New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Ginkgo

Ginkgo biloba

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 03/20/2013

Back to Ginkgoaceae

Nomenclature

Ginkgo L., Mant. Pl. 2: 313. 1771 (also spelled “Gingkyo”).  Salisburia Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 3: 330. 1797, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). Pterophyllus J. Nelson (“Senilis”), Pinaceae 163. 1866, nom. illeg. (Art. 53.1). TYPE: Ginkgo biloba L.

List of Ginkgo Species

References to Ginkgo

  • ; Yang, Q. E. 1993. A new morphological interpretation of the female reproductive organs in Ginkgo biloba L., with a phylogenetic consideration of gymnosperms. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 31: 294-6, 309-17. (In Chinese; English summary)
  • Andrews, S. 1996. Tree of the year: Ginkgo biloba. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Year Book 1995: 14-31.
  • Anonymous 1974. Maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo family (Ginkgoaceae). Morton Arbor. Quart. 10(1): 12-3.
  • Axelrod, D. I. 1983. Biogeography of oaks in the arcto-tertiary province. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 629-57. (Many other genera disscussed)
  • Braquet, P. (eds.) (1988): 1988. Ginkgolides- chemistry, biology, pharmacology, and clinical perspectives. Vol. 1-2. J.R. Prous, Barcelona.
  • Carothers, I. E. 1907. The development of the ovule and the female gametophyte of Ginkgo biloba. Bot. Gaz. 43: 116-30.
  • Chadwick, L. C. 1939. New England hurricane damage to trees. Arborist's News 4(1): 1-4.
  • Chen, L. Q. et.al. 2001. Assessing the potential for the stomatal chracters of extant and fossil Ginkgo leaves to signal atmospheric CO2 change. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1309-1315.
  • Cook, M. T. 1902. Polyembryony in Ginkgo. Bot. Gaz. 34: 64.
  • Critchfield, W. B. 1970. Shoot growth and heterophylly in Ginkgo biloba. Bot. Gaz. 131(2): 150-62.
  • Del Tredici, P. 1981. The ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba in America. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 41: 150-61.
  • Del Tredici, P. 1992. Natural regeneration of Ginkgo biloba from downward growing cotyledonary buds (basal chichi). Amer. J. Bot. 79(5): 522-30.
  • Del Tredici, P. 2008. Wake up and smell the ginkgos. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 66: 11-21.
  • Del Tredici, P. 1991. Ginkgos and people- a thousand years of interaction. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 51: 3-15.
  • Douglas, A. W. et.al. 2007. Ovule development in Ginkgo biloba L., with emphasis on the collar and nucellus. Int. J. Plant Sci. 168: 1207-1236.
  • Eames, A. J. 1955. The seed and Ginkgo. J. Arnold Arbor. 36: 165-70.
  • Favre-Duchartre, M. 1958. Ginkgo, an oviparous plant. Phytomorphology 8: 377-90.
  • Favre-Duchartre, M. 1943. Sur le comportement des ovules de Ginkgo biloba. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 90: 111-6.
  • Favre-Duchartre, M. 1956. Contribution à l'Útude de la reproduction chez le Ginkgo biloba. Rev. Cytol. et Biol. Veg. 17: 1-218.
  • Flower, F. B.; Gilman, E. F.; Leone, I. A. 1981. Landfill gas, what it does to trees and how its injurious effects may be prevented. J. Arboric. 7(2): 43-52.
  • Franklin, A. H. 1959. Ginkgo biloba L.: Historical summary and bibliography. Virginia J. Sci. 10: 131-76.
  • Friedman, W. E. 1987. Growth and development of the male gametophyte on Ginkgo biloba within the ovule (in vivo). Amer. J. Bot. 74(12): 1797-815.
  • Friedman, W. E.; Gifford, E. M. 1988. Division of the generative cell and late development in the male gametophyte of Ginkgo biloba. Amer. J. Bot. 75(9): 1434-42.
  • Fu, X. et al. et.al. 1994. A preliminary report of the study on pollination of Ginkgo. Guihaia 14(1): 81-4. (In Chinese; English summary)
  • Holt, B. F.; Rothwell, G. W. 1997. Is Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae) really an oviparous plant? Amer. J. Bot. 84: 870-2.
  • Hori, T. et.al. (eds.) (1997): 1997. Ginkgo biloba: a global treasure. From biology to medicine. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo. (ISBN 4431702040)
  • Jaynes, R. A. (eds.) (1969): 1969. Handbook of North American nut trees. Northern Nut Growers Association, Knoxville, TN. , 421 pages.
  • Karnosky, D. F. 1981. Chamber and field evaluations of air pollution tolerances of urban trees. J. Arboric. 7: 99-105. (Sulphur dioxide, ozone, & oxidants)
  • Lee, C. L. 1955. Fertilization in Ginkgo biloba. Bot. Gaz. 117(2): 79-100.
  • Li, H. L. 1956. A horticultural and botanical history of Ginkgo. Morris Arbor. Bull. 7: 3-12.
  • Ma, F. S.; Li, J. X. 1991. Ginkgo biloba: the ovuliferous leaf and its phylogenetic implication. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 29(2): 187-9. (In Chinese; English summary)
  • Major, R. T. 1967. The Ginkgo, the most ancient living tree. Science 157: 1270-3.
  • Mitchell, R. S. (eds.) (1992): 1992. Pinophyta (Gymnosperms) of New York State. Vol. NY State Museum Bull. 483. Univ. of the state of NY, Albany, NY. , 80 pages.
  • Newcomer, E. H. 1939. Pollen longevity of Ginkgo. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 66: 121-3.
  • Newcomer, E. H. 1945. Induced parthenocarpy in Ginkgo. Amer. Naturalist 79: 186-7.
  • Norstog, K. J; Gifford, E. M.; Stevenson, D. W. 2004. Comparative development of the spermatozoids of cycads and Ginkgo biloba. Bot. Rev. 70: 5-15.
  • Pacini, E.; Franchi, G. G.; Ripaccioli, M. 1999. Ripe pollen structure and histochemistry of some gymnosperms. Pl. Syst. Evol. 217: 81-99.
  • Rhoads, A. F.; Meyer, P. W.; Sanfelippo, R. 1981. Performance of urban street trees evaluated. J. Arboric. 7: 127-132.
  • Sahashi, N.; Ueno, J. 1986. Pollen morphology of Ginkgo biloba and Cycas revoluta. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 3075-8.
  • Santamour, F. S.; He, S. A.; Ewert, T. E. 1983. Growth, survival and sex expression in Ginkgo. J. Arboric. 9(6): 170-1.
  • Schaffner, J. H. 1927. Ginkgo a flowerless seed plant. Amer. J. Bot. 14: 126-8.
  • Sharma, G. K. 1989. Modification in Ginkgo biloba L. in response to environmental pollution. J. Tennessee Acad. Sci. 64: 26-8.
  • Sobolik, V. 1978. The ginkgo: history of a unique tree. Morton Arbor. Quart. 14(4): 61-4.
  • Tulecke, W. 1954. Preservation and germination of the pollen of Ginkgo under sterile conditions. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 81: 509-512.
  • Tulecke, W. 1957. The pollen of Ginkgo biloba: in vitro culture and tissue formation. Amer. J. Bot. 44: 602-8.
  • West, W. C.; Frattarelli, F. J.; Russin, K. J. 1970. Effect of stratification and gibberellin on seed germination in Ginkgo biloba. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 97: 380-8.
  • Williams, R. S. 1926. Ginkgo biloba. Addisonia 11: 19-20.
  • Zhao, Y. et.al. 2010. Out of China: distribution history of Ginkgo biloba L. Taxon 59: 495-504.