New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Cornaceae

Cornus florida

By Kerry Barringer

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/01/2013

Nomenclature

List of Cornaceae Genera

References to Cornaceae

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  • Abrams, M. D.; Kubiske, M. E.; Mostoller, S. A. 1994. Relating wet and dry year ecophysiology to leaf structure in contrasting temperate tree species. Ecology 75: 123-33.
  • Acharya, S. N.; Chu, C. B.; Hermesh, R.; Schaalje, G. B. 1992. Factors affecting red-osier dogwood seed germination. Canad. J. Bot. 70(5): 1012-6.
  • Adams, J. E. 1949. Studies in the comparative anatomy of the Cornaceae. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 65: 218-44.
  • Allard, H. A. 1940. Natural layering of the flowering dogwood (<em>Cornus florida</em>), and underground extension of some plants. Castanea 5: 122-3.
  • Altpeter, L. S. 1944. Use of vegetation in control of streambank erosion in Northern New England. J. Forest. 42(2): 99-107.
  • Ammons, N.; Core, E. L. 1945. The dogwoods of West Virginia. Castanea 10(3): 88-91.
  • Anonymous 1880. Proceedings of the Torrey Club. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 7: 1.
  • Barabe, D.; Vieth, J. 1980. Contribution à la typologie inflorescentielle de <em>Cornus sericea</em> L. (<em>C. stolonifera</em> Michaux). Bull. Soc. Bot. France 127: 47-52. (In French; English summary)
  • Barabe, D.; Vieth, J. 1980. Contribution au probleme des fusions: la metatopie dans l'inflorescence de <em>Cornus sericea</em> (syn. <em>C. stolonifera</em>). Canad. J. Bot. 58: 918-35. (In French; English summary)
  • Barbe, D. 1979. Etude de la metatopie dans les inflorescences de <em>Cornus stolonifera</em> Michaux (syn. <em>C. sericea</em> Linne) et <em>C. baileyi</em> Coulter & Evans. M.S. Thesis Univ. Montreal, Canada,
  • Barrett, S. C. H. 1982. Breeding systems and flowering phenology of boreal forest herbs. Bot. Soc. Amer., Misc. Publ. 162: 28.
  • Barrett, S. C. H. 1984. Variation in floral sexuality of diclinous <em>Aralia</em> (Araliaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71: 278-88. (Also Cornus, Maianthemum, Medeola, & Trientalis)
  • Barrett, S. C. H.; Helenurm, K. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs I. Breeding systems and pollination. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2036-2046.
  • Bate-Smith, E. C.; et al. et.al. 1975. Phytochemical interrelationships in the Cornaceae. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 3(2): 79-89.
  • Boeken, B.; Canham, C. D. 1995. Biotic and abiotic control of the dynamics if gray dogwood (<em>Cornus racemosa</em> Lam.) shrub thickets. J. Ecol. 83(4): 569-80.
  • Boerner, R. E. J.; Kost, J. A. 1986. Biomass equations for flowering dogwood, <em>Cornus florida</em> L. Castanea 51: 153-5.
  • Boileau, F.; Crete, M.; Huot, J. 1994. Food habits of the black bear, <em>Ursus americanus</em>, and habitat use in Gaspesie Park, eastern Quebec. Canad. Field-Naturalist 108: 162-9. (French summary)
  • Boman, J. S.; Casper, B. B. 1995. Differential postdispersal seed predation in disturbed and intact temperate forest. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 134: 107-116.
  • Borowicz, V. A. 1988. Fruit consumption by birds in relation to fat content of pulp. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 119: 121-7.
  • Borowicz, V. A.; Stephenson, A. G. 1985. Fruit composition and patterns of fruit dispersal of two <em>Cornus</em> spp. Oecologia 67: 435-41. (See Erratum: Oecologia 69:320. 1985.)
  • Borthwick, H. A. 1957. Light effects on tree growth and seed germination. Ohio J. Science 57: 357-64.
  • Boyd, R. S.; Pitzer, T. R. 1991. Effects of experimental defoliation on infructescences of flowering dogwood, <em>Cornus florida</em> L. (Cornaceae). Castanea 56: 142-6.
  • Bradley, K. T. 1982. Natives. Pagoda dogwood (<em>Cornus alternifolia</em>). Arbor. News Univ. Wisconsin 31(1): 5-6.
  • Britton, E. C. 1913. Wild plants needing protection. 9. "Flowering dogwood" (<em>Cynoxylon floridum</em>). J. New York Bot. Gard. 14: 133-4.
  • Britton, K.; Pepper, W.; Loftis, D. L.; Chellemi, D. 1994. Effect of timber harvest practices on populations of Cornus florida and severity of dogwood anthracnose in western North Carolina. Pl. Dis. Reporter 78(4): 398-402.
  • Brown, D. A.; Windham, M. T.; Anderson, R. L.; Trigiano, R. N. 1994. Influence of simulated acid rain on the flowering dogwood (<em>Cornus florida</em>) leaf surface. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24: 1058-62.
  • Brown, R. T. 1967. Influence of naturally occurring compounds on germination and growth of jack pine. Ecology 48: 542-6. (Also discussions on Cornus, Gaultheria, & Prunus)
  • Brunsfeld, S. J.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S. 1991. Evolution of the big-bracted dogwoods (<em>Cornus</em>). Amer. J. Bot. 78(6)(Suppl.): 169. (Abstract)
  • Buell, M. F.; Buell, H. F.; Small, J. A. 1973. Periodicity of tree growth in Hutcheson Memorial Forest. William L. Hutcheson Memorial For. Bull. 3: 24-6.
  • Buhl, C. A. 1935. The nomenclature of some species of <em>Cornus</em>. Rhodora 37(438): 222-3.
  • Burger, A. E. 1987. Fruiting and frugivory of <em>Cornus canadensis</em> in boreal forest in Newfoundland. Oikos 49: 3-10.
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  • Carr, M. E.; Roth, W. B.; Bagby, M. O. 1986. Potential resource materials from Ohio plants. Econ. Bot. 40(4): 434-41.
  • Cathey, H. M.; Campbell, L. E. 1975. Security lighting and its impact on the landscape. J. Arboric. 1: 181-187.
  • Chao, C. Y. 1954. Comparative pollen morphology of the Cornaceae and allies. Taiwania 5: 93-106.
  • Chellemi, D. O.; Britton, K. O. 1992. Influence of canopy microclimate on incidence and severity of dogwood anthracnose. Canad. J. Bot. 70(5): 1093-6.
  • Chellemi, D. O.; Britton, K. O.; Swank, W. T. 1992. Influence of site factors on dogwood anthracnose in the Nantahala Mountain range of western North Carolina. Pl. Dis. Reporter 76(9): 915-8.
  • Chester, W.; Stone, C. 1964. A comparative study of the anthocyanins in the red-fruited and yellow-fruited flowering dogwood. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 91: 506-507.
  • Chopra, R. N.; Kaur, H. 1965. Some aspects of the embryology of <em>Cornus</em>. Phytomorphology 15: 353-9.
  • Clinton, B. D.; Boring, L. R.; Swank, W. T. 1994. Regeneration patterns in canopy gaps of mixed-oak forests of the southern Appalachians: influences of topographic position and evergreen understory. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 132: 308-19.
  • Coladoanto, M. 1993. <em>Cornus racemosa</em>. ()
  • Coladoanto, M. 1994. <em>Cornus alternifolia</em>. ()
  • Conner, S. 1992. The flying dogwood shuttle. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 52: 17-22.
  • Cormier, C. 1991. New site for <em>Cornus florida</em> (Cornaceae) in Maine. Rhodora 93(876): 400.
  • Coulter, J. M. 1890. Geographic distribution of North American Cornaceae. Proc. American Acad. Arts 39: 319-22.
  • Coulter, J. M.; Evans, W. H. 1890. A revision of North American Cornaceae. Bot. Gaz. 15: 30-8, 86-97. (see also Bot. Jahrb. 15(Lit.):28. 1893.)
  • Craddock, J. H. et.al. 2000. Storage of flowering dogwood (<em>Cornus florida</em> L.) pollen. Hortscience 35: 108-109.
  • Crane, M. F. 1989. <em>Cornus canadensis</em>. ()
  • Crane, M. F. 1989. <em>Cornus sericea</em>. ()
  • Cuno, J. B. 1926. Utilization of dogwood and persimmon. U.S.D.A. Dept. Bull. 1436: 1-43.
  • Dallimore, W. 1915. The uses of <em>Cornus</em> wood. Kew Bull. 1915: 179-80.
  • Dandy, J. E. 1957. Some new names in the British flora. Watsonia 4: 47. (Despite title, covers American spp.)
  • Daughtrey, M. L.; Hibben, C. R.; Hudler, G. W. 1988. Cause and control of dogwood anthracnose in northeastern United States. J. Arboric. 14(6): 159-64.
  • Davidar, P.; Morton, E. S. 1986. The relationship between fruit crop sizes and fruit removal rates by birds. Ecology 67: 262-5.
  • Davis, O. H. 1927. Germination and early growth of <em>Cornus florida, Sambucus canadensis,</em> and <em>Berberis thunbergii</em>. Bot. Gaz. 84: 225-63.
  • Davison, S. E. 1981. Tree seedling survivorship at Hutcheson Memorial Forest New Jersey. William L. Hutcheson Memorial For. Bull. 6: 4-7.
  • Day, F. P.; Monk, C. D. 1977. Net primary production and phenology on a Southern Appalachian watershed. Amer. J. Bot. 64: 1117-25.
  • Dermen, H. 1932. Cytological studies of <em>Cornus</em>. J. Arnold Arbor. 13: 410-5. (Also Nyssa)
  • Dickinson, M. B.; Putz, F. E.; Canham, C. D. 1993. Canopy gap closure in thickets of the clonal shrub, <em>Cornus racemosa</em>. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 120: 439-44.
  • Dirr, M. A. 1976. Clarifying the nomenclature of the red-stemmed dogwood. Amer. Nurseryman 144(2): 7-8.
  • Downs, R. J.; Borthwick, H. A. 1956. Effects of photoperiod on growth of trees. Bot. Gaz. 117(4): 310-26.
  • Drummond, B. A. 2005. The selection of native and invasive plants by frugivorous birds in Maine. Northeastern Naturalist 12: 33-44.
  • Echternach, J. L.; Rose, R. K. 1987. Use of woody vegetation by beavers in southeastern Virginia USA. Virginia J. Sci. 38: 226-232.
  • Edwards, J. et.al. 2005. A record-breaking pollen catapult. Nature 435: 164. (Cornus canadensis)
  • Egler, F. E.; Anderson, J. P. 1982. Botanical studies in the stability of non-diversity: <em>Cornus racemosa</em>- gray dogwood. Newsletter Conn. Bot. Soc. 10(3): 1.
  • Eyde, R. H. 1988. Comprehending <em>Cornus</em>: puzzles and progress in the systematics of the dogwoods. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 54(3): 233-351.
  • Eyde, R. H. 1987. The case for keeping <em>Cornus</em> in the broad Linnaean sense. Syst. Bot. 12(4): 505-18.
  • Eyde, R. H. 1983. Classifying the Cornaceae, problems and progress. Amer. J. Bot. 70(5)(suppl.): 113.
  • Eyde, R. H. 1985. The case for monkey-mediated evolution in big-bracted dogwoods. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 45: 2-9.
  • Fairbrothers, D. E.; Johnson, M. A. 1964. Comparative serological studies within the families Cornaceae (dogwood) and Nyssaceae (sour gum). In: Taxonomic biochemistry and serology. Ronald Press, New York. , 305-18 pages.
  • Fan, C.; Xiang, Q. Y. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships within <em>Cornus</em> (Cornaceae) based on 26S RDNA sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1131-1138.
  • Farwell, O. A. 1931. Concerning some species of <em>Cornus</em> of Philip Miller. Rhodora 33(387): 68-72.
  • Ferguson, I. K. 1966. The Cornaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 47: 106-7.
  • Ferguson, I. K. 1966. Notes on the nomenclature of <em>Cornus</em>. J. Arnold Arbor. 47: 100-5.
  • Ferguson, I. K. 1972. <em>Cornus</em> pollen. Watsonia 9(1): 58-9.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1941. <em>Cornus canadensis</em> L. forma <em>rosea</em>. Rhodora 43(508): 156. (See Hara in Rhodora 44:20. 1942.)
  • Flinn, M. A.; Pringle, J. K. 1983. Heat tolerance of rhizomes of several understory species. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 452-7.
  • Floyd, B. W.; Noble, R. D. 1980. Intraseasonal variation in chlorophyll content and chloroplast ultrastructure of selected plant species in a deciduous forest. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 1504-19.
  • Fosberg, F. R. 1942. <em>Cornus sericea</em> L. (<em>C. stolonifera</em> Michx.). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 69: 583-9.
  • Foster, H. L. 1986. <em>Cornus canadensis</em>. Bull. Amer. Rock Gard. Soc. 44(2): 64-7.
  • Gardescu, S.; Marks, P. L. 2004. Colonization of old fields by trees vs. shrubs: seed dispersal and seedling establishment. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131: 53-68.
  • Gill, D. S.; Marks, P. L. 1991. Tree and shrub seedling colonization of old fields in central New York. Ecol. Monogr. 61: 183-205.
  • Goldblatt, P. 1978. A contribution to cytology in Cornales. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65: 650-5.
  • Good, N. F.; Good, R. E. 1972. Population dynamics of tree seedlings and saplings in a mature eastern hardwood forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 99: 172-8.
  • Gorchov, D. L. 1987. Sequence of fruit ripening in bird-dispersed plants: consistency among years. Ecology 68: 223-5.
  • Gordon, A. G.; Gorham, E. 1963. Ecological aspects of air pollution from an iron-sintering plant at Wawa, Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 41: 1063-78.
  • Green, W. E. 1947. Effect of water impoundment on tree mortality and growth. J. Forest. 45: 118-20.
  • Gunatilleke, C. V. S.; Gunatilleke, I. A. U. N. 1984. Some observations on the reproductive biology of three species of <em>Cornus</em> (Cornaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 65(3): 419-27.
  • Hall, I. V.; Sibley, J. D. 1979. The Biology of Canadian weeds. 20. <em>Cornus canadensis</em> L. In: The Biology of Canadian weeds. Contributions 1-32. Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa. , 232-9 pages. (Publication 1693)
  • Hara, H. 1942. A purple flowered form of <em>Cornus canadensis</em>. Rhodora 44(517): 20. (See Fernald in Rhodora 43:156. 1941.)
  • Hara, H. 1948. The nomenclature of the flowering dogwood and its allies. J. Arnold Arbor. 29: 111-5.
  • Hardin, J. W.; Murrell, Z. E. 1997. Foliar micromorphology of <em>Cornus</em>. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124: 124-39.
  • Harms, H. 1897. Die Gattungen der Cornaceen. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 15: 21-29. (In German)
  • Harrington, R. A.; Brown, B. J.; Reich, P. B. 1989. Ecophysiology of exotic and native shrubs in southern Wisconsin I. Oecologia 80: 356-367.
  • Harrington, R. A.; Brown, B. J.; Reich, P. B. 1989. Ecophysiology of exotic and native shrubs in southern Wisconsin II. Oecologia 80: 368-373.
  • Heale, E. L.; Ormrod, D. P. 1982. Effects of nickle and copper on <em>Acer rubrum, Cornus stolonifera, Lonicera tatarica,</em> and <em>Pinus resinosa</em>. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 2674-81.
  • Heatley, R. C.; Kielbaso, J. J.; Howell, G. S. 1994. Environmental adaptation and ornamental display of <em>Cornus florida</em> ecotypes. J. Arboric. 20(6): 305-9.
  • Helenurm, K.; Barrett, S. C. H. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs II. Phenology of flowering and fruiting. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2047-2056.
  • Hibben, C. R. 1990. Anthracnose threatens the flowering dogwood. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 50: 16-20.
  • Hibben, C. R.; Daughtrey, M. L. 1988. Dogwood anthracnose in northeastern United States. Pl. Dis. Reporter 72: 199-203.
  • Hillebrand, G. R.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1970. Serological investigation of the systematic position of the Caprifoliaceae. I. Correspondence with selected Rubiaceae and Cornaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 57(7): 810-5. (Also Nyssa)
  • Hillebrand, G. R.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1970. Phytoserological systematic survey of the Caprifoliaceae. Brittonia 22: 125-133. (Also Cornus & Nyssa)
  • Hillebrand, G. R.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1965. Phytoserological correspondence among selected genera of the Cornales, Garryales, Rosales, Rubiales, and Umbellales as an indication of the taxonomic position of the genus <em>Viburnum</em> (Abstr.). Amer. J. Bot. 52: 648.
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  • Hummel, R. L.; Ascher, P. D.; Pellett, H. M. 1982. Inheritance of photoperiodically induced cold acclimation response in <em>Cornus sericea</em> L., red-osier dogwood. Theor. Appl. Genet. 62: 385-94.
  • Hummel, R. L.; Ascher, P. D.; Pellett, H. M. 1982. Genetic control of self-incompatability in red-osier dogwood. Heredity 73: 308-9.
  • Hutchinson, J. 1942. Neglected generic characters in the family Cornaceae. Ann. Bot. (London) 6: 83-93.
  • Jacquart, E. M.; Armentano, T. V.; Spingarn, A. L. 1992. Spatial and temporal tree responses to water stress in an old-growth deciduous forest. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 127: 158-71.
  • James, T. D. W.; Smith, D. W. 1978. Seasonal changes in the major ash constituents of leaves and some woody components of trembling aspen and red osier dogwood. Canad. J. Bot. 56(15): 1798-803.
  • Jenkins, M. A.; White, P. S. 2002. <em>Cornus florida</em> L. mortality and understory composition changes in western Great Smoky Mountain National Park. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129: 194-206.
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  • Johnson, R. A.; Willson, M. F.; Thompson, J. N.; Bertin, R. I. 1985. Nutritional values of wild fruits and consumption by migrant frugivorous birds. Ecology 66: 819-27.
  • Jurik, T. W.; Weber, J. A.; Gates, D. M. 1988. Effects of temperature and light on photosynthesis of dominant species of a northern hardwood forest. Bot. Gaz. 149: 203-8.
  • Kasmer, J.; Kasmer, P.; Ware, S. 1984. Edaphic factors and vegetation in the piedmont lowland of southeastern Pennsylvania. Castanea 49: 147-57.
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  • Kost, J. A. 1984. Levels of nutrient use efficiency in <em>Cornus florida</em> along a moisture and nutrient gradient. M.S. Thesis Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH,
  • Kost, J. A.; Boerner, R. E. J. 1985. Foliar nutrient dynamics and nutrient use efficiency in <em>Cornus florida</em>. Oecologia 66: 602-6.
  • Kozlowski, T. T. 1980. Responses of shade trees to pollution. J. Arboric. 6: 29-40. (Sulphur dioxide & ozone)
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  • Kubitzki, K. 1963. Zur Kenntnis des unilokularen Cornaceen-Gynezeums. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 76: 33-9. (In German)
  • Lawrey, J. D. 1977. Trace metal accumulation by plant species from a coal strip-mining area in Ohio. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 368-375.
  • Lovell, J. H. 1898. The insect visitors of flowers. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 25: 382-390.
  • Martin, W. L.; Sharik, T. L.; Oderwald, R. G.; Smith, D. W. 1982. Phytomass: structural relationships for woody plant species in the understory of an Appalachian oak forest. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 1923-7.
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  • Morse, W. C. 1907. Contribution to the life history of <em>Cornus florida</em>. Ohio Naturalist 8: 197-204.
  • Mudry, P.; Schilling, E. E. 1983. Flavonoids of <em>Cornus florida</em>. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 226-227.
  • Muir, P. S. 1992. Effects of ambient acidic rain on cation concentrations in leaves of <em>Acer saccharum</em> and <em>Cornus florida</em>. Canad. J. Forest Res. 22(4): 490-6.
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  • Myers, J. A. et.al. 2004. Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America. Oecologia 139: 35-44.
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  • Myster, R. W. 1994. Contrasting litter effects on old field tree germination and emergence. Vegetatio 114: 169-174.
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  • Ohta, Y. 1971. Self-incompatability in <em>Cornus florida</em> and <em>C. kousa</em>. Rep. Kihara Inst. Biol. Res. 22: 14.
  • Oswald, F. W. 1956. A new color form of cornel from New Jersey. Phytologia 5: 337-8.
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  • Rehder, A. A. 1910. A new hybrid <em>Cornus</em> (<em>Cornus rugosa</em> x <em>stolonifera</em>). Rhodora 12: 121-4.
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  • Rickett, H. W. 1934. <em>Cornus amomum</em> and <em>Cornus candidissima</em>. Rhodora 36(428): 269-74.
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  • Rickett, H. W. 1942. The names of <em>Cornus</em>. Torreya 42: 11-4. (see also <em>ibid</em> 131)
  • Rickett, H. W. 1945. Cornales. N. Amer. Fl. 28B: 297-316.
  • Rickett, H. W. 1944. <em>Cornus stolonifera</em> and <em>Cornus occidentalis</em>. Brittonia 5: 149-59.
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  • Roberts, S. W.; Knoerr, K. R.; Strain, B. R. 1979. Comparative field water relations of four co-occurring forest tree species. Canad. J. Bot. 57: 1876-82.
  • Ruger, M. 1870. <em>Cornus canadensis</em>. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 1: 6.
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  • Sertorius, A. 1893. Beitroge zur Kenntnis der Anatomie der Cornaceae. Bull. Herb. Boissier 1: 469-84, 496-512, 551-70, 614-39. (In German)
  • Shahid, A. et.al. 2009. Selection of seeds of common native and non-native plants by granivorous rodents in the northeastern United States. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 162: 207-212.
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