Genus: Empetrum

Empetrum nigrum var. hermaphroditum
Empetrum nigrum var. hermaphroditum (Hagerup) T. J. Sørensen

Black Crowberry

Photo © Steven Clemants, 1981, taken in Maine.

By Steven Clemants

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 04/08/2013

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Empetrum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1022. 1753. Gen. Pl., 1754. TYPE: Empetrum nigrum L., designated by (Good, 1927).

Key to the species of Empetrum

List of Empetrum Species

References to Empetrum

  • Airy, H. 1877. On the leaf-arrangement of the Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 25: 158-60.
  • Anderberg, A. A. 1994. Phylogeny of the Empetraceae, with special emphasis on character evolution in the genus Empetrum. Syst. Bot. 19: 35-46.
  • Arvidsson, T. 1935. Empetrum hermaphroditum (Lange) Hagerup och E. nigrum L. s. st. i Norden. Bot. Not. 1935: 181-3.
  • Baskin, C. C.; Zackrisson, O.; Baskin, J. M. 2002. Role of warm stratification in promoting germination of seeds of Empetrum hermaphroditum (Empetraceae), a circumboreal species with a stony endocarp. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 486-493.
  • Blackburn, K. B. 1938. On the occurence of a hermaphrodite plant of Empetrum nigrum L. J. Bot. 76: 306-7.
  • Don, D. 1827. On the affinities of the Empetraceae, a natural group of plants. Edinburgh New Philos. J. 2: 59-63.
  • DuRietz, G. E. 1940. Problems of bipolar plant distribution. Acta Phytogeogr. Suec. 13: 215-82.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1923. Empetrum nigrum L. forma purpureum (Raf.), n. comb. Rhodora 25(293): 83.
  • Fernald, M. L.; Wiegand, K. M. 1913. The genus Empetrum in North America. Rhodora 15: 211-7.
  • Flower-Ellis, J. G. K. 1973. Growth and morphology in the evergreen dwarf shrubs Empetrum heremaphroditum and Andromeda polifolia in Stordalen. In: Primary production and production processes. IBP Tundra Steering Cimmittee, Edmondton and Oslo. , 123-36 pages.
  • Good, R. C. R. 1927. The genus Empetrum. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 47: 489-523.
  • Gray, A. 1846. Chloris Boreali Americana. Vol. Mem. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sciences. American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Philadelphia.
  • Grevillius, A. Y.; Kirchner, O. 1923. Empetraceae. In: Lebensgeschichte der Blütenpflanzen Mitteleuropas. Vol. 4(1). Verlagsbuchhandlung Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart. , 165-81 pages.
  • Hagerup, O. 1927. Empetrum hermaphroditum (Lge) Hagerup. A new tetraploid, bisexual species. Dansk Bot. Ark. 5: 1-17.
  • Hagerup, O. 1946. Studies on the Empetraceae. Biol. Meddel. Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. 20: 1-49.
  • Hagerup, O. 1922. Om Empetrum nigrum L. Bot. Tidsskr. 37: 253-304.
  • Love, D. 1960. The red-fruited crowberries in North America. Rhodora 62: 265-292.
  • L÷ve, A.; L÷ve, D. 1959. Biosystematics of the black crowberries of America. Canad. J. Genet. Cytol. 1: 34-8.
  • L÷ve, A.; L÷ve, D. 1966. Cytotaxonomy of the alpine vascular plants of Mount Washington. Univ. Colorado Stud., Ser. Biol. 24: 1-74.
  • L÷ve, D. 1960. The red-fruited crowberries in North America. Rhodora 62: 265-92.
  • Matthews, R. F. 1992. Empetrum nigrum. ()
  • Mentz, A. 1912. The structure and biology of Arctic flowering plants. 3. Empetraceae, Empetrum nigrum L. Meddel. Gronland 36: 155-67.
  • Moore, D. M.; Harborne, J. B.; Williams, C. A. 1970. Chemotaxonomy, variation and geographic distribution of the Empetraceae. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 63: 277-93.
  • Oden, P. C.; Brandtberg, P. O.; Anderson, R.; Gref, R.; Zackrisson, O.; Nilsson, M. C. 1992. Isolation and characterization of a germination inhibitor from the leaves of Empetrum hermaphroditum (Hagerup). Scand. J. For. Res. 7
  • Oldfield, F. 1959. The pollen morphology of some of the West European Ericales. Pollen & Spores 1: 19-48.
  • Pojar, J. 1974. Reproductive dynamics of four plant communities of southwestern British Columbia. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 1819-34.
  • Rocheleau, A. F.; Houle, G. 2001. Different cost of reproduction for the males and females of the rare dioecious shrub Corema conradii (Empetraceae). Amer. J. Bot. 88: 659-666.
  • Soper, J. H.; Voss, E. G. 1964. Black Crowberry in the Lake Superior region. Michigan Bot. 3: 35-38.
  • Taylor, N.; Hall, H. S. 1924. Crowberry at Montauk. Torreya 24: 87.
  • Velluti, C.; Krahenbuhl, M.; Ferrari, C. 1995. A contribution to the cytogeography of Empetrum nigrum L. and E. hermaphroditum (Lange) Hagerup. Arch. Geobot. 1: 165-70. (In Italian; English summary)
  • Wherry, Edgar T. 1920. Soil tests of Ericaceae and other reaction-sensitive families in northern Vermont and New Hampshire. Rhodora 22: 33-49.