New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Acer

Acer saccharum
Acer pensylvanicum   L.  -  Striped Maple

Photo © by Peter Nelson
Taken at Lake Mohonk, NY, 1991.

Acer spicatum
Acer pensylvanicum   L.  -  Striped Maple

Photo © by Peter Nelson
Taken at Lake Mohonk, NY, 1991.

Acer rubrum
Acer pensylvanicum   L.  -  Striped Maple

Photo © by Peter Nelson
Taken at Lake Mohonk, NY, 1991.

Acer pensylvanicum bark
Acer pensylvanicum   L.  -  Striped Maple

Photo © by Peter Nelson
Taken at Lake Mohonk, NY, 1991.

Acer pensylvanicum
Acer pensylvanicum   L.  -  Striped Maple

Photo © by Peter Nelson
Taken at Lake Mohonk, NY, 1991.

Acer negundo
Acer pensylvanicum   L.  -  Striped Maple

Photo © by Peter Nelson
Taken at Lake Mohonk, NY, 1991.

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/29/2013

Back to Sapindaceae

Nomenclature

Acer L., Sp. Pl. 1054. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 474. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Acer pseudoplatanus L., designated by Britton & Shafer (1908).

Negundo Boehmer in Ludwig, Def. Gen. ed. Boehmer 508. 1760. Rulac Adanson, Fam. 2: 383. 1763, nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). Negundium Raf., Atlantic J. 176. 1833 nom. illeg. (Art. 52.1). TYPE: Negundo aceroides Moench (=Acer negundo L.)

Acer subgen. saccharodendron Raf., Fl. N. Am. 47. 1836. Saccharodendron (Raf.) Nieuwland, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 182. 1914. TYPE: Saccharodendron barbatum (Michx.) Nieuwland (Acer saccharum Marshall).

Euacer Opiz, Oekon. Neuigk. Verh. 58: 522. 1839. TYPE: Euacer platanoides (L.) Opiz (Acer platanoides L.)

Rufacer J. K. Small, Man. S. E. Fl. 825, 1505. 1933. TYPE: Apparently two elements.

Argentacer J. K. Small, Man. S. E. Fl. 825, 1505. 1933. TYPE: Argentacer saccharinum (L.) J. K. Small (Acer saccharinum L.).

Key to the species of Acer

1. Leaves compound...Acer negundo
1. Leaves simple...2

2. Leaf lobes rounded...Acer campestre
2. Leaf lobes acute or acuminate...3

3. Leaves silvery-white beneath...4
3. Leaves not silvery-white beneath...8

4. Lobes of leaves crenate-serrate...Acer pseudoplatanus
4. Lobes of leaves sharply serrate...5

5. Buds pointed, not reddish...6
5. Buds blunt, reddish...7

6. Leaf blades flat...Acer saccharum
6. Leaf blades with drooping margins...Acer nigrum

7. Terminal leaf lobe less to slightly more than half the length of the blade...Acer rubrum
7. Terminal leaf lobe well over half the length of the blade...Acer saccharinum

8. Leaves with 5-9 lobes...Acer palmatum
8. Leaves with 5 or fewer lobes...9

9. Leaves generally with 3 lobes, with serrate margins...10
9. Leaves generally with 5 lobes, with entire or coarsely dentate margins...Acer platanoides

10. Buds with several pairs of imbricate scales, sessile...Acer ginnala
10. Buds with 1 pair of valvate scales visible, stalked...11

11. Twigs and buds glabrous; bark of older branches white-striped...Acer pensylvanicum
11. Twigs and buds pubescent; bark not striped...Acer spicatum

List of Acer Species

References to Acer

  • Abrams, M. D. 1998. The red maple paradox. Bioscience 48: 355-364.
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  • Abrams, M. D.; Kubiske, M. E. 1990. Photosynthesis and water relations during drought in Acer rubrum L. genotypes from contrasting sites in central Pennsylvania. Funct. Ecol. 4: 727-33.
  • Abrams, M. D.; Kubiske, M. E.; Mostoller, S. A. 1994. Relating wet and dry year ecophysiology to leaf structure in contrasting temperate tree species. Ecology 75: 123-33.
  • Abrell, D. B.; Jackson, M. T. 1977. A decade of change in an old-growth beech-maple forest in Indiana. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 98: 22-32.
  • Ackerly, D. D.; Donoghue, M. J. 1998. Leaf size, sapling allometry, and Corner's rules: phylogeny and correlaterd evolution in maples (Acer). Amer. Naturalist 152: 767-791.
  • Ahlgren, C. E. 1957. Phenological observations of nineteen native tree species in northeastern Minnesota. Ecology 38: 622-8.
  • Allen, D. C.; Barnett, C. J.; Millers, I.; Lachance, D. 1992. Temporal change (1988-1990) in sugar maple health, and factors associated with crown condition. Canad. J. Forest Res. 22(11): 1776-84.
  • Allen, D. C.; Bauce, E.; Barnett, C. J. 1992. Sugar maple declines- causes, effects, and recommendations. In: Forest Decline Concepts. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. , 123-36 pages.
  • Allen, D. C.; Molloy, A. W. 1997. Temporal change in sugar maple crown condition from 1988-1996.
  • Allison, S. K.; Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1999. The influence of microhabitat variation on seedling recruitment of Chamaecyparis thyoides and Acer rubrum. Wetlands 19: 383-393.
  • Almstedt, M. F. 1933. An anatomical study of the inflorescence of certain species of Acer. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY18 p.
  • Altpeter, L. S. 1944. Use of vegetation in control of streambank erosion in Northern New England. J. Forest. 42(2): 99-107.
  • Ambler, M. A. 1965. Seven alien plant species. William L. Hutcheson Memorial For. Bull. 2: 1-8.
  • Ames, O. I. 1939. Survey of hurricane damage at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Arborist's News 4(1): 5-6.
  • Amthor, J. S.; Gill, D. S.; Bormann, F. H. 1990. Autumnal laef conductance and apparent photosythesis by saplings and sprouts in a recently disturbed northern hardwood forest. Oecologia 84: 93-8.
  • Anderson, A. B. 1955. Recovery and utilization of tree extractives. Econ. Bot. 9(2): 108-40.
  • Anderson, F.; Hubricht, L. 1938. The American sugar maples I. Phylogenetic relationships, as deduced from a study of leaf variation. Bot. Gaz. 100: 312-23.
  • Anderson, N. F.; Guard, A. T. 1964. A comparative study of the vegetative, transitional and floral apex of Acer pseudoplatanus L. Phytomorphology 15: 500-8.
  • Anderson, N. J. F. 1964. A comparative study of the vegetative and floral apex of Acer pseudoplatanus L. Ph.D. Dissertation Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN,
  • Anderson, R. 1999. Disturbance as a factor in the distribution of sugar maple and the invasion of Norway maple into a modified woodland. Rhodora 101: 264-273.
  • Anella, L. B.; Whitlow, T. H. 2000. Photosynthetic response to flooding of Acer rubrum seedlings from wet and dry sites. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 143: 330-341.
  • Anella, L. B.; Whitlow, T. H. 1998. Germination of Acer rubrum seeds collected from wet and dry habitats. Seed Sci. Tech. 26: 755-762.
  • Anonymous 1890. Proceedings of the Club. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 17: 300.
  • Anonymous 1880. Proceedings of the Torrey Club. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 7: 73.
  • Anonymous 1974. Norway maple: Acer platanoides maple family (Aceraceae). Morton Arbor. Quart. 10(3): 40-1.
  • Apple, J. D.; Manion, P. D. 1986. Increment core analysis of declining Norway maples, Acer platanoides. Urban Ecology 9: 309-21.
  • Aritomi, M. 1962. Studies on the chemical constitutents in leaves of Acer palmatum Thunberg. J. Pharm. Soc. Japan 82: 1329-31.
  • Aritomi, M. 1964. Chemical constitutents in Aceraceous plants. II. Flavanoid constituents in leaves of Acer carpinifolium Siebold et Zuccarini, A. diabolicum Blume, A. marmoratum Hara form. dissectum Rehder, and A. negundo Lin J. Pharm. Soc. Japan 84: 360-2.
  • Aritomi, M. 1963. Chemical constitutents in leaves of Acer palmatum Thunberg. J. Pharm. Soc. Japan 83: 737-40.
  • Arthur, M. A.; Paratley, R. D. 1998. Single and repeated fires affect survival and regeneration of woody and herbaceous species in an oak-pine forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125: 225-236.
  • Axelrod, D. I. 1983. Biogeography of oaks in the arcto-tertiary province. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 629-57. (Many other genera disscussed)
  • Bachtell, K. R. 1989. A fortunate blend. Amer. Nurseryman April 15: 41-51.
  • Bailey, L. H. 1888. The black maple. Bot. Gaz. 13: 213-4.
  • Baker, H. G. 1986. Patterns of plant invasion in North America. In: Ecology of biological invasions of North America and Hawaii. Springer-Verlag, New York. , 96-110 pages.
  • Baldwin, I. T.; Schultz, J. T. 1984. Tannins lost from sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) and yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis Britt.) leaf litter. Biol. Biochem. 16(4): 421-2.
  • Ballal, S. R.; Foré, S. A.; Guttman, S. I. 1994. Apparent gene flow and genetic structure of Acer saccharum subpopulations in forest fragments. Canad. J. Bot. 72(9): 1311-5.
  • Balter, H.; Loeb, R. E. 1983. Arboreal relationships on limestone and gneiss in northern New Jersey and southeastern New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 370-9.
  • Baltzer, J. L.; Thomas, S. C. 2005. Leaf optical responses to light and soil nutrient availability in temperate deciduous trees. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 214-223.
  • Barden, L. S. 1983. Size, age, and growth rate of trees in canopy gaps of a cove hardwood forest in the southern Appalachians. Castanea 48: 19-23.
  • Barrett, J. W.; Farnsworth, C. E.; Rutherford, W. Jr. 1962. Logging effects on regeneration and certain aspects of microclimate in northern hardwoods. J. Forest. 60(9): 630-9.
  • Bartlett, R. M.; Larson, D. W. 1990. The physiological basis for the contrasting distribution patterns of Acer saccharum and Thuja occidentalis at cliff edges. J. Ecol. 78: 1063-1078.
  • Bartlett, R. M.; Matthes-Sears, U.; Larson, D. W. 1991. Microsite- and age-specific processes controlling natural populations of Acer saccharum at cliff edges. Canad. J. Bot. 69(3): 552-9.
  • Basinger, M. A. 1999. Notes on some naturalized woody plant species new to Illinois. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 92: 32-36.
  • Bate-Smith, E. C. 1977. Astringent tannins of Acer species. Phytochemistry 16: 1421-6.
  • Bate-Smith, E. C. 1978. Systematic aspects of the astringent tannins of Acer species. Phytochemistry 17: 1945-8.
  • Bauce, E.; Allen, D. C. 1991. Etiology of a sugar maple decline. Canad. J. Forest Res. 21: 686-93.
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  • Berkeley, E. E. 1931. Marcescent leaves of certain species of Quercus. Bot. Gaz. 92: 85-93. (Also Acer, Fagus)
  • Bernier, B.; Brazeau, M. 1988. Nutrient deficiency symptoms associated with sugar maple dieback and decline in the Quebec Appalachians. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18(6): 762-7.
  • Bernston, G. M.; Bazzaz, F. A. 1996. The allometry of root production and loss in seedlings of Acer rubrum (Aceraceae) and Betula papyrifera (Betulaceae): implications for root dynamics in elevated CO2. Amer. J. Bot. 83(5): 608-16.
  • Bertin, R. I. et.al. 2005. Norway maple (Acer platanoides) and other non-native trees in urban woodlands of central Massachusetts. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132: 225-235.
  • Beskaravainaya, M. A. 1961. Ecology of flowering and fruiting of Acer negundo and its hybrids. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 46: 1171-7.
  • Betts, H. S. 1959. Maple (Acer species) (Revised).
  • Biesboer, D. D. 1975. Pollen morphology of the Aceraceae. Grana 15: 19-27.
  • Binggeli, P. 1990. Detection of protandry and protogyny in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) from infructescences. Watsonia 18: 17-20.
  • Binggeli, P.; Rushton, B. S. 1988. Schizocarpic fruits in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). BSBI News 49: 17-9.
  • Blaney, J. R.; Tryon, E. H.; Linsky, B. 1977. Effect of coal smoke on growth of four tree species. Castanea 42: 193-203.
  • Boerner, R. E. J.; Brinkman, J. A. 1996. Ten years of tree seedling establishment and mortality in an Ohio deciduous forest complex. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 309-17.
  • Boivin, B. 1966. Les variations d' Acer negundo au Canada. Naturaliste Canad. 93: 959-62.
  • Bonser, S. P.; Aarssen, L. W. 1994. Plastic allometry in young sugar maple (Acer saccharum): adaptive responses to light availability. Amer. J. Bot. 81(4): 400-6.
  • Bonson, K. J. M. 1996. Architecture, growth dynamics and autoecology of the sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). Arboric. J. 20(3): 339-54.
  • Bourgoin, A.; Simpson, J. D. 2004. Soaking, moist-chilling, and temperature effects on germination of Acer pensylvanicum seeds. Canad. J. Forest Res. 34: 2181-2185.
  • Bozzuto, L. M.; Wilson, B. F. 1988. Branch angle in red maple trees. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18(5): 643-5.
  • Brandt, C. J.; Rhoades, R. W. 1973. Effects of limestone dust accumulation on lateral growth of forest trees. Environmental Pollution 4: 207-13.
  • Britton, Nathaniel L. 1924. Acer rubrum. Addisonia 9: 19-20.
  • Brizicky, George K. 1963. The genera of Sapindales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 44: 462-501.
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  • Bruederle, L. P.; Stearns, F. W. 1985. Ice storm damage to a southern Wisconsin mesic forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112(2): 167-75.
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  • Buchenau, F. 1861. Morphologische Bemerkungen uber einige Acerineen. Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 19: 265-9, 273-8, 281-6.
  • Buchheim, A. F. G. 1991. A rare Portuguese monograph on the sugar-maple tree. Arch. Nat. Hist. 18(2): 185-9.
  • Buell, M. F.; Buell, H. F.; Small, J. A. 1973. Periodicity of tree growth in Hutcheson Memorial Forest. William L. Hutcheson Memorial For. Bull. 3: 24-6.
  • Bump, N. G. 1926. Some observations of forest tree seeds and the early development of the seedlings. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY64 p.
  • Burke, M. K.; Raynal, D. J. 1998. Liming influences growth and nutrient balances in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings on an acidic forest soil. Environm. Exp. Bot. 39: 105-16.
  • Burke, M. K.; Raynal, D. J.; Mitchell, M. J. 1992. Soil nutrogen availabilty influences seasonal carbon allocation patterns in sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Canad. J. Forest Res. 22: 447-56.
  • Burns, B. S.; Manion, P. D. 1984. Spatial distribution of declining urban maples. Urban Ecology 8: 127-37.
  • Burton, A. J.; Pregitzer, K. S.; Zogg, G. P.; Zak, D. R. 1996. Latitudinal variation in sugar maple fine root respiration. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 1761-8. (French summary)
  • Burton, P. J.; Bazzaz, F. A. 1991. Tree seedling emergence on interactive temperature and moisture gradients and in patches of old-field vegetation. Amer. J. Bot. 78(1): 131-49.
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  • Button, E. F.; Peaslee, D. E. 1967. The effect of rock salt upon roadside sugar maples in Connecticut. Highway Research Record 16: 121-31.
  • Cain, S. A.; Penfound, W. T. 1938. Aceretum rubi: the red maple swamp forest of central Long Island. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 19: 390-416.
  • Canham, C. D. 1984. Canopy recruitment in shade tolerant tree species: the response of Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia to canopy openings. Ph.D. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY174 p.
  • Canham, C. D. 1990. Suppression and release during canopy recruitment in Fagus grandifolia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 117: 1-7. (Also Acer)
  • Canham, C. D. 1988. Growth and canopy architecture of shade-tolerant trees: Response to canopy gaps. Ecology 69: 786-95.
  • Canham, C. D. 1985. Suppression and release during canopy recruitment of Acer saccharum. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112(2): 134-45.
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  • Dansereau, P.; Lafond, A. 1941. Introgression des carateres de l'acer saccharophorum (*) K. Koch et de l'acer nigrum Michx. Contrib. Inst. Bot. Univ. Montreal 37: 15-31.
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  • Davis, W. T. 1903. Notes on the time of flowering of a white maple. Proc. Nat. Sci. Assoc. Staten Island 8: 57.
  • Davison, S. E. 1981. Tree seedling survivorship at Hutcheson Memorial Forest New Jersey. William L. Hutcheson Memorial For. Bull. 6: 4-7.
  • Dawson, T. E.; Ehleringer, J. R. 1993. Gender-specific physiology, carbon isotope discrimination, and habitat distribution in boxelder, Acer negundo. Ecology 74(3): 798-815.
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  • Day, F. P.; Monk, C. D. 1977. Net primary production and phenology on a Southern Appalachian watershed. Amer. J. Bot. 64: 1117-25.
  • De Jong, P. C. 1976. Flowering and sex expressions in Acer L. A biosystematic study. Meded. Landbouwhogeschool 76: 1-201.
  • De Jong, P. C. 1990. Taxonomy and distribution of Acer. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Year Book 1990: 6-10.
  • De Steven, D. 1991. Experiments on mechanisms of tree establishment in old-field succession: seedling emergence. Ecology 72: 1066-75.
  • De Steven, D. 1991. Experiments on mechanisms of tree establishment in old-field succession: seedling survival and growth. Ecology 72: 1076-88.
  • Delendick, T. J. 1990. The chemotaxonomy of the Aceraceae. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Year Book 1990: 22-41.
  • Delendick, T. J. 1990. A survey of foliar flavonoids in the Aceraceae. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 54: 1-136.
  • Delendick, T. J. 1982. Infrageneric nomenclature in Acer (Aceraceae). Brittonia 34(1): 81-4.
  • Delucia, E. H.; Sipe, T. W.; Herrick, J.; Maherali, H. 1998. Sapling biomass allocation and growth in the understory of a deciduous hardwood forest. Amer. J. Bot. 85: 955-963.
  • Demos, E. K.; Peterson, P.; Williams, G. J. 1973. Frost tolerance among populations of Acer negundo L. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 89: 223-8.
  • Den Uyl, D. 1962. Survival and growth of hardwood plantations on strip mine spoil banks of Indiana. J. Forest. 60(9): 603-6.
  • Desmarais, Y. 1952. Dynamics of leaf variation in the sugar maples. Brittonia 7: 347-87.
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