Genus: Nyssa

Nyssa - Tupelo
Nyssa sylvatica   Marsh.  -  Sour Gum

Photo © by Steven Clemants
Taken at the Brooklyn Botanic garden, NY, 1999.

By Kerry Barringer

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/18/2013

Back to Cornaceae


Nyssa L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1058. 1753. Gen. Pl. 478. 1754. Tupelo Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 80, 614. 1763, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). TYPE: Nyssa aquatica L.

Key to the species of Nyssa

List of Nyssa Species

References to Nyssa

  • Abrams, M. D. 2007. Tales from the blackgum, a consummate subordinate tree. Bioscience 57: 347-359.
  • Allen, P. H. 1962. Black willow dominates baldcypress-tupelo swamp eight years after clear cutting.
  • Andrews, S. 2001. Tree of the year: Nyssa. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Year Book 2000: 120-158.
  • Angelov, M. N. 1996. Long- and short-term flooding effects on survival and sink-source relationships of swamp-adapted tree species. Tree Physiology 16: 477-484.
  • Applequist, M. B. 1959. Longevity of submerged tupelogum and baldcypress seed. LSU Forest. Notes 27: 1-2.
  • Arthur, M. A.; Paratley, R. D. 1998. Single and repeated fires affect survival and regeneration of woody and herbaceous species in an oak-pine forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125: 225-236.
  • Bender, S. 1983. The sour gum. Amer. Horticulturist 62(10): 31-3.
  • Brooks, R. R.; McCleave, J. A.; Schofield, E. K. 1977. Cobalt and nickel uptake by the Nyssaceae. Taxon 26: 197-201.
  • Buell, M. F.; Buell, H. F.; Small, J. A. 1973. Periodicity of tree growth in Hutcheson Memorial Forest. William L. Hutcheson Memorial For. Bull. 3: 24-6.
  • Burckhalter, Richard E. 1992. The genus Nyssa in North America: a revision. Sida 15: 323-42.
  • Burckhalter, Richard E. 1991. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Nyssa in North America using traditional morphology and flavonoids. Amer. J. Bot. 78(6)(Suppl.): 169. (Abstract)
  • Chatin, A. 1892. Anatomie comparee des vegetaux plantes parasites. J. B. Baillare et Fils, Paris.
  • Cipollini, M. L.; Stiles, E. W. 1991. Costs of reproduction in Nyssa sylvatica: sexual dimorphism in reproductive frequency and nutrient flux. Oecologia 86: 585-93.
  • Coladoanto, M. 1992. Nyssa sylvatica. ()
  • Davidar, P.; Morton, E. S. 1986. The relationship between fruit crop sizes and fruit removal rates by birds. Ecology 67: 262-5.
  • Dermen, H. 1932. Cytological studies of Cornus. J. Arnold Arbor. 13: 410-5. (Also Nyssa)
  • Dickson, R. E.; Broyer, T. C. 1972. Effects of aeration, water supply, and nitrogen source on growth and development of tupelo gum and bald cypress. Ecology 53: 626-34.
  • Dickson, R. E.; Broyer, T. C.; Johnson, C. M. 1972. Nutrient uptake by tupelo gum and bald cypress from saturated or unsaturated soil. Pl. & Soil 37: 297-308.
  • Eyde, R. H. 1966. The Nyssaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 47: 117-25.
  • Eyde, R. H. 1963. Morphological and paleobotanical studies of the Nyssaceae, I. A survey of the modern species and their fruits J. Arnold Arbor. 44: 1-52.
  • Eyde, R. H. 1959. The discovery and naming of the genus Nyssa. Rhodora 61: 209-18.
  • Eyde, R. H. 1997. Fossil record and ecology of Nyssa (Cornaceae). Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 63: 97-123.
  • Goldblatt, P. 1978. A contribution to cytology in Cornales. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65: 650-5.
  • Good, N. F.; Good, R. E. 1972. Population dynamics of tree seedlings and saplings in a mature eastern hardwood forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 99: 172-8.
  • Hillebrand, G. R.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1970. Phytoserological systematic survey of the Caprifoliaceae. Brittonia 22: 125-133. (Also Cornus & Nyssa)
  • Holt, T. 1909. Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 1: 128-37.
  • Jackson, L. W. R.; Driver, C. H. 1969. Morphology of mycorrhizae on deciduous forest tree species. Castanea 34: 230-5.
  • Jones, R. H. et al. 1994. Woody plant regeneration in four floodplain forests. Ecol. Monogr. 64: 345-67.
  • Karpen, D. 2004. Old growth black tupelo on Long Island. Long Island Botanical Society Newsletter 14: 1-5, 7.
  • Keeland, B. D. 1994. The effects of variations in hydrologic regime on diameter growth in Nyssa aquatica, Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora, and Taxodium distichum. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Georgia, Athens,
  • Keeland, B. D.; Sharitz, R. R. 1995. Seasonal growth patterns of Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora, Nyssa aquatica, and Taxodium distichum as affected by hydrologic regime. Canad. J. Forest Res. 25: 1084-96. (French summary)
  • Keeland, B. D.; Sharitz, R. R. 1997. The effects of water-level fluctuations on weekly tree growth in a southeastern USA swamp. Amer. J. Bot. 84: 131-9.
  • Keeley, J. E. 1979. Population differentiation along a flood frequency gradient: Physiological adaptations to flooding in Nyssa sylvatica. Ecol. Monogr. 49: 89-108.
  • Latham, R. E. 1992. Co-occurring tree species change rank in seedling performance with resources varied experimentally. Ecology 73: 2129-44.
  • Macklin, W. D.; Dilcher, D. L. 1979. Leaf morphology of Nyssa: 1. A description of the modern species. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 89: 95-6.
  • McCarron, J. K.; McLeod, K. W.; Conner, W. H. 1998. Flood and salinity stress of wetland woody species, buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) and swamp tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora). Wetlands 18: 165-175.
  • McKenney, T. C. 1967. Differentiation of sterile specimens of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. and Diospyros virginiana L. Castanea 32: 186-9.
  • McLeod, K. W.; Ciravolo, T. G. 1997. Differential sensitivity of Nyssa aquatica and Taxodium distichum seedlings grown in fly ash amended sand. Wetlands 17: 330-5.
  • Mikan, C. J.; Abrams, M. D. 1996. Mechanisms inhibiting the forest development of historic charcoal hearths in southeastern Pennsylvania. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 1893-8. (French summary)
  • Mohana Rao, P. R. 1973. Embryology of Nyssa sylvatica, and systematic consideration of the family Nyssaceae. Phytomorphology 22(1): 8-21.
  • Nilsen, E. T. 1999. Inhibition of seedling survival under Rhododendron maximum (Ericaceae): could allelopathy be a cause? Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1597-1605.
  • Orwig, D. A.; Abrams, M. D. 1994. Contrasting radial growth and canopy recruitment patterns in Liriodendron tulipifera and Nyssa sylvatica: gap-obligate versus gap-facultative tree species. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24: 2141-9.
  • Rickett, H. W. 1945. Nyssaceae. N. Amer. Fl. 28B: 313-6.
  • Sargent, C. S. 1893. Nyssa. Silva N. Am. 5: 73-84.
  • Schneider, R. L.; Sharitz, R. R. 1988. Hydrochory and regeneration in a bald cypress-water tupelo swamp forest. Ecology 69: 1055-63.
  • Sohma, K. 1963. Pollen morphology of the Nyssaceae, I. Nyssa and Camptotheca. Sci. Rep. Tôhoku Imp. Univ., Ser. 4, Biol. 29: 389-92.
  • Tandon, S. R.; Herr, J. M. 1971. Embryological features of taxonomic significance in the genus Nyssa. Canad. J. Bot. 49: 505-14.
  • Thomas, W. A. 1975. Accumulation of rare earths and circulation of cerium by mockernut hickory trees. Canad. J. Bot. 53(12): 1159-65. (Also Acer, Liriodendron, Nyssa, & Quercus)
  • Titman, P. W. 1949. Studies in the woody anatomy of the family Nyssaceae. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 65: 245-61.
  • Uphof, J. C. T. 1931. Die amerikanischen Nyssa-Arten. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 43: 2-16.
  • Wangerin, W. 1907. Die Umgrenzung unf Gliederung der Familie der Cornaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38(Beiblatt 86): 1-88. (In German)
  • Warrillow, M.; Mou, P. 1999. Ice storm damage to forest tree species in the ridge and valley region of southwestern Virginia. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126: 147-158.
  • Wen, J.; Stuessy, T. F. 1993. The phylogeny and biogeography of Nyssa (Cornaceae). Syst. Bot. 18: 68-79.
  • Zampella, R. A. 1999. Sixe-class structure and hardwood recruitment in Atlantic white cedar swamps of the New Jersey pinelands. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126: 268-275.