New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Chamaecyparis

By Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/17/2012

Back to Cupressaceae


Chamaecyparis Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. 11: 329. 1842. LECTOTYPE: Chamaecyparis sphaeroidea Spach, nom. illeg. (Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSP.) designated by Pfeiffer (1873).

List of Chamaecyparis Species

References to Chamaecyparis

  • Allison, S. K.; Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1999. The influence of microhabitat variation on seedling recruitment of Chamaecyparis thyoides and Acer rubrum. Wetlands 19: 383-393.
  • Ames, O. I. 1939. Survey of hurricane damage at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Arborist's News 4(1): 5-6.
  • Atkinson, R. B. (eds.) (2003): 2003. Atlantic white cedar restoration ecology and management, proceedings of a symposium, May 31-June 2, 2000. Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA. , 326 pages.
  • Bannan, M. W. 1952. The microscopic wood structure of North American species of Chamaecyparis. Canad. J. Bot. 30: 170-87.
  • Bannan, M. W. 1951. The annual cycle of size changes in the fusiform cambial cells of Chamaecyparis and Thuja. Canad. J. Bot. 29: 421-37.
  • Belling, A. J. 1977. Postglacial migration of Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P. (southern white cedar) in the northeastern United States. Ph.D. Dissertation New York Univ., NY220 p. (see also Bot. Soc. Amer. Misc. Ser. Publ. 154. Abstr.)
  • Bicknell, E. P. 1908. The white cedar swamp in western Long Island. Torreya 8: 27-8.
  • Boyle, E. D.; Kuser, J. E. 1994. Propagation of Atlantic white-cedar by seed and cuttings in New Jersey. Tree Pl. Notes 45: 104-111.
  • Boyle, O. D.; Lathrop, R. G.; Hartman, Jean Marie 1996. Reestablishment of Atlantic white cedar after fire. (Abstract)
  • Brush, W. D. 1947. Knowing your trees: Atlantic whitecedar - Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P. Amer. Forests 53: 218-9.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1948. Generic and subgeneric distribution of the Coniferales. Bot. Gaz. 110: 80-91.
  • Buell, M. F.; Cain, R. L. 1943. The successional role of southern white cedar, Chamaecyparis thyoides, in southeastern North Carolina. Ecology 24: 85-93.
  • Burke, M. K.; Sheridan, P. (eds.) (2005): 2005. Atlantic white cedar: ecology, restoration, and management. Proceedings of the Arlington Echo Symposium, Millersville, MD, June 2-4, 2003. Gen Tech. Rep. SRS-91. USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. , 74 pages.
  • Butts, D.; Buchholz, J. T. 1940. Cotyledon numbers in conifers. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 33: 58-62.
  • Cantelmo, A. J.; Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1999. Effects of microtopography on mycorrhizal infection in Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) Mills.). Mycorrhiza 8: 175-180.
  • Cope, E. A. 1986. Native and cultivated conifers of northeastern North America. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY.
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  • Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B. 1966. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae, revised by S.G. Harrison. ed. St. Martins Press, New York.
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  • Eckert, R. T. 1997. Population genetic analysis of Chamaecyparis thyoides in New Hampshire and Maine. In: Coastally restricted forests. A. Laderman [ed.]. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. ,
  • Edwards, S. W. 1992. Foliar morphology of Chamaecyparis and Thuja (with notes on seeds). Four Seasons 9: 4-29.
  • Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1986. Wetlands of the New Jersey Pine Barrens: the role of species composition in community function. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 115: 301-13.
  • Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1995. Microtopography and vegetation in Atlantic white cedar swamps: the effects of natural disturbances. Canad. J. Bot. 73(3): 474-84.
  • Eleuterius, L. N.; Jones, S. B. 1972. A phytosociological study of white-cedar in Mississippi. Castanea 37: 67-74.
  • Farjon, A. 1990. A bibliography of conifers. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.
  • Farjon, A. 2005. A monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. , 643 pages. (ISBN 1842460684)
  • Feret, P. P.; Desjardins, S. J. 1975. Geographic variation in needles and cones of Chamaecyparis thyoides. (abstract). Virginia J. Sci. 26: 41.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America, Volume 2. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, New York. , 475 pages. (For review see Castanea 59(4):368-369. 1994.)
  • Florin, R. 1955. The systematics of gymnosperms. In: A century of progress in the natural sciences, 1853-1953. California Acad. Sci., San Francisco. , 323-403 pages.
  • Flory, W. S. 1936. Chromosome numbers and phylogeny in the gymnosperms. J. Arnold Arbor. 17: 83-9.
  • Gadek, P. A. 2000. Relationships within Cupressaceae sensu lato: a combined morphological and molecular approach. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1044-1057.
  • Gadek, P. A.; Quinn, C. J. 1993. An analysis of relationships within the Cupressaceae sensu stricto based on rbcL sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 581-586.
  • Gibson, D. J.; Good, R. E. 1986. Population structure and thinning in natural stands of Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSP). Oecologia 69: 348-53.
  • Gifford, J. 1896. Distribution of white cedar in New Jersey. Gard. & Forest 9: 63.
  • Hart, J. A.; Price, R. A. 1990. The genera of Cupressaceae (including Taxodiaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 71: 275-322.
  • Heusser, C. J. 1949. A note on buried cedar logs at Secaucus, New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 76: 305-6.
  • Heusser, C. J. 1949. History of an estuarine bog at Secaucus, New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 76: 385-406.
  • Hickman, J. C.; Neuhauser, J. A. 1979. Growth patterns and relative distribution of Chamaecyparis thyoides and Acer rubrum in Lebanon State Forest. Bartonia 45: 30-36.
  • Hill, T. G.; De Fraine, E. 1908. On the seedling structure of gymnosperms. I. Ann. Bot. 22: 689-712.
  • Hinesley, L. E. 1994. Propagation of Atlantic white cedar by stem cuttings. Hortscience 29: 217-219.
  • Jarvis, G. 1945. "Juniper", the versatile white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides). Nat. Mag. 38: 543-4.
  • Jull, L. G.; Blazich, F. A. 2000. Seed germination of selected provenances of Atlantic white-cedar as influenced by stratification, temperature, and light. Hortscience 35: 132-135.
  • Jull, L. G.; Blazich, F. A.; Hinesley, L. E. 1999. Seedling growth of Atlantic white-cedar as influenced by photoperiod and day/night temperature. J. Environ. Hort. 17: 107-113.
  • Jull, L. G.; Blazich, F. A.; Hinesley, L. E. 1999. Seed germination of two provenances of Atlantic white-cedar as influenced by stratification, temperature, and light. J. Environ. Hort. 17: 158-163.
  • Jull, L. G.; Ranney, T. G.; Blazich, F. A. 1999. Heat tolerance of selected provenances of Atlantic white cedar. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 124: 492-497.
  • Karlin, E. F. 1997. The Drowned Land's last stand: an inland Atlantic white cedar peat swamp in Orange County, New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124: 89-97.
  • Korstian, C. F. 1924. Natural regeneration of southern white cedar. Ecology 5: 188-91.
  • Korstian, C. F.; Brush, W. D. 1931. Southern white cedar.
  • Kuser, J. E.; Meagher, T. R.; Sheely, D. L.; White, A. 1997. Allozyme frequencies in New Jersey and North Carolina populations of Atlantic white-cedar, Chamaecyparis thyoides (Cupressaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 84: 1536-41.
  • Kuser, J. E.; Zimmerman, G. 1995. Restoring Atlantic white-cedar swamps: a review of techniques for propagation and establishment. Tree Pl. Notes 46: 78-85.
  • Laderman, A. D. 1989. The ecology of the Atlantic white cedar wetlands: a community profile.
  • Laderman, A. D. (eds.) (1987): 1987. Atlantic white cedar wetlands. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. , 401 pages.
  • Laidig, K. J.; Zampella, R. A. 1999. Community attributes of Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) swamps in disturbed and undisturbed Pinelands watersheds. Wetlands 19: 35-49.
  • Li, H. L. 1962. A new species of Chamaecyparis. Morris Arbor. Bull. 13: 43-6.
  • Li, J.; Zhang, D.; Donoghue, M. J. 2003. Phylogeny and biogeography of Chamaecyparis (Cupressaceae) inferred from DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region. Rhodora 105: 106-117.
  • Little, E. L. 1966. Varietal transfers in Cupressus and Chamaecyparis. Madrono 18: 161-167.
  • Little, S. 1950. Ecology and silviculture of white cedar and associated hardwoods of southern New Jersey. Bull. Yale Univ. School Forest. 56
  • Little, S. 1959. Silvical characteristics of Atlantic white cedar.
  • Little, S.; Somes, H. A. 1965. Atlantic white cedar being eliminated by excessive animal damage in South Jersey..
  • Logan, K. T. 1969. Growth of tree seedlings as affected by light intensity. Part IV. Black spruce, white spruce, balsam fir and eastern white cedar.
  • McIninch, S. M.; Garbisch, E. W.; Biggs, D. 1994. The benefits of wet-acclimating woody wetland plant species. Wetland Journal 6: 19-23.
  • Mitchell, R. S. (eds.) (1992): 1992. Pinophyta (Gymnosperms) of New York State. Vol. NY State Museum Bull. 483. Univ. of the state of NY, Albany, NY. , 80 pages.
  • Muenscher, W. C. 1931. Chamaecyparis thyoides in Orange County. Torreya 31: 9.
  • Neal, O. M. 1940. The status of Chamaecyparis thyoides in Maine. Rhodora 42(501): 343-4.
  • Oladele, F. A. 1983. Inner surface sculpture patterns of cuticles in Cupressaceae. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 1222-31.
  • Oladele, F. A. 1983. Scanning electron microscope study of stomatal-complex configuration in Cupressaceae. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 1232-40.
  • Parent, J.; Richard, P. J. H. 1990. Pollen morphology of the Cupressaceae of eastern Canada and the northeastern United States applied to the study of Quaternary sediments. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 79-89. (In French, English summary. Also Taxodium)
  • Perkins, A. E. 1936. Some noteworthy plants of York County, Maine. Rhodora 38: 452-3.
  • Pinchot, G. 1900. Silvicultural notes on the white cedar.
  • Reshetnyak, T. A. 1977. Classification of Chamaecyparis by morphological differences of seeds, cones, and seedlings. Ukrayins'k Bot. Zhurn. 34: 649-51.
  • Reveal, J. L.; Broome, M. L.; Frick, G. F. 1987. On the Identities of Maryland Plants mentioned in the first two editions of Linnaeus' Species Plantarum. Huntia 7: 209-45.
  • Roman, C. T.; Good, R. E.; Little, S. 1990. Ecology of Atlantic white cedar swamps in the New Jersey Pinelands. In: Wetland ecology and management: case studies. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, Netherlands. ,
  • Rossbach, G. B. 1936. Northeastward extensions in the Maine flora. Rhodora 38: 453-4.
  • Schmid, J. A. 1987. Atlantic white cedar in the Hackensack Meadowlands, New Jersey: its historic extirpation and future reestablishment. In: Atlantic white cedar wetlands. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. ,
  • Sheffield, R. M. 1998. Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar) in the United States. In: Coastally restricted forests. Oxford University Press, New York. ,
  • Stoltzfus, D. L.; Good, R. E. 1998. Plant comunnity structure in Chamaecyparis thyoides swamps in the New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve, USA. In: Coastally restricted forests. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ,
  • Svenson, H. K. 1929. Chamaecyparis thyoides in New Hampshire. Rhodora 31(365): 96-8.
  • Takaso, T. 1990. "Pollination drop" time at the Arnold Arboretum. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 50: 2-7.
  • Tangley, L. 1984. Taking stock of white cedar wetlands. Bioscience 34: 682-4.
  • Tarbaeva, V. M. 1994. The seed and seed coat structure in species of Cupressaceae. Byull. Glavn. Bot. Sada (Moscow) 169: 141-6. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Taylor, N. 1916. A white-cedar swamp at Merrick, Long Island, and its significance. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 6: 79-88 + 4 photos. (Also reprinted in Brooklyn Botanic Garden Contributions No. 14. 1916.)
  • Tirmenstein, D. A. 1991. Chamaecyparis thyoides. ()
  • Wang, W. P. 2003. Historical biogeography and phylogenetic relationships of the genus Chamaecyparis (Cupressaceae) inferred from chloroplast DNA polymorphism. Pl. Syst. Evol. 241: 13-28.
  • Ward, D. B. 1989. Commercial utilization of Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides, Cupressaceae). Econ. Bot. 43(3): 386-415.
  • Ward, D. B. 1963. Southeastern limit of Chamaecyparis thyoides. Rhodora 65: 359-63.
  • Ward, D. B.; Clewell, A. F. 1989. Atlantic white cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides in the southern states USA. Florida Scientist 52: 8-47.
  • Whigham, D. F.; Richardson, C. J. 1988. Soil and plant chemistry of an Atlantic white cedar wetland on the inner coastal plain of Maryland. Canad. J. Bot. 66: 568-76.
  • Whitty, P. W. 1994. Molecular separation of genera in Cassiinae (Leguminosae), and analysis of variation in the nodulating species of Chamaecrista. Molec. Ecol. 3: 507-515.
  • Zampella, R. A. 1999. Sixe-class structure and hardwood recruitment in Atlantic white cedar swamps of the New Jersey pinelands. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126: 268-275.
  • Zampella, R. A.; Lathrop, R. G. 1997. Landscape changes in Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) wetlands of the New Jersey Pinelands. Landscape Ecol. 12: 397-408.