New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Pyrola

Pyrola americana

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 03/11/2013

Back to Ericaceae


Pyrola Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 396. 1753.

List of Pyrola Species

References to Pyrola

  • Alefeld, F. G. C. 1856. Uber die Familie der Pyrolaceen, insbesondere die Unterfamilie der Pyroleen (gen. Pyrola L.). Linnaea 28: 1-88. (In German)
  • Andres, H. 1913. Zusotze und Verbesserungen zur "Monographie der rheinischen Pirolaceae." II Teil. Ber. Versamml. Bot. Zool. Rheinland-Westfalen 1912: 70-92.
  • Andres, H. 1910. Die Pirolaceae des Anschersonschen herbariums. Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 52: 90-5.
  • Andres, H. 1914. Piroleen-studien. Beitroge zur Kenntnis der Morphologie, Phytogeographie und allgemeinen Systematik der Pirolaceae. Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 56: 1-76.
  • Andres, H. 1914. Studien zur speziellen Systematik der Pirolaceae. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 64: 45-50.
  • Barrett, S. C. H.; Helenurm, K. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs I. Breeding systems and pollination. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2036-2046.
  • Bocher, T. W. 1961. Studies in Pyrolaceae-two interesting wintergreens from West Greenland. Bot. Tidsskr. 57: 28-37.
  • Copeland, H. F. 1947. Observations on the structure and classification of the Pyroleae. Madrono 9: 65-102.
  • Cullings, K. 1994. Molecular phylogeny of the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae) with a note on the placement of Pyroloidaea. J. Evol. Biol. 7: 501-516.
  • Cullings, K. W.; Bruns, T. D. 1992. Phylogenetic origin of the Monotropoideae inferred from partial 28S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Canad. J. Bot. 70: 1703-8. (French summary)
  • Don, D. 1824. A monograph of the genus Pyrola. Mem. Wernerian Soc. 5: 220-46.
  • Dorr, L. J.; Barrie, F. R. 1993. Typification of the Linnaean names in Pyrola (Ericaceae, Pyroloideae). Brittonia 45: 177-80. (Also Chimaphila & Moneses)
  • Freudenstein, J. V. 1990. A phylogenetic study of the Pyroloideae (Ericaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 77: 132.
  • Freudenstein, J. V. 1999. Relationships and character transformation in Pyroloideae (Ericaceae) based on ITS sequences, morphology, and development. Syst. Bot. 24: 398-408.
  • Grevillius, A. Y.; Kirchner, O. 1923. Monotropaceae. In: Lebensgeschichte der Blütenpflanzen Mitteleuropas. Vol. 4(1). Verlagsbuchhandlung Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. , 181-243 pages.
  • Haber, E. 1983. Morphological variability and flavonol chemistry of the Pyrola asarifolia complex (Ericaceae) in North America. Syst. Bot. 8: 277-98.
  • Haber, E. 1984. A comparative study of Pyrola minor X Pyrola asarifolia (Ericaceae) and its parental species in North America. Canad. J. Bot. 62: 1054-61.
  • Haber, E. 1988. Hybridization of Pyrola chlorantha (Ericaceae) in North America. Canad. J. Bot. 66: 1993-2000.
  • Haber, E.; Cruise, J. E. 1974. Generic limits in the Pyroloideae (Ericaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 52: 877-83.
  • Haber, E.; Takahashi, H. 1988. A comparative study of the North American Pyrola asarifolia and its Asian vicariad, P. incarnata (Ericaceae). Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 101: 483-95.
  • Hagerup, O. 1954. Autogamy in some drooping Bicornes flowers. Bot. Tidsskr. 51: 103-9.
  • Hagerup, O. 1941. Zytokologische Bicornes-Studien. Planta 32: 6-14.
  • Hancy, A. J. 1916. The vascular anatomy of certain Ericaceous flowers. M.A. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY37 figs. + 20 p.
  • Helenurm, K.; Barrett, S. C. H. 1987. The reproductive biology of boreal forest herbs II. Phenology of flowering and fruiting. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2047-2056.
  • Henderson, M. W. 1919. A comparative study of the structure and saprophytism of the Pyrolaceae and Monotropaceae with reference to their derivation from the Ericaceae. Contr. Bot. Lab. Morris Abor. Univ. Pennsylvania 5: 42-109.
  • Holm, T. 1927. The flower of Chimaphila. Rhodora 29: 1-6.
  • Jensen, L. C. W. 1961. Pollination studies with native Minnesota Pyrola and Moneses species. Proc. Minnesota Acad. Sci. 29: 210-8.
  • Knaben, G. 1944. Studier over norske Pyrola-arter. Bergens Mus. Årbok 1943: 1-18.
  • Knaben, G.; Engelskj÷n, T. 1968. Studies in Pyrolaceae, especially in the Pyrola rotundifolia complex. Orb. Univers. Bergen 4: 1-71, pl. 1-5.
  • Krisa, B. 1968. Die karyologischen Verhõltnisse innerhalb der Familie Pyroloaceae. Nov. Bot. Instit. Bot. Univ. Carol. Pragensis 1968: 73-9.
  • Krisa, B. 1965. Beitrage zur Gliederung der Gattung pyrola L. in holoarktischen Gebeiten. Nov. Bot. Inst. Univ. Carolinae Pragensis 1965: 31-5.
  • Krisa, B. 1966. Contribution to the taxonomy of the genus Pyrola L. in North America. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 85: 612-37.
  • Krisa, B. 1971. Beitrage zur Taxonomie und Chorologie der Gattung Pyrola L. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 90: 476-508. (In German, English summary)
  • Krisa, B. 1966. Bemerkungen zu den neotropischen Arten der Gattung Pyrola s.str. Nov. Bot. Inst. Univ. Carolinae Pragensis 1966: 43-6.
  • Kron, K. A.; Chase, M. W. 1993. Systematics of the Ericaceae, Empetraceae, Epacridaceae and related taxa based upon rbcL sequence data. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 735-41.
  • Liu, Z. W. 2010. A molecular phylogeny and a new classification of Pyrola (Pyroleae, Ericaceae). Taxon 59: 1690-1700.
  • Lovell, H. B.; Lovell, J. H. 1936. Pollination of the Ericaceae: IV. Ledum and Pyrola. Rhodora 38(447): 90-4.
  • Nowicke, J. W. 1966. Pollen morphology and classification of the Pyrolaceae and Monotropaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 213-9.
  • Oldfield, F. 1959. The pollen morphology of some of the West European Ericales. Pollen & Spores 1: 19-48.
  • Petersen, H. E. 1908. The structure and biology of arctic flowering plants. 1. Ericineae (Ericaceae, Pirolaceae). 2. The biological anatomy of the leaves and stems. Meddel. Gronland 36: 75-138.
  • Pyykko, M. 1969. Placentation in the Ericales. I. Pyrolaceae and Monotropaceae. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 6: 255-68.
  • Pyykko, M. 1968. Embryological and anatomical studies on Finnish species of the Pyrolaceae. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 5: 153-65.
  • Radius, J. 1829. Dissertatio de Pyrola et Chimaphila. Leopoldum, Lipsiae. , 33 pages.
  • Takahashi, H. 1986. Pollen morphology of Pyrola and its taxonomic significance. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 99: 137-54.
  • Takahashi, H. 1988. Pollen morphology and systematics in two subfamilies of the Ericaceae: Pyroloideae and Monotropoideae. Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 18: 9-17.
  • Takahashi, H. 1993. Seed morphology and its systematic implications in Pyroloideae (Ericaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 154: 175-86.
  • Warming, E. 1908. The structure and biology of arctic flowering plants. 1. Ericineae (Ericaceae, Pirolaceae). 1. Morphology and biology. Meddel. Gronland 36: 1-71.