New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Chimaphila

Chimaphila maculata
Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh

Spotted Wintergreen

Photo © Steven Clemants, 1992, taken on Shelter Island, New York.
Chimaphila umbellata
Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh

Spotted Wintergreen

Photo © Steven Clemants, 1992, taken on Shelter Island, New York.

By Steven Clemants

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/01/2013

Back to Ericaceae

Nomenclature

Chimaphila Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 279, 300. 1814. TYPE: Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh, type selected by Britton & Brown (1913).

Pipseva Raf., Autik. Bot. 105. 1840, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). Pserva Raf. ex Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 390. 1891. TYPE: Pipseva officinalis Raf. (=Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Barton).

Key to the species of Chimaphila

1. Leaves acuminate, with white veins...Chimaphila maculata
1. Leaves acute, without white veins...Chimaphila umbellata

List of Chimaphila Species

References to Chimaphila

  • Andres, H. 1914. Piroleen-studien. Beitroge zur Kenntnis der Morphologie, Phytogeographie und allgemeinen Systematik der Pirolaceae. Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 56: 1-76.
  • Barrett, S. C. H. 1982. Breeding systems and flowering phenology of boreal forest herbs. Bot. Soc. Amer., Misc. Publ. 162: 28.
  • Barrett, S. C. H.; Helenurm, K. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs I. Breeding systems and pollination. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2036-2046.
  • Blake, S. F. 1917. The varieties of Chimaphila umbellata. Rhodora 19(227): 237-44.
  • Copeland, H. F. 1947. Observations on the structure and classification of the Pyroleae. Madrono 9: 65-102.
  • Dorr, L. J.; Barrie, F. R. 1993. Typification of the Linnaean names in Pyrola (Ericaceae, Pyroloideae). Brittonia 45: 177-80. (Also Chimaphila & Moneses)
  • Eastman, L. M. 1978. New stations for Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh in Maine. Rhodora 80(822): 317.
  • Freudenstein, J. V. 1999. Relationships and character transformation in Pyroloideae (Ericaceae) based on ITS sequences, morphology, and development. Syst. Bot. 24: 398-408.
  • Grevillius, A. Y.; Kirchner, O. 1923. Monotropaceae. In: Lebensgeschichte der Blütenpflanzen Mitteleuropas. Vol. 4(1). Verlagsbuchhandlung Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. , 181-243 pages.
  • Haber, E.; Cruise, J. E. 1974. Generic limits in the Pyroloideae (Ericaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 52: 877-83.
  • Hagerup, O. 1941. Zytokologische Bicornes-Studien. Planta 32: 6-14.
  • Heinrich, B. 1976. Resource partitioning among some eusocial insects: Bumblebees. Ecology 57(5): 874-89.
  • Helenurm, K.; Barrett, S. C. H. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs II. Phenology of flowering and fruiting. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2047-2056.
  • Hodgdon, A. R.; Eastman, L. M. 1973. Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh in Maine and New Hampshire. Rhodora 75(801): 162-5.
  • Holm, T. 1927. The flower of Chimaphila. Rhodora 29: 1-6.
  • Krisa, B. 1968. Die karyologischen Verhõltnisse innerhalb der Familie Pyroloaceae. Nov. Bot. Instit. Bot. Univ. Carol. Pragensis 1968: 73-9.
  • Kron, K. A. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of Empetraceae, Epacridaceae, Ericaceae, Monotropaceae, and Pyrolaceae: evidence from nuclear ribosomal 18s sequence data. Ann. Bot. (UK) 77(4): 293-303.
  • Luteyn, J. L.; Clemants, Steven E.; et al. et.al. 1996. Ericaceae of the southeastern United States. Castanea 61(2): 101-44.
  • Matthews, R. F. 1994. Chimaphila umbellata. ()
  • McVaugh, R. 1952. Suggested phylogeny of Prunus serotina and other wide ranging phylads in North America. Brittonia 7: 317-346. (And other genera)
  • Meehan, T. 1899. Chimaphila umbellata. Meehans' Monthly 9: 1-2, pl. 1.
  • Meehan, T. 1897. Chimaphila umbellata. Meehans' Monthly 7: pl. 9.
  • Nowicke, J. W. 1966. Pollen morphology and classification of the Pyrolaceae and Monotropaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 213-9.
  • Oldfield, F. 1959. The pollen morphology of some of the West European Ericales. Pollen & Spores 1: 19-48.
  • Peltrisot, C-N. 1904. Developpement et structure de la graine chez les Ericacees. J. Bot. (Morot) 18: 309-67, 386-402. (In French)
  • Petersen, H. E. 1908. The structure and biology of arctic flowering plants. 1. Ericineae (Ericaceae, Pirolaceae). 2. The biological anatomy of the leaves and stems. Meddel. Gronland 36: 75-138.
  • Poole, J. P. 1975. Chimaphila maculata in New Hampshire. Rhodora 77(811): 436-7.
  • Pyykko, M. 1969. Placentation in the Ericales. I. Pyrolaceae and Monotropaceae. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 6: 255-68.
  • Radius, J. 1829. Dissertatio de Pyrola et Chimaphila. Leopoldum, Lipsiae. , 33 pages.
  • Reveal, J. L.; Broome, M. L.; Frick, G. F. 1987. On the Identities of Maryland Plants mentioned in the first two editions of Linnaeus' Species Plantarum. Huntia 7: 209-45.
  • Sprague, T. A. 1928. The correct spelling of certain generic names. III. Kew Bull. 1928: 337-79.
  • Standley, L. A.; Kim, S. S-H.; Hjersted, I. M. 1988. Reproductive biology of two sympatric species of Chimaphila. Rhodora 90: 233-44.
  • Takahashi, H. 1987. On the infraspecific variation of Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Barton (Pyrolaceae). Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 38: 82-96.
  • Takahashi, H. 1993. Seed morphology and its systematic implications in Pyroloideae (Ericaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 154: 175-86.
  • Takahashi, H. 1986. Pollen polyads and their variation in Chimaphila (Pyrolaceae). Grana Palynol. 25: 161-9.
  • Wherry, Edgar T. 1920. Soil tests of Ericaceae and other reaction-sensitive families in northern Vermont and New Hampshire. Rhodora 22: 33-49.
  • Wherry, Edgar T. 1920. Observations on the soil acidity of Ericaceae and associated plants in the Middle Atlantic states. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 72: 84-111.