New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Kalmia

Kalmia latifolia L. Kalmia angustifolia Kalmia latifolia

By Steven Clemants

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/07/2013

Back to Ericaceae

Nomenclature

Kalmia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 391. 1753. Gen. Pl. 185. 1754. Chamaedaphne Catesby ex Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 388. 1891, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1). TYPE: Kalmia latifolia L., designated by Britton (1908).

List of Kalmia Species

References to Kalmia

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  • Arthur, M. A.; Paratley, R. D. 1998. Single and repeated fires affect survival and regeneration of woody and herbaceous species in an oak-pine forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125: 225-236.
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  • Bergman, H. F. 1920. Internal stomata in ericaceous and other unrelated fruits. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 47: 213-21.
  • Bixby, W. G. 1881. Kalmia poisonous to sheep. Gard. Monthly & Hort. 23: 372.
  • Britton, Elizabeth G. 1925. A freak of the mountain laurel. J. New York Bot. Gard. 26: 187-90.
  • Britton, Elizabeth G. 1913. Wild plants needing protection. 8. "American or mountain laurel" (Kalmia latifolia L.). J. New York Bot. Gard. 14: 121-3.
  • Buttrick, P. L. 1924. Connecticut's state flower, the mountain laurel, a forest plant. Publ. Marsh Bot. Gard. 1: 1-28.
  • Carey, F. M.; Lewis, J. J.; MacGregor, J. L.; Martin-Smith, m. 1959. Pharmacological and Chemical Observations on Some Toxic Nectars. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 11: 269.
  • Catterell, W. A. 1980. Neurotoxins that act on voltage-sensitive sodium channels in excitable membranes. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. : 15-43.
  • Chastain, R. A.; Townsend, P. A. 2008. Role of evergreen understory shrub layer in the forests of the central Appalachian Highlands. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 135: 208-223.
  • Clinton, B. D.; Boring, L. R.; Swank, W. T. 1994. Regeneration patterns in canopy gaps of mixed-oak forests of the southern Appalachians: influences of topographic position and evergreen understory. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 132: 308-19.
  • Coladoanto, M. 1991. Kalmia latifolia. ()
  • Copeland, H. F. 1943. A study, anatomical and taxonomic, of the genera of Rhododendroideae. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 30: 533-625.
  • Cox, H. T. 1948. Studies in the comparative anatomy of the Ericales. I. Ericaceae - subfamily Rhododendroideae. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 39: 220-45.
  • Curtis, W. 1792. Kalmia latifolia. Bot. Mag. 5: pl. 175.
  • Curtis, W. 1792. Kalmia glauca. Bot. Mag. 5: pl. 177.
  • Curtis, W. 1795. Kalmia angustifolia. Narrow-leaved Kalmia. Bot. Mag. 9: pl. 331.
  • Davidson, D. W. 1966. Response of six shrub species to light regimes in two controlled-environment rooms. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 93: 432-437.
  • Dudley, T. W. 1967. Ornamental mountain laurel. Amer. Hort. Mag. 46: 245-8.
  • Ebinger, J. E. 1974. A systematic study of the genus Kalmia (Ericaceae). Rhodora 76(807): 315-98.
  • Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1995. Microtopography and vegetation in Atlantic white cedar swamps: the effects of natural disturbances. Canad. J. Bot. 73(3): 474-84.
  • Engelmann, G.; Canby, W. M.; Gray, A. 1877. Large trunks of Kalmia latifolia. Amer. Naturalist 11: 175.
  • Enlows, E. M. A. 1918. A leafblight of Kalmia latifolia. J. Agric. Res. 13: 199-212. (pl. 14-17)
  • Fernald, M. L. 1940. A new southern Kalmia. Rhodora 42: 53-4.
  • Flemer, W. 1949. The propagation of Kalmia latifolia from seed. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 76: 12-6.
  • Flinn, M. A.; Pringle, J. K. 1983. Heat tolerance of rhizomes of several understory species. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 452-7.
  • Forbes, E. B. 1931. Mountain laurel and rhododendron as food for the white tailed deer. Ecology 12(2): 323-33.
  • Forbes, E. B.; Bechdel, S. I. 1930. The chemical composition and feeding value of laurel and rhododendron, and the conditions of browsing in forests overstocked with deer, in relation to the death of young deer. Pennsylvania State Coll. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 258: 39-41.
  • Ganapathy, P. S.; Palser, B. F. 1964. Studies of floral morphology in the Ericales VII. Embryology in the Phyllodoceae. Bot. Gaz. 125(4): 280-97.
  • Gates, F. C. 1942. The bogs of northern lower Michigan. Ecol. Monogr. 12: 213-54.
  • Glenn, C. T.; Blazich, F. A.; Warren, S. L. 1998. Influence of storage temperatures on long-term seed viability of selected native ericaceous species. J. Environ. Hort. 16: 166-172.
  • Gray, A. 1871. Dialysis with staminoidy in Kalmia latifolia. Amer. Naturalist 4: 373-4.
  • Gray, A. 1877. On some remarkable specimens of Kalmia latifolia. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 19: 75-6.
  • Hagerup, O. 1928. Morphological and cytological studies of Bicornes. Dansk Bot. Ark. 6: 1-27.
  • Hall, I. V.; Jackson, L. P.; Everett, C. F. 1973. The biology of Canadian weeds: I. Kalmia angustifolia L. Canad. J. Pl. Sci. 53: 865-73.
  • Hall, I. V.; Jackson, L. P.; Everett, C. F. 1979. The Biology of Canadian weeds. 1. Kalmia angustifolia L. In: The Biology of Canadian weeds. Contributions 1-32. Biosystematics Research Institute, Ottawa. , 7-15 pages. (Publication 1693)
  • Hancy, A. J. 1916. The vascular anatomy of certain Ericaceous flowers. M.A. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY37 figs. + 20 p.
  • Hanna, W. J.; Grant, C. L. 1962. Spectrochemical analysis of the foliage of certain trees and ornamentals for 23 elements. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 89: 293-302.
  • Hardikar, S. W. 1922. On Rhododendron Poisoning. J. Pharm. and Exper. Therapeutics 20: 17-44.
  • Hasskarl, J. K. 1863. Uber kalmia latifolia L. Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 21: 237-9.
  • Heinrich, B. 1976. Resource partitioning among some eusocial insects: Bumblebees. Ecology 57(5): 874-89.
  • Hermann, P. M.; Palser, B. F. 2000. Stamen development in the Ericaceae. I. Anther wall, microsporogenesis, inversion, and appendages. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 934-957.
  • Holmes, M. L. 1956. Kalmia, the American laurels. Baileya 4: 89-94.
  • Honerjõger, P. 1983. Ceveratrum alakloids: Progress in understanding their membrane and inotropic actions. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 4: 258-62.
  • Inderjit.; Mallik, A. U. 1996. The nature of interference potential of Kalmia angustifolia. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 1899-904. (French summary; also Picea mariana)
  • Jacobs, M. L.; Lloyd, W. R. 1939. A phytochemical study of Kalmia angustifolia. J. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 28: 408-12.
  • Jaynes, R. A. 1997. Kalmia: mountain laurel and related species. ed. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. , 295 pages. (ISBN 0-88192-367-2)
  • Jaynes, R. A. 1971. Seed germination of six Kalmia species. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 96: 668-72.
  • Jaynes, R. A. 1975. The laurel book: Rediscovery of the North American laurels. Hafner, New York. , 180 pages.
  • Jaynes, R. A. 1969. Chromosome counts of Kalmia species and revaluation of K. polifolia var. microphylla. Rhodora 71: 280-4.
  • Jaynes, R. A. 1982. Germination of Kalmia seed after storage of up to 20 years. Hortscience 17: 203.
  • Jaynes, R. A. 1968. Self incompatibility and inbreeding depression in three laurel (Kalmia) species. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 93: 618-22.
  • Jaynes, R. A. 1968. Interspecific crosses in Kalmia. Amer. J. Bot. 55: 1120-5.
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  • Kress, A. 1988. Beobachtungen an Bl³ten von Kalmia latifolia L. (Ericaceae). Phytologia 65: 249-84.
  • Kron, K. A.; King, J. M. 1996. Cladistic relationships of Kalmia, Leiophyllum, and Loiseleuria (Phyllodoceae, Ericaceae) based on rbcL and nrITS data. Syst. Bot. 21(1): 17-29.
  • Kurmes, E. A. 1961. The ecology of mountain laurel in southern New England. Ph.D. Dissertation Yale University, New Haven85 p.
  • Kurmes, E. A. 1967. The distribution of Kalmia latifolia L. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 77: 525-6.
  • Latham, R. E.; Thompson, J. E.; Riley, S. A.; Wibiralske, A. W. 1996. The Pocono till barrens: shrub savanna persisting on soils favoring forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 330-49.
  • Leins, P. 1964. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Studien an Ericales-Bluten. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 83: 57-88. (In German)
  • Levri, M. A. 1998. The effect of timing of pollination on the mating system and fitness of Kalmia latifolia (Ericaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 85: 1626-1630.
  • Levri, M. A.; Real, L. A. 1998. The role of resources and pathogens in mediating the mating systems of Kalmia latifolia. Ecology 79: 1602-1609.
  • Lipscomb, M. V.; Nilsen, E. T. 1990. Environmental and physiological factors influencing the natural distribution of evergreen and deciduous shrubs on northeast and southwest slopes of the southern Appalachian Mountains. I. Irradiance tolerance. Amer. J. Bot. 77(1): 108-15.
  • Lipscomb, M. V.; Nilsen, E. T. 1990. Environmental and physiological factors influencing the natural distribution of evergreen and deciduous shrubs on northeast and southwest slopes of the southern Appalachian Mountains. II. Water relations. Amer. J. Bot. 77(4): 517-26.
  • Lovell, H. B. 1951. The mechanisms of pollination. II. Flowers with unusual pollinating mechanisms. Bees 5: 18-20, 23.
  • Lovell, J. H.; Lovell, H. B. 1934. The pollination of Kalmia angustifolia. Rhodora 36(422): 25-8.
  • Malek, A. A. et.al. 1989. Influence of light and temperature on seed germination of mountain laurel. J. Environ. Hort. 7: 161-162.
  • Mallik, A. U. 1993. Ecology of a forest weed of Newfoundland: vegetative regeneration strategy of Kalmia angustifolia. Canad. J. Bot. 71: 161-6.
  • Mallik, A. U. 1987. Allelopathic potential of Kalmia angustifolia on black spruce (Picea marian). Forest Ecol. & Manag. 20: 43-51.
  • Mallik, A. U. 1994. Autoecological response of Kalmia angustifolia to forest types and disturbance regimes. Forest Ecol. & Manag. 65: 231-49.
  • Marchand, P. J. 1975. Apparent ecotypic differences in the water relations of some northern bog Ericaceae. Rhodora 77(809): 53-63.
  • Marsh, C. D. 1930. The poisonous laurel. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 20: 350-1.
  • Massicotte, H. B. et.al. 2005. Structural characteristics of root-fungal interactions for five ericaceous species in eastern Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 83: 1057-1064.
  • McGinty, D. T. 1972. The ecological roles of Kalmia latifolia L. and Rhododendron maximum L. in the hardwood forest at Coweeta. M.S. Thesis Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA81 p.
  • Monk, C. D.; McGinty, D. T.; Day, F. P. Jr. 1985. The ecological importance of Kalmia latifolia and Rhododendron maximum in the deciduous forest of the southern Appalachians. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112(2): 187-93.
  • Muller, R. N. 1991. Growing season water relations of Rhododendron maximun L. and Kalmia latifolia L. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 118: 123-7.
  • Nagy, E. S.; Strong, L.; Galloway, L. F. 1999. Contribution of delayed autonomous selfing to reproductive success in mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia (Ericaceae). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 142: 39-46.
  • Nixon, E. S. 1881. Poison from Kalmia latifolia. Gard. Monthly & Hort. 23: 311-2.
  • O'Keefe, J. E. 1981. Factors affecting the distribution and growth of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) in central Massachusetts. M.S. Thesis University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA64 p.
  • Parker, J. 1961. Seasonal changes in cold resistance of some northeastern woody evergreens. J. Forest. 59(2): 108-11.
  • Paschkis, H. 1882. Contributions to a closer knowledge of some little known leaves. VIII. Kalmia latifolia leaves. Pharm. J , ser. 3 12 : 86-7.
  • Penhallow, D. P. 1882. Fertilization of Kalmia. Gard. Monthly & Hort. 24: 54.
  • Peterson, E. B. 1965. Inhibition of black spruce primary roots by a watersoluble substance in Kalmia angustifolia. Forest Sci. 11: 473-9.
  • Peterson, T. A.; Mueller, W. C.; Englander, L. 1980. Anatomy and ultrastructure of a Rhododendron root-fungus association. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 2421-33.
  • Philpott, J. 1956. Blade tissue organization of foliage leaves of some Carolina shrub-bog species as compared with their Appalachian Mountain affinities. Bot. Gaz. 118(2): 88-105.
  • Rathcke, B. 2003. Floral longevity and reproductive assurance: seasonal patterns and an experimental test with Kalmia latifolia (Ericaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 90: 1328-1332.
  • Rathcke, B. 1988. Interactions for pollination among coflowering shrubs. Ecology 69: 446-57.
  • Rathcke, B. J.; Real, L. A. 1993. Autogamy and inbreeding depression in mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia (Ericaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 80(2): 143-6.
  • Reader, R. J. 1977. Bog ericad flowers: self-compatibility and relative attractiveness to bees. Canad. J. Bot. 55: 2279-87.
  • Reader, R. J. 1979. Flower cold hardiness: a potential determinant of the flowering sequence exhibited by bog ericads. Canad. J. Bot. 57: 997-9.
  • Reader, R. J. 1980. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer, shade, and the removal of new growth on longevity of overwintering bog ericad leaves. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 1737-43.
  • Reader, R. J. 1982. Geographic variation in the shoot productivity of bog shrubs and some environmental correlates. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 340-8.
  • Reader, R. J. 1983. Modelling geographic variation in the timing of shoot extension by ericaceous shrubs. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 2032-7.
  • Reader, R. J. 1983. Using heatsum models to account for geographic variation in the floral phenology of two ericaceous shrubs. J. Biogeogr. 10(1): 47-64.
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  • Real, L. A.; Rathcke, B. J. 1991. Individual variation in nectar production and its effect on fitness in Kalmia latifolia. Ecology 72: 149-55.
  • Rehder, A. A. 1910. Note on the forms of Kalmia latifolia. Rhodora 12: 1-3.
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  • Sargent, C. S. 1880. New or little known plants. A curious for of Kalmia. Gard. & Forest 3: 452. (fig. 56)
  • Sargent, C. S. 1895. Kalmia latifolia var. myrtifolia. Gard. & Forest 8: 315.
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