 367-373.
  • Ruan, C. J. 2005. Floral traits and pollination modes in Kosteletzkya virginica (Malvaceae). Belgian J. Bot. 138: 39-46.
  • Ruan, C. J. 2009. Context-dependent style curvature in Kosteletzkya virginica (Malvaceae) offers reproductive assurance under unpredictable pollinator environments. Pl. Syst. Evol. 277: 207-215.
  • Ruan, C. J. 2010. Style curvature and its adaptive significance in the Malvaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 288: 13-23.
  • Ruan, C. J. 2011. Adaptive evolution of context-dependent style curvature in some species of the Malvaceae: a molecular phylogenetic approach. Pl. Syst. Evol. 297: 57-74.
  • Shimamura, R. 2005. Visitation of a specialist pollen feeder Althaeus hibisci Oliver (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to flowers of Hibiscus moscheutos L. (Malvaceae). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132: 197-203.
  • Shimamura, R. 2007. Hydrochory as a determinant of genetic distribution of seeds within Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae) populations. Amer. J. Bot. 94: 1137-1145.
  • Small, R. L. 2004. Phylogeny of Hibiscus sect. Muenchhusia (Malvaceae) based on chloroplast rpL16 and ndhF, and nuclear ITS and GBSSI sequences. Syst. Bot. 29: 385-392.
  • Smith, C. A. 1992. Arrowleaf sida Sida rhombifolia and prickly sida Sisa spinosa germination and emergence. Weed Research 32: 103-109.
  • Snow, A. A.; Spira, T. P. 1996. Pollen-tube competition and male fitness in Hibiscus moscheutos. Evolution 50: 1866-1870.
  • Snow, A. A.; Spira, T. P.; Liu, H. 2000. Effects of sequential pollination on the success of "fast" and "slow" pollen donors in Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1656-1659.
  • Southwick, E. E. 1981. Nectar production composition energetics and pollinator attractiveness in spring flowers of western New York USA. Amer. J. Bot. 68: 994-1002.
  • Spira, T. P. 1989. Reproductive biology of Hibiscus moscheutos (Malvaceae). In: The evolutionary ecology of plants. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. ,
  • Stout, A. B. 1917. Notes regarding variability of the rose mallows. Torreya 17: 142-148.
  • Takahashi, M.; Kouchi, J. 1988. Ontogenetic development of spinous exine in Hybiscus syriacus (Malvaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 75(10): 1549-58.
  • Tate, J. A. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Malveae (Malvaceae, Subfamily Malvoideae) as inferred from ITS sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 584-602.
  • Walsh, M. A. 1975. Xylem anatomy of Hibiscus (Malvaceae) in relation to habit. Bot. Gaz. 136(1): 30-40.
  • Zhang, J.; Hamill, A. S. 1997. Seed weight, intraspecific competition, and plant performance in Abutilon theophrasti. Canad. J. Bot. 75: 1614-1620.
  • von Balthazar, M. 2004. Comparative floral development and androecium structure in Malvoideae (Malvaceae s.l.). Int. J. Plant Sci. 165: 445-473.