New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Salix

Salix - Willow

By Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 03/15/2013

Back to Salicaceae

Nomenclature

Salix L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1015. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 477. 1754. TYPE: Salix alba L. designated by Britton & Brown (1913) or Salix pentandra Hitchcock & Green (1929)

Vetrix Raf., Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 1: 439. 1817. TYPE: Not designated.

Vimen Raf., Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 1: 439. 1817. TYPE: Not designated.

Oisodix Raf., Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 1: 439. 1817. TYPE: Not designated.

Usionis Raf., Alsogr. Amer. 14. 1838. TYPE: Not designated.

Ripselaxis Raf., Alsogr. Amer. 14. 1838. TYPE: Ripselaxis herbacea (L.) Raf. (=Salix herbacea L.).

Nectolis Raf., Alsogr. Amer. 15. 1838. TYPE: Not designated.

Amerina Raf., Alsogr. Amer. 15. 1838. TYPE: Not designated.

Diplusion Raf., Alsogr. Amer. 15. 1838. TYPE: Not designated.

Knafia Opiz, Seznam 56. 1852. TYPE: Unknown.

Lusekia Opiz, Seznam 61. 1852. TYPE: Unknown.

List of Salix Species

References to Salix

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  • Andersson, N. J. 1867. Monographia Salicum. Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl. 6: i-v,1-180.
  • Antibus, R. K.; Trappe, J. M.; Linkins, A. E. 1980. Cyanide resistant respiration in Salix nigra endomycorrhizae. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 14-20.
  • Argus, G. W. 1997. Infrageneric classification of Salix (Salicaceae) in the New World. American Society of Plant Taxonomists, Ann Arbor, MI. , 121 pages. (Systematic Botany Monographs; Vol. 52)
  • Argus, G. W. 1974. An experimental study of hybridization and pollination in Salix (willow). Canad. J. Bot. 52: 1613-1619.
  • Argus, G. W. 1986. Studies of the Salix lucida and Salix reticulata complexes in North America. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 541-551.
  • Argus, G. W. 1984. Salix occidentalis Walter, the correct name for S. tristis Aiton (Salicaceae). Brittonia 36: 328-329.
  • Argus, G. W. 1980. The typification and identity of Salix eriocephala Michx. (Salicaceae). Brittonia 32(2): 170-7.
  • Argus, G. W. 2007. Salix (Salicaceae) distribution maps and a synopsis of their classification in North America, north of Mexico. Harvard Papers in Botany 12: 335-368.
  • Argus, G. W. 1986. The genus Salix (Salicaceae) in the southeastern United States. Systematic Botany Monographs 9: 170 p..
  • Argus, G. W. 1984. The identity of Salix conifera Salicaceae. Brittonia 36: 321-327.
  • Azuma, T et.al. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of Salix (Salicaceae) based on rbcL sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 67-75.
  • Ball, C. R. 1948. Salix petiolaris. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 75: 178-87.
  • Berry, E. W. 1917. Notes on the history of the willows and poplars. Pl. World 20: 16-28.
  • Binns, W. W.; Blunden, G.; Woods, D. L. 1968. Distribution of leucoanthocyanidins, phenolic glycosides, and amino-acids in leaves of Salix species. Phytochemistry 7: 1577-81.
  • Blackburn, K. B.; Heslop-Harrison, J. W. 1924. A preliminary account of the chromosomes and chromosome behavior in the Salicaceae. Ann. Bot. (London) 38: 361-378.
  • Brunsfeld, S. J.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S. 1991. Patterns of genetic variation in Salix section Longifoliae (Salicaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 78(6): 855-69.
  • Buchler, W. 1996. Phyllotaxis and morphology of proximal leaves on vegetative axillary shoots of Salix and their systematic implications. Bot. Helvetica 106: 31-44.
  • Chamberlain, C. J. 1897. Contributions to the life history of Salix. Bot. Gaz. 23: 147-79.
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  • Chmelar, J. 1981. Taxonomic importance of nectary structure in the genus Salix. Folia Dendrol. 8: 5-23. (In Chech; English summary)
  • Chmelar, J. 1977. Taxonomic importance of capsule seed number in the genus Salix L. Cas. Slezsk. Muz., C, Dendrol. 26(1): 1-7. (In Chech; English summary)
  • Chmelar, J. 1978. Taxonomic importance of bud scales in the Salix genus. Folia Dendrol. 4: 5-21. (In Chech; English, German, & Russian summaries)
  • Chong, D. K. X.; Zsuffa, L.; Aravanopoulos, F. A. 1995. Genetic relationship between Salix exigua and other North American willows (Salix L.): evidence from allozyme variation. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 23: 767-71.
  • Collinson, M. E. 1992. The early fossil history of the Salicaceae. Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. B Biol. Sci. 98: 155-167.
  • Cronquist, A. 1971. On the nomenclature of Salix bebbiana Sarg. Rhodora 73(796): 558-9.
  • Crovello, T. J. 1966. Quantitative taxonomic studies in the genus Salix. Ph.D. Thesis University of California Herbarium,
  • Daigle, B. I.; Simpson, J. D. 2009. Collecting and processing Salicaceae seeds. Native Plants J. 10: 48-51.
  • Dawes, D. 2003. Using a shop vacuum to clean Salicaceae seeds. Native Plants J. 4: 140.
  • Denneler, B; Bergeron, Y.; Begin, Y. 1999. An attempt to explain the distribution of the tree species composing the riparian forests of Lake Duparquet, southern boreal region of Quebec, Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 77: 1744-1755.
  • Dionigi, C. P. 1982. The effects of soil waterlogging on the growth and distribution of Salix nigra and S. exigua (Salicaceae) plants in the Atchafalaya River basin of Louisiana. M.S. Thesis Univ. Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette,
  • Dionigi, C. P.; Mendelssohn, I. A.; Sullivan, V. I. 1985. Effects of soil waterlogging on the energy status and distribution of Salix nigra and S. exigua (Salicaceae)in the Atchafalaya River basin of Louisiana. Amer. J. Bot. 72(1): 109-19.
  • Dorn, R. D. 1975. A systematic study of Salix section Cordatae in North America. Canad. J. Bot. 53(15): 1491-522.
  • Dorn, R. D. 1976. A synopsis of American Salix. Canad. J. Bot. 54: 2769-2789.
  • Dorn, R. D. 1998. A taxonomic study of Salix section Longifoliae (Salicaceae). Brittonia 50: 193-210.
  • Dorn, R. D. 1994. North American Salix (Salicaceae): Typification and notes. Phytologia 77(2): 89-95.
  • Dorn, R. D. 1975. Cytological and taxonomic notes on North American Salix. Madrono 23: 99. (see also Diss. Abstr. Int., B 35(7):3182. 1975.)
  • Dorn, R. D. 1995. A taxonomic study of Salix section Cordatae subsection Luteae (Salicaceae). Brittonia 47(2): 160-74.
  • Falinski, J. B. 1980. Changes in the sex- and age-ration in populations of pioneer dioecious woody species (Juniperus, Populus, Salix) in connection with the course of vegetation succession in abandoned farmlands. Ekologia Polska 28: 327-65.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1946. Technical studies on North American plants. II. Difficulties in North American Salix. Rhodora 48: 13-6,27-49.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1904. Two northeastern allies of Salix lucida. Rhodora 6: 1-8.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1909. Salix pedicellaris and its variations. Rhodora 11: 157-62.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1912. Salix serissima in southern Connecticut. Rhodora 14: 80.
  • Fisher, M. J. 1923. The anatomy of the flower of the Salicaceae. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY165 p.
  • Fisher, M. J. 1928. The morphology and anatomy of the flowers of the Salicaceae I. Amer. J. Bot. 15: 307-326.
  • Fisher, M. J. 1928. The morphology and anatomy of the flowers of the Salicaceae II. Amer. J. Bot. 15: 372-394.
  • Fleming, G. P.; Ludwig, J. C. 1996. Noteworthy collections- Virginia. Castanea 61: 89-94.
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  • Fontana, A. 1962. Researches on the mycorrhizae of the genus Salix. Allionia 8: 67-85.
  • Forbes, F. F. 1909. Salix subsericea a distinct species. Rhodora 11: 9-12.
  • Fox, J. F. 1992. Pollen limitation of reproductive effort in willows. Oecologia 90: 283-7.
  • Glenn, Steven D. 1996. Bee (Andrena sp.) visiting Salix flowers.
  • Glenn, Steven D. 1995. Honeybees (Apis sp.) and bumblebees (Bombus sp.) visiting various willow ({Salix spp.) flowers.
  • Graenicher, S. 1900. The fertilization and insect visitors of our earliest entomophilous flowers. Bull. Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. 1: 73-84.
  • Groendijk-Wilders, N.; Brandenburg, W. A.; Jarvis, C. E. 1988. Lectotypification of Salix alba L. (Salicaceae). Taxon 37: 164-7.
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  • Holden, R. 1912. Reduction and reversion in the North American Salicales. Ann. Bot. 26: 165-173.
  • Hosner, J. F. 1958. The effects of complete inundation upon seedlings of six bottomland tree species. Ecology 39: 371-3.
  • Hunter, J. C.; Mattice, J. A. 2002. The spread of woody exotics into the forests of a northeastern landscape, 1938-1999. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129: 220-227.
  • Jarvis, C. E. 1992. Seventy-two proposals for the conservation of types of selected Linnaean generic names, the report of Subcommittee 3C on the lectotypification of Linnaean generic names. Taxon 41: 552-83.
  • Julkunen-Tiitto, R. 1986. A chemotaxonomic survey of phenolics in leaves of northern Salicaceae species. Phytochemistry 25: 663-668.
  • Karrenberg, S.; Suter, M. 2003. Phenotypic trade-offs in the sexual reproduction of Salicaceae from flood plains. Amer. J. Bot. 90: 749-754. (5)
  • Kawase, M. 1964. Centrifugation, rhizocaline and rooting in Salix alba L. Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 17: 855-65.
  • Kehl, A. et.al. 2008. Genotypical and multiple phenotypical traits discriminate Salix x rubens Schrank clearly from its parent species. Pl. Syst. Evol. 275: 169-179.
  • Kim, K. H.; Zsuffa, L.; Keeney, A.; Mosseler, A. 1990. Interspecific and intraspecific variation in pollen morphology in four species of Salix. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 1497-501. (French summary)
  • Koncalova, M. N.; Jicinska, D. 1982. Ecological factors of flowering and pollen quality in three willow species. Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 17(2): 197-205.
  • Kopp, R. F. et.al. 2002. Collection and storage of pollen from Salix. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 248-252.
  • Krichfalushii, V. V.; Holyshkin, L. V. 1985. Chromosome numbers of representatives of the genus Salix. Ukrayins'k Bot. Zhurn. 42: 33-34. (In Ukranian)
  • Krizo, M. 1977. Contribution to the knowledge of pollen grains of hybrids in the genus Salix L. Folia Dendrol. 3: 55-74. (In Chech; English, German, & Russian summaries)
  • Kuzovkina, Y. A.; Knee, M.; Quigley, M. F. 2004. Effects of soil compaction and flooding on the growth of 12 willow (Salix L.) species. J. Environ. Hort. 22: 155-160.
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  • Lautenschlager, F. D. et.al. 1993. On the distinction of Salix fragilis from its hybrid Salix x rubens. Bauhinia 11: 35-36. (In German)
  • Leskinen, E.; Alstrom-Rapaport, C. 1999. Molecular phylogeny of Salicaceae and closely related Flacourtiaceae: evidence from 5.8S, ITS 1 and ITS 2 of the rDNA. Pl. Syst. Evol. 215: 209-227.
  • Lin, J. et.al. 2009. Population genetic structure of native versus naturalized sympatric shrub willows (Salix; Salicaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 96: 771-785. (S. purpurea & S. eriocephala)
  • Lovell, J. H. 1897. Fertilization of Alnus incana and Salix discolor. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24: 264-5.
  • Malyutina, E. T. 1972. On the morphological nature of flower parts in some species of the genus Salix and possible ways of their evolution. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 57(5): 524-30. (In Russian; see also Bot. Zhur. 57(6):623-631. 1972.)
  • Malyutina, E. T.; Malyutin, K. G. 1975. Morphology and evolution of Salix L. flower. (Abstract only)
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  • McLeod, K. W.; McPherson, J. K. 1973. Factors limiting the distribution of Salix nigra. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 100: 102-10.
  • Meeuse, A. D. J. 1978. Entomophily in Salix: theoretical considerations. In: The pollination of flowers by insects, Linnean Soc. Symp. No. 6. Academic Press, New York, London. , 47-50 pages.
  • Mehrhoff, L. J. 1985. Notes on the flora of Connecticut -I. The Salicaceae of Connecticut. Newsletter Conn. Bot. Soc. 13(March): 9-12.
  • Meikle, R. D. 1984. Willows and poplars of Great Britian and Ireland. Botanical Society of the British Isles, London. , 198 pages. (Despite title, covers many species found in the northeastern USA)
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  • Mosseler, A. 1990. Hybrid performance and species crossability relationships in willows (Salix). Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2329-38. (French summary)
  • Mosseler, A. 1989. Interspecific pollen-pistil incongruity in Salix. Canad. J. Forest Res. 19: 1161-8.
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  • Mosseler, A.; Zsuffa, L. 1989. Sex expression and sex ratios in intra- and interspecific hybrid families of Salix L. Silvae Genet. 38: 12-7.
  • Mueller, M. H. et.al. 2002. The potential role of ducks in wetland seed dispersal. Wetlands 22: 170-178.
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  • Orians, C. M.; Roche, B. M.; Fritz, R. S. 1996. The genetic basis for variation in the concentration of phenolic glycosides in Salix sericea: an analysis of heritability. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 24: 719-24.
  • Ottenbreit, K. A.; Staniforth, R. J. 1992. Life cycle and age structure of ramets in an expanding population of Salix exigua (sandbar willow). Canad. J. Bot. 70(6): 1141-6.
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  • Santamour, F. S. 1992. Biochemical verification of hybridity in weeping willow. J. Arboric. 18(1): 6-9. (Also S. alba & S. fragilis)
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Other Links

Interactive Salix key:

http://aknhp.uaa.alaska.edu/botany/salix-salicaceae-identification-using-intkey/