Genus: Lindera

Lindera - Spicebush

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/15/2013

Back to Lauraceae


Lindera Thunb., Nov. Gen. Pl. 3: 64. 1783, nom. cons. TYPE: Lindera umbellata Thunb.

Benzoin Boerhaave ex J.C. Shaeffer, Bot. Exp. 60. 1760, nom. rej. Calosmon Bercht. & J. Presl, Prir. Rostlin 2: 71. 1825. Ozanthes Raf., Sylva Tellur. 133. 1838, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). TYPE: Benzoin odoriferum C.G.D. Nees (=Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume), designated by Wallich (1831).

Key to the species of Lindera


List of Lindera Species

References to Lindera

  • Boyle, E. M. 1980. Vascular anatomy of the flower, seed and fruit of Lindera benzoin. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 107: 409-17.
  • Carr, M. E. 1985. Plant species evaluated for new crop potential. Econ. Bot. 39(3): 336-45.
  • Champlin, R. L. 1977. Red form of Lindera benzoin. Rhodora 79(817): 166.
  • Cipollini, M. L.; Drake, B. G.; Whigham, D. 1993. Effects of elevated CO2 on growth and carbon/nutrient balance in the deciduous woody shrub Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume (Lauraceae). Oecologia 96: 339-46.
  • Cipollini, M. L.; Whigham, D. F. 1994. Sexual dimorphism and cost of reproduction in the dioecious shrub Lindera benzoin (Lauraceae). Amer. J. Bot. 81: 65-75.
  • Cooperrider, T. S.; McCready, G. A. 1975. On separtating Ohio specimens of Lindernia dubia and {L. anagallidea. Castanea 40: 191-197.
  • Davidar, P.; Morton, E. S. 1986. The relationship between fruit crop sizes and fruit removal rates by birds. Ecology 67: 262-5.
  • Davidson, D. W. 1966. Response of six shrub species to light regimes in two controlled-environment rooms. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 93: 432-437.
  • Endress, P. K.; Igersheim, A. 1997. Gynoecium diversity and systematics of the Laurales. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 125: 93-168.
  • Godt, M. J. W.; Hamrick, J. L. 1996. Allozyme diversity in the endangered shrub Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) and its widespread congener Lindera benzoin. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 2080-7.
  • Hoppes, W. G. 1988. Seedfall pattern of several species of bird-dispersed plants in an Illinois woodland. Ecology 69: 320-329.
  • Hoss, G. 2006. Propagation protocol for spicebush. Native Plants J. 7: 134-136.
  • Huebner, C. D.; Randolph, J. C.; Parker, G. R. 1995. Environmental factors affecting understory diversity in second-growth deciduous forests. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 134: 155-65.
  • Jensen, H. W. 1942. The abnormal meiosis of Benzoin aestivale in relation to the origin of sex chromosomes. Amer. Naturalist 76: 109-12.
  • Kempf, J. S.; Pickett, S. T. A. 1981. The role of branch length and angle in branching pattern of forest shrubs along a successional gradient. New Phyt. 88: 111-116.
  • Lloyd, C. G. 1887. Lindera benzoin. Drugs Med. N. Amer. 2: 117-9.
  • Luken, J. O.; Kuddes, L. M.; Tholemeier, T. C.; Haller, D. M. 1997. Comparative responses of Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) and Lindera benzoin (spicebush) to increased light. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 138: 331-43.
  • Medley, K. E. 1996. Dieback in the native shrub, Lindera benzoin (Lauraceae): a subtle effect of forest fragmentation. Ohio J. Science 96: 76-80.
  • Meyer, G. A.; Witmer, M. C. 1998. Influence of seed processing by frugivorous birds on germination success of three North American shrubs. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 140: 129-139.
  • Mitchell, R. S.; Beal, E. D. (eds.) (1979): 1979. Magnoliaceae through Ceratophyllaceae of New York State. Vol. NY State Museum Bull. 435. Vol. Contributions to a Flora of New York State II.. Univ. of the state of NY, Albany, NY.
  • Moore, L. A.; Willson, M. F. 1982. The effect of microhabitat, spatial distribution, and display size on dispersal of Lindera benzoin by avian frugivores. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 557-60.
  • Nash, G. V. 1920. Benzoin aestivale. Addisonia 5: 15-6.
  • Nicola, A.; Pickett, S. T. A. 1983. The adaptive architecture of shrub canopies: leaf display and biomass allocation in relation to light environment. New Phyt. 93: 301-310.
  • Niesenbaum, R. A. 1992. Sex ratio, components of reproduction, and pollen deposition in Lindera benzoin (Lauraceae). Amer. J. Bot. 79: 495-500.
  • Niesenbaum, R. A. 1994. Spatial and temporal variation in pollen tube numbers in Lindera benzoin (spicebush). Canad. J. Bot. 72(2): 268-71.
  • Niesenbaum, R. A. 1992. The effects of light environment on herbivory and growth in the deciduous shrub Lindera benzoin (Lauraceae). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 128: 270-5.
  • Niesenbaum, R. A. 1996. Linking herbivory and pollination: defoliation and selective fruit abortion in Lindera benzoin. Ecology 77: 2324-31.
  • Niesenbaum, R. A.; Casper, B. B. 1994. Pollen tube numbers and selective fruit maturation in Lindera benzoin. Amer. Naturalist 144(1): 184-91.
  • Paratley, R. D. 1986. Vegetation-environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 113: 357-371.
  • Petzold, V. 1907. Systematisch-anatomische Untersuchungen ³ber die Laubblõtter der amerikanischen Lauraceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 445-77. (In German)
  • Pickett, S. T. A.; Kempf, J. S. 1980. Branching patterns in forest shrubs and understory trees in relation to habitat. New Phyt. 86: 219-228.
  • Plants for a Future Database Committee; Anonymous 2003. Plants for a future database.
  • Primack, R. B. 1985. Sex ratio and sexual constancy in spicebush (Lindera benzoin). Rhodora 87(851): 305-8.
  • Robinson, B. L. 1906. The nomenclature of the New England Lauraceae. Rhodora 8: 196-9.
  • Schroeder, E. M. 1935. Dormancy in seeds of Benzoin aestivale L. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 7: 411-9.
  • Spongberg, S. A. 1975. Lauraceae hardy in temperate North America. J. Arnold Arbor. 56: 1-19.
  • Tsui, H. P. 1987. A study on the system of Lindera. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 25(3): 161-71. (In Chinese; English summary)
  • Tucker, A. O.; Maciarello, M. J.; Burbage, P. W.; Sturtz, G. 1994. Spicebush (Linera benzoin Blume var. benzoin, Lauraceae): a tea, spice, and medicine. Econ. Bot. 48(3): 333-6.
  • Veres, J. S.; Pickett, S. T. A. 1982. Branching patterns of Lindera benzoin beneath gaps and closed canopies. New Phyt. 91: 767-72.
  • Wood, C. E. 1958. The citation of some genera of the Lauraceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 39(3): 213-5.
  • Wood, C. E. 1958. The genera of the woody Ranales of the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 39(3): 296-346.
  • van der Werff, H. 1991. A key to the genera of Lauraceae in the New World. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 78: 377-87. (Spanish translation of key included)
  • van der Werff, H.; Richter, H. G. 1996. Toward an improved classification of Lauraceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83: 409-18.