New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Juniperus

Juniperus communis L. Juniperus communis Juniperus virginiana

By Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/07/2013

Back to Cupressaceae

Nomenclature

Juniperus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1038. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 461. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Juniperus communis L., designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Sabina Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4. 3. 1754. TYPE: Sabina vulgaris (L.) Antoine (=Juniperus sabina L.).

List of Juniperus Species

References to Juniperus

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  • Adams, R. P. 1969. Chemosystematic and numerical studies in natural populations of Juniperus. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX,
  • Adams, R. P. 2000. Systematics of Juniperus section Juniperus based on leaf essential oils and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 28: 515-528.
  • Adams, R. P. 1988. Termitcidal activities in the heartwood bark-sapwood and leaves of Juniperus spp. from the USA. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 16: 453-456.
  • Adams, R. P. 1998. The leaf essential oils and chemotaxonomy of Juniperus sect. Juniperus. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 26: 637-645.
  • Adams, R. P. 1987. Investigation of Juniperus species of the United States for new sources of cedarwood oil. Econ. Bot. 41: 48-54.
  • Adams, R. P. 1986. Geographic variation in Juniperus silicicola and J. virginiana of the southeastern United States: multivariate analysis of morphology and terpenoids. Taxon 35: 61-75.
  • Adams, R. P. et.al. 2011. Taxonomy and evolution of Juniperus communis: insight from DNA sequencing and SNPs. Phytologia 93: 185-197.
  • Adams, R. P.; Demeke, T. 1993. Systematic relationships in Juniperus based on random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). Taxon 42: 553-571.
  • Adams, R. P.; Nguyen, S. 2007. Post-Pleistocene geographic variation in Juniperus communis in North America. Phytologia 89: 43-57.
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  • Andre, D. 1956. Contribution a l'Etude morphologique du cone femelle de quelques gymnospermes (Cephalotaxees, Juniperoidees, Taxacees). Nat. Monspel. Bot. 8: 3-35. (In French)
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  • Chesnoy, L. 1966. Sur le developpement des cones femelles du Juniperus communis L., dans la region parisienne, de la pollinisation a la graine. Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 262: 2018-21. (In French)
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  • Comer, C. W.; Adams, R. P.; Van Haverbeke, D. F. 1982. Intra- and interspecific variation of Juniperus virginiana and J. scopulorum seedlings based on volatile oil composition. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 10: 297-306.
  • Cook, P. L. 1939. A new type of embryogeny in the conifers. Amer. J. Bot. 26: 138-43.
  • Cope, E. A. 1986. Native and cultivated conifers of northeastern North America. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY.
  • Cucchi, C. C. 1958. Indagine geobotanica sui ginepri europei. Delpinoa 11: 171-222.
  • Daguillon, A. 1899. Observations morphologiques sur les feuilles des Cupressees. Rev. Gen. Bot. 11: 168-204. (In French)
  • Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B. 1966. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae, revised by S.G. Harrison. ed. St. Martins Press, New York.
  • Davis, W. T. 1917. Juniperus communis on Long Island and Staten Island. Torreya 17: 99-100.
  • Decker, S. R. et.al. 1991. Nutritional evaluation of winter foods of wild turkeys. Canad. J. Zoology 69: 2128-2132.
  • Diotte, M.; Bergeron, Y. 1989. Fire and the distribution of Juniperus communis L. in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. J. Biogeogr. 16(1): 91-6.
  • Dzyaruhina, T. F. 1982. Morphological and anatomic characteristics of the needles of some Juniperus species. Vyestsi Akademii Navuk BSSR Syeryya Syel'skahaspadarchykh Navuk 1982: 19-23. (In Belorussian)
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  • Engle, D. M. 1995. Fire behavior and fire effects on eastern redcedar in hardwood leaf-litter fires. Int. J. Wildland Fire 5: 135-141.
  • Falinski, J. B. 1980. Changes in the sex- and age-ration in populations of pioneer dioecious woody species (Juniperus, Populus, Salix) in connection with the course of vegetation succession in abandoned farmlands. Ekologia Polska 28: 327-65.
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  • Farjon, A. 1990. A bibliography of conifers. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.
  • Farjon, A.; Garcia, S. O. 2002. Towards the minimal conifer cone: ontogeny and trends in Cupressus, Juniperus and Microbiota (Cupressaceae s. str.). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 124: 129-147.
  • Fassett, N. C. 1945. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis, and J. scopulorum, IV. Hybrid swarms of J. virginiana and J. horizontalis. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 72: 379-84.
  • Fassett, N. C. 1944. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis, and J. scopulorum, II. Hybrid swarms of J. virginiana and J. scopulorum. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 71: 475-83.
  • Fassett, N. C. 1944. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis, and J. scopulorum. I. The specific characters. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 71: 410-8.
  • Fassett, N. C. 1945. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis, and J. scopulorum, V. Taxonomic treatment. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 72: 480-2.
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  • Flake, R. H.; Von Rudloff, E.; Turner, B. L. 1973. Confirmation of a clinal pattern of chemical differentiation in Juniperus virginiana from terpenoid data obtained in successive years. Recent Adv. Phytochem. 6: 215-28.
  • Flake, R. H.; Von Rudloff, E.; Turner, B. L. 1969. Quantitative study of clinal variation in Juniperus virginiana using terpenoid data. Proc. Nat. Acad. U.S.A. 64: 487-94.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America, Volume 2. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, New York. , 475 pages. (For review see Castanea 59(4):368-369. 1994.)
  • Florin, R. 1955. The systematics of gymnosperms. In: A century of progress in the natural sciences, 1853-1953. California Acad. Sci., San Francisco. , 323-403 pages.
  • Flory, W. S. 1936. Chromosome numbers and phylogeny in the gymnosperms. J. Arnold Arbor. 17: 83-9.
  • Franco, J. D. A. 1962. Taxonomy of the common juniper. Biol. Soc. Brot. 36: 107-20.
  • Gadek, P. A.; Quinn, C. J. 1993. An analysis of relationships within the Cupressaceae sensu stricto based on rbcL sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 581-586.
  • Gall, E. C. 1962. Juniperus at the Morris Arboretum. Morris Arbor. Bull. 13: 3-10.
  • Ganguli, A. C. et.al. 2008. Plant community diversity and composition provide little resistance to Juniperus encroachment. Botany 86: 1416-1426.
  • Gaussen, H. 1967. La classification des genevriers {Juniperus). Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 265: 954-7. (In French)
  • Graves, H. S. 1905. Notes on the rate of growth of red cedar, red oak, and chestnut. Forest. Quart. 3: 349-53.
  • Grootendorst, H. J. 1968. Juniperus communis L. Dendroflora 5: 29-34. (In Dutch)
  • Hall, M. T. 1952. Variation in native junipers. Bull. Cranbrook Inst. Sci. 21: 62-4.
  • Hall, M. T. 1952. Variations and hybridization in Juniperus. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 39: 1-64.
  • Hall, M. T.; Mukherjee, A.; Crowley, W. R. 1973. Chromosome counts in cultivated junipers. J. Arnold Arbor. 54: 369-76.
  • Harper, R. M. 1912. The diverse habitats of the eastern red cedar and their interpretation. Torreya 12: 145-154.
  • Hart, J. A.; Price, R. A. 1990. The genera of Cupressaceae (including Taxodiaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 71: 275-322.
  • Hemmerly, T. E. 1970. Economic uses of eastern red cedar. Econ. Bot. 24: 39-41.
  • Henry, P. H.; Blazich, F. A.; Hinesley, L. E. 1992. Vegetative propagation of eastern red cedar by stem cuttings. Hortscience 27: 1272-1274.
  • Hill, T. G.; De Fraine, E. 1908. On the seedling structure of gymnosperms. I. Ann. Bot. 22: 689-712.
  • Holthuijzen, A. M. A. 1983. Dispersal ecology of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.). Ph.D. Dissertation Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA231 p.
  • Holthuijzen, A. M. A.; Sharik, T. L. 1985. Colonization of abandoned pastures by eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) Canad. J. Forest Res. 15: 1065-8.
  • Holthuijzen, A. M. A.; Sharik, T. L. 1985. The avian dispersal system of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). Canad. J. Bot. 63: 1508-1515.
  • Holthuijzen, A. M. A.; Sharik, T. L. 1985. The red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) seed shadow along a fenceline. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 113: 200-2.
  • Holthuijzen, A. M. A.; Sharik, T. L. 1984. Seed longevity and mechanisms of regeneration of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 111: 153-8.
  • Holthuijzen, A. M. A.; Sharik, T. L.; Fraser, J. D. 1987. Dispersal of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) into pastures: an overview. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 1092-5.
  • Houle, G.; Babeux, P. 1994. Variations in rooting ability of cuttings and in seed characteristics of five populations of Juniperus communis var. depressa from subarctic Quebec. Canad. J. Bot. 72: 493-498.
  • Houle, G.; Duchesne, M. 1999. The spatial pattern of a Juniperus communis var. depressa population on a continental dune in subarctic Quebec, Canada. Canad. J. Forest Res. 29: 446-450.
  • Jack, J. G. 1893. Fructification of Juniperus. Bot. Gaz. 18: 369-75.
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  • Kupchan, S. M. et.al. 1965. Tumor inhibitors VII. Podophyllotoxin, the active principle of Juniperus virginiana. J. Pharmaceutical Sci. 54: 659-660.
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