Genus: Taxodium

Taxodium distichum
Taxodium distichum   (L.) Rich.  -  Bald Cypress
Photo © by Steven Clemants
Taken at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, NY, 1999.

By Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/22/2012

Back to Cupressaceae


Taxodium Rich., Ann. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 16: 298. 1810. Schubertia Mirbel, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 3: 123. 1812, nom. rej. Cuprespinnata Nelson, Pinaceae 61. 1866, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). TYPE: Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.

List of Taxodium Species

General Discussion

Taxodium distichum's native range extends only as far north as the Delmarva Peninsula. All reports of Taxodium in our area are thought to represent specimens persisiting from cultivation.

References to Taxodium

  • Allen, J. A.; Chambers, J. L.; Pezeshki, S. R. 1997. Effects of salinity on baldcypress seedlings: physiological responses and their relation to salinity tolerance. Wetlands 17: 310-20.
  • Allen, P. H. 1962. Black willow dominates baldcypress-tupelo swamp eight years after clear cutting.
  • Applequist, M. B. 1959. Longevity of submerged tupelogum and baldcypress seed. LSU Forest. Notes 27: 1-2.
  • Barton, L. V. 1930. Hastening the germination of some coniferous seeds. Amer. J. Bot. 17: 88-115.
  • Bernard, J. M. 1965. The status of Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard (Bald Cypress) in New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 92: 305-07.
  • Blanck, C. E. 1980. An ecological study of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard) in eastern North Carolina. M.S. Thesis East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC180 p.
  • Britton, Nathaniel L. 1926. The swamp cypresses. J. New York Bot. Gard. 27: 205-7.
  • Browder, J.; Murphy, B.; Schroeder, P. 1974. Effect of light intensity on growth of baldcypress seedlings. In: Cypress wetlands for water management, recycling and conservation. First Ann. Rep. to NSF-RANN and t. , 398-419 pages. (See other articles in this publ.)
  • Brown, C. A. 1984. Morphology and biology of cypress trees. In: Cypress Swamps. Gainesville, FL. , 16-24 pages.
  • Brown, C. A.; Montz, G. W. 1986. Bald cypress: the tree unique, the wood eternal. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge. , 133 pages.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1948. Generic and subgeneric distribution of the Coniferales. Bot. Gaz. 110: 80-91.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1920. Embryo development and polyembryony in relation to the phylogeny of conifers. Amer. J. Bot. 7: 125-45.
  • Butts, D.; Buchholz, J. T. 1940. Cotyledon numbers in conifers. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 33: 58-62.
  • Clevenger, S. V. 1890. The causes of cypress knees. Amer. Naturalist 24: 581.
  • Coker, W. C. 1903. On the gametophytes and embryo of Taxodium. Bot. Gaz. 36: 1-27, 114-40.
  • Coker, W. C. 1930. The bald cypress. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 46: 86-8. (Also Platanus & Liriodendron)
  • Coladoanto, M. 1992. Taxodium distichum. ()
  • Conner, W. H.; Day, J. W. 1992. Diameter growth of Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. and Nyssa aquatica L. from 1979-1985 in four Louisiana swamp stands. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 127: 290-9.
  • Conner, W. H.; Flynn, K. 1989. Growth and survival of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) planted across a flooding gradient in a Louisiana bottomland forest. Wetlands 9(2): 207-18.
  • Conner, W. H.; Toliver, J. R.; Sklar, F. H. 1986. Natural regeneration of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) in a Louisiana swamp. Forest Ecol. & Manag. 14: 305-17.
  • Cope, E. A. 1986. Native and cultivated conifers of northeastern North America. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY.
  • Coulter, S. 1889. Histology of the leaf of Taxodium. Bot. Gaz. 14: 76-81,101-7.
  • Cross, G. L. 1940. Development of the foliage leaves of Taxodium distichum. Amer. J. Bot. 27: 471-82.
  • Cross, G. L. 1939. The structure and development of the apical meristem in the shoots of Taxodium distichum. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 66: 431-52.
  • Cross, G. L. 1939. A note on the morphology of the deciduous shoot of Taxodium distichum. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 66: 167-72.
  • Daguillon, A. 1899. Observations morphologiques sur les feuilles des Cupressees. Rev. Gen. Bot. 11: 168-204. (In French)
  • Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B. 1966. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae, revised by S.G. Harrison. ed. St. Martins Press, New York.
  • Demaree, Delzie 1932. Submerging experiments with Taxodium. Ecology 13: 258-62.
  • Detwiler, S. B. 1916. The bald cypress (Taxodium distichum): identification and characteristics. Amer. Forests 22: 577-85.
  • Dickson, R. E.; Broyer, T. C. 1972. Effects of aeration, water supply, and nitrogen source on growth and development of tupelo gum and bald cypress. Ecology 53: 626-34.
  • Dickson, R. E.; Broyer, T. C.; Johnson, C. M. 1972. Nutrient uptake by tupelo gum and bald cypress from saturated or unsaturated soil. Pl. & Soil 37: 297-308.
  • Dogra, P. D. 1966. Embryogeny of the Taxodiaceae. Phytomorphology 16: 125-41.
  • Donovan, L. A.; McLeod, K. W. 1984. Bald cypress seedling response to thermal and hydrologic regimes. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 65: 209.
  • Eckenwalder, J. E. 2009. Conifers of the world. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 720 pages. (ISBN 9780881929744)
  • Ewel, K. C.; Odum, H. T. (eds.) (1984): 1984. Cypress swamps. Gainsville, FL. , 472 pages.
  • Ewel, K. C.; Wickenheiser, L. P. 1988. Effect of swamp size on growth rates of cypress (Taxodium distichum) trees. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 120: 362-70.
  • Farjon, A. 1990. A bibliography of conifers. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.
  • Farjon, A. 2005. A monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. , 643 pages. (ISBN 1842460684)
  • Faulkner, S. P. 1982. Genetic variation of cones, seed, and nursery grown seedlings of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) provenances. M.S. Thesis Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge,
  • Flint, H. L. 1974. Geographically based physiological variation in Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. Hortic. Sci. 9: 931. (Abstract)
  • Florin, R. 1955. The systematics of gymnosperms. In: A century of progress in the natural sciences, 1853-1953. California Acad. Sci., San Francisco. , 323-403 pages.
  • Fulkner, S.; Toliver, J. 1983. Genetic variation of cones, seeds, and nursery grown seedlings of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum L.) provenances.
  • Gaussen, H. 1967. Les Taxodiacees. Trav. Lab. Forest. Toulouse Tome II, Vol. 1, Chap. XII: 1-64. (In French)
  • Gerty, F. J. 1973. Baldcypress along the Hudson. Conservationist 27: 39.
  • Graebner, P. 1928. Die Parthenocissus Arten. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 40: 1-10.
  • Haller, J. M. 1978. A most remarkable tree. Amer. Forests 84(1): 21-3.
  • Harper, R. M. 1902. Taxodium distichum and related species, with notes on some geological factors influencing their distribution. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 29: 383-99.
  • Harper, R. M. 1905. Further observations on Taxodium. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 32: 105-15.
  • Hart, J. A.; Price, R. A. 1990. The genera of Cupressaceae (including Taxodiaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 71: 275-322.
  • Hehre, E. J.; Bollard, P. M. 1974. The occurrence of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard) in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. Rhodora 76: 25-6.
  • Kaeiser, M. 1940. Morphology and embryogeny of the bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. IL, Champaigne-Urbana, IL,
  • Kaeiser, M. 1953. Microstructure of the wood of the three species of Taxodium. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 80: 415-418.
  • Keeland, B. D. 1994. The effects of variations in hydrologic regime on diameter growth in Nyssa aquatica, Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora, and Taxodium distichum. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Georgia, Athens,
  • Keeland, B. D.; Sharitz, R. R. 1995. Seasonal growth patterns of Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora, Nyssa aquatica, and Taxodium distichum as affected by hydrologic regime. Canad. J. Forest Res. 25: 1084-96. (French summary)
  • Keeland, B. D.; Sharitz, R. R. 1997. The effects of water-level fluctuations on weekly tree growth in a southeastern USA swamp. Amer. J. Bot. 84: 131-9.
  • Kennedy, H. E. 1972. Bald cypress.
  • Kernell, J. L.; Levy, G. F. 1990. The relationship of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard) knee height to water depth. Castanea 55: 217-22.
  • Kludze, H. K.; Pezeshki, S. R.; Delaune, R. D. 1994. Evaluation of root oxygenation and growth in baldcypress in response to short-term soil hypoxia. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24: 804-9.
  • Kramer, P. J.; Riley, W. S.; Bannister, T. T. 1952. Gas exchange of cypress knees. Ecology 33: 117-21.
  • Kurz, H.; Demaree, Delzie 1934. Cypress buttresses and knees in relation to water and air. Ecology 15: 36-41.
  • Kurz, H.; Wagner, K. A. 1952. The role of adventitious roots in survival of cypress. (Abstr.). J. Tennessee Acad. Sci. 27: 201.
  • Kurz, H.; Wagner, K. A. 1953. Factors in cypress dome development. Ecology 34: 157-64.
  • Lamborn, R. H. 1890. The knees of the bald cypress: a new theory of their function. Gard. & Forest 3: 21-2.
  • Lamborn, R. H. 1890. The knees of Taxodium distichum. Amer. Naturalist 24: 333-40.
  • Langdon, O. G. 1958. Silvical characteristics of baldcypress.
  • Li, L. C. 1988. The studies on the karyotypes and cytogeography of Taxodium Rich. (Taxodiaceae). Acta Phytotax. Sin. 26(5): 371-7. (In Chinese; English summary)
  • Mattoon, W. R. 1916. Water requirements and growth of young cypress. Proc. Soc. Amer. Foresters 11: 192-7.
  • McLean, F. T. 1930. Torrey Botanical Club Meeting - May 6, 1930. Torreya 30: 112-3.
  • McLeod, K. W.; Ciravolo, T. G. 1997. Differential sensitivity of Nyssa aquatica and Taxodium distichum seedlings grown in fly ash amended sand. Wetlands 17: 330-5.
  • McLeod, K.; Sherrod, C. 1981. Baldcypress seedling growth in thermally altered habitats. Amer. J. Bot. 68(7): 918-23.
  • McMillan, C. 1974. Differentiation in habitat response in Taxodium distichum, T. nucronatum, Platanus occidentalis, and Liquidambar styraciflua from the United States and Mexico. Vegetatio 29: 1-10.
  • Megonigal, J. P.; Day, F. P. 1992. 92Effects of flooding on root and shoot production of bald cypress in large experimental enclosures. Ecology 73: 1182-93.
  • Middleton, B. 2000. Hydrochory, seed banks, and regeneration dynamics along the landscape boundaries of a forested wetland. Plant Ecology 146: 169-184.
  • Myers, R. S.; Shaffer, G. P.; Lewellyn, D. W. 1995. Baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) restoration in southeast Louisiana: the relative effects of herbivory, flooding, competition, and macronutrients. Wetlands 15(2): 141-8.
  • Neufeld, H. S. 1983. Effects of light on growth, morphology, and photosynthesis in baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) and pondcypress (T. ascendens Brongn.) seedlings. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 43-54.
  • Neufeld, H. S. 1986. Ecophysical implications of tree architecture for two cypress taxa, Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. and T. ascendens Brongn. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 113: 118-24.
  • Parent, J.; Richard, P. J. H. 1990. Pollen morphology of the Cupressaceae of eastern Canada and the northeastern United States applied to the study of Quaternary sediments. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 79-89. (In French, English summary. Also Taxodium)
  • Pezeshki, S. R.; Delaune, R. D.; Choi, H. S. 1995. Gas exchange and growth of bald cypress seedlings from selected U.S. Gulf Coast populations: reponses to elevated salinities. Canad. J. Forest Res. 25: 1409-15.
  • Pezeshki, S. R.; Delaune, R. D.; Patrick, W. H. 1987. Response of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum L. var. distichum) to increases in flooding salinity in Louisiana's Mississippi River deltaic plain. Wetlands 7(1): 1-10.
  • Pezeshki, S. R.; Delaune, R. D.; Patrick, W. H. 1986. Gas exchange characteristics of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum L.): evaluation of responses to leaf aging, flooding, and salinity. Canad. J. Forest Res. 16: 1394-7.
  • Pezeshki, S. R.; Delaune, R. D.; Patrick, W. H. 1988. Effect of salinity on ion uptake, leaf ion content, and photosythesis of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum L.). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 119: 185-92.
  • Robertson, A. 1907. The taxoideae; a phylogenetic study. New Phyt. 6: 92-102.
  • Schlarbaum, S. E.; Johnson, L. C.; Tsuchiya, T. 1983. Chromosome studies of Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Taxodium distichum. Bot. Gaz. 144(4): 559-65.
  • Schlarbaum, S. E.; Tsuchiya, T. 1984. Cytotaxonomy and phylogeny in certain species of Taxodiaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 147: 29-54.
  • Schneider, R. L.; Sharitz, R. R. 1988. Hydrochory and regeneration in a bald cypress-water tupelo swamp forest. Ecology 69: 1055-63.
  • Shaler, N. S. 1887. Notes on Taxodium distichum, or bald cypress. Mem. Mus. Zool. Harvard Univ. 16: 1-15.
  • Shanklin, J.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1985. Effect of flooding on growth and subsequent responses of Taxodium distichum seedlings to SO2. Environm. Pollut., A. 38: 199-212.
  • Sharma, G. K.; Madsen, L. 1978. Variation in bald cypress from different habitats. J. Tennessee Acad. Sci. 53: 115-6.
  • Sherrod, C.; Somers, D. E.; McLeod, K. W. 1980. Potential for baldcypress establishment in thermally altered streams. J. Thermal Biol. 5: 107-11.
  • Slavin, A. D. 1933. Our deciduous conifers. Am. Hort. 12: 48-53.
  • Stahle, D. W. 1996. Tree rings and ancient forest relics. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 56: 2-10.
  • Stahle, D. W.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Hehr, J. G. 1988. North Carolina climate changes reconstructed from tree rings: A.D. 372 to 1985. Science 240(4858): 1517-9. (Taxodium distichum used to construct dendrochronology of climate)
  • Stalter, R. 1981. Some ecological observations of Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard in Delaware. Castanea 46: 154-61.
  • Sternitzke, H. S. 1972. Bald cypress: endangered or expanding species. Econ. Bot. 26(2): 130-4.
  • Takaso, T. 1990. "Pollination drop" time at the Arnold Arboretum. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 50: 2-7.
  • Takaso, T.; Tomlinson, P. B. 1990. Cone and ovule ontogeny in Taxodium and Glyptostrobus (Taxodiaceae-Coniferales). Amer. J. Bot. 77(9): 1209-21.
  • Vernon, R. O. 1947. Cypress domes. Science 105: 97-9.
  • Watson, F. D. 1983. A taxonomic study of pondcypress and baldcypress. Ph.D. Dissertation North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC214 p.
  • Watson, F. D. 1985. The nomenclature of pondcypress and baldcypress (Taxodiaceae). Taxon 34: 506-9.
  • Whiteford, L. A. 1956. A theory of the formation of cypress knees. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 72: 80-3.
  • Williston, H. L.; Shropshine, F. W.; Balmer, W. E. 1980. Cypress management: a forgotten opportunity.
  • Young, P. J.; Keeland, B. D.; Sharitz, R. R. 1995. Growth response of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) to an altered hydrologic regime. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 133: 206-12.
  • Young, P. J.; Megonigal, J. P.; Sharitz, R. R.; Day, F. P. 1993. False ring formation in baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) saplings under two flooding regimes. Wetlands 13(4): 293-8.