Genus: Elaeagnus

Elaeagnus umbellata
Elaeagnus umbellata   Thunb.  -  Autumn Olive
Photo © by Steven Clemants
Taken at the Great Swamp, NJ, 1996.

By Angela Steward & Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/01/2013

Back to Elaeagnaceae


Elaeagnus L., Sp. Pl. 121. 1753. Gen Pl., ed. 5, 57. 1754. (also spelled “Aeleagnus”). Oleaster Heist. ex Fabr., Enum. 214. 1759, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). LECTOTYPE: Elaeagnus angustifolia L. designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Octarillum Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 65, 90. 1790. TYPE: Octarillum fruticosum Lour.

Key to the species of Elaeagnus

1. Leaves silvery on both sides; twigs often with thorns...2
1. Leaves silvery beneath, soon greenish above; twigs lacking thorns...3

2. Branches silvery; fruit yellow...Elaeagnus angustifolia
2. Branches brown; fruit silvery...Elaeagnus commutata

3. Bracts silvery; fruit subglobose to ovoid on stalks 0.8-1.2 cm long...Elaeagnus umbellata
3. Bracts brown; fruit ovoid to oblong on stalks 1.2-2.5 cm long...Elaeagnus multiflora

List of Elaeagnus Species

References to Elaeagnus

  • . Element Stewardship Abstract for Elaeagnus umbellata.
  • Allan, P. F.; Steiner, W. F. 1965. Autumn olive for wildlife and other conservation uses.
  • Anonymous 1889. Notes. Gard. & Forest 2: 600.
  • Baillon, H. 1870. Elaeagnecees. Hist. Pl. 2: 487-497. (In French; see English trans. by M.M. Hartog, Nat. Hist. Pl. 2:481-491. 1872)
  • Borell, A. E. 1962. Russian-olive for wildlife and other conservation uses.
  • Brown, W. T. 2001. Volunteer monitoring of nonindigenous invasive plant species in the Adirondack Park, New York, USA. Natural Areas Journal 21: 189-196.
  • Catling, P. M. 1997. The recent spread of autumn-olive, Elaeagnus umbellata, into southern Ontario and its current status. Canad. Field-Naturalist 111: 376-80.
  • Dirr, M. A. 1978. Tolerance of seven woody ornamentals to soil-applied sodium chloride. J. Arboric. 4(7): 162-5.
  • Eckardt, N. 1987. Element stewardship abstract for Elaegnus umbellata - autumn olive.
  • Edelen, W. J. 1997. Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) control experiment underway. Restor. Manag. Notes 15: 198-9.
  • Freeman, C. C. 1998. Vascular plants new to Kansas. Sida 18: 593-604.
  • Fuchs, A. 1936. Untersuchungen uber den mõnnlichen Gametophyten von Elaeagnus angustifolia. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 85: 1-16.
  • Gardner, I. C. 1958. Nitrogen fixation in Elaeagnus root nodules. Nature 181: 717-8.
  • Graham, S. A. 1964. The Elaeagnaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 45: 274-8.
  • Hamilton, D. F.; Carpenter, P. L. 1976. Regulation of seed dormancy in Elaeagnus angustifolia by endogenous growth substances. Canad. J. Bot. 54(10): 1068-73.
  • Hamilton, D. F.; Carpenter, P. L. 1975. Regulation of seed dormancy in Elaeagnus umbellata by endogenous growth substances. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 2303-11.
  • Hawker, L. E.; Fraymouth, J. 1951. A re-investigation of the root-nodules of species of Elaeagnus, Hippophaë, Alnus, and Myrica, with special reference to the morphology and life histories of the causative organisms. J. Gen. Microbiol. 5: 369-86.
  • Herron, P.M. 2007. Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England. Diversity and Distributions 13: 633-644.
  • Hogue, E. J.; LaCroix, L. J. 1970. Seed dormancy of Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 95(4): 449-52.
  • LaFleur, N. 2009. Does frugivory by European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) facilitate germination in invasive plants? J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136: 332-341.
  • Miller, I. M.; Baker, D. D. 1985. The initiation, development and structure of root nodules in Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae). Protoplasma 128: 107-19.
  • Pisula, N. L.; Meiners, S. J. 2010. Relative allelopathic potential of invasive plant species in a young disturbed woodland. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 137: 81-87.
  • Pomeroy, C. S. 1921. Bud variation in Elaeagnus. J. Heredity 12: 227-30.
  • Reed, W. R. 1992. Elaeagnus umbellata. ()
  • Servettaz, G. 1909. Monographie des Eleagnacees. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 25: 1-420. (In German)
  • Shafroth, P. B.; Auble, G. T.; Scott, M. L. 1995. Germination and establishment of the native plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides Marshall subsp. monilifera) and the exotic Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.). Conserv. Biol. 9(5): 1169-75.
  • Tesky, J. L. 1992. Elaeagnus angustifolia. ()
  • Yamazaki, T. 1975. Embryogeny of Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. J. Jap. Bot. 50(9): 281-4.