Genus: Vitis

Vitis - Grape

By Steven Clemants

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 03/20/2013

Back to Vitaceae


Vitis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 202. 1753. Gen. Pl. 95. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Vitis vinifera L., designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Key to the species of Vitis

1. Flowers usually hermaphroditic; cultivated species, rarely if ever escaping...Vitis vinifera
1. Flowers unisexual; native species...3

2. Leaves pubescent beneath with long cobwebby hairs (at least when young), simple straight hairs may occur along the veins...3
2. Leaves pubescent beneath when young, especially along the veins, with short, rather straight and somewhat spreading hairs, glabrous at maturity except in vein axils...5

3. Tendrils and/or panicles not produced at more than 2 successive nodes; leaves at maturity usually densely white-tomentose beneath...Vitis aestivalis
3. Tendrils and/or panicles occasionally or regularly produced from 3 or more successive nodes; leaves at maturity either densely reddish-tomentose or merely pubescent or floccose on the veins beneath...4

4. Leaves permanently densely tomentose beneath, the surface concealed by the reddish pubescence...Vitis labrusca
4. Leaves at maturity merely pubescent or floccose along the veins beneath...Vitis ×novae-angliae

5. Growing tips enveloped by enlarging, unfolding leaves; nodal diaphragms less than 1 mm wide, usually less than 0.5 mm wide; leaves cuneiform...Vitis riparia
5. Growing tips not enveloped by enlarging, unfolding leaves; nodal diaphragms greater than 1 mm wide; leaves cordiform...6

6. Nodal diaphragms more than 2.5 mm wide; leaf apices usually long-acuminate; current year's branches red...Vitis palmata
6. Nodal diaphragms less than 2.5 mm wide; leaf apices acute or short-acuminate; current year's branches not red...Vitis vulpina

List of Vitis Species

References to Vitis

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  • Beach, S. A. 1898. Self-fertility of the grape. New York Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 157: 397-441.
  • Beach, S. A. 1899. Fertilizing self-sterile grapes. New York Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 169: 331-71.
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  • Benedict, H. M. 1915. Senile changes in leaves of Vitis vulpina L. and certain other plants. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 7
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  • Dorsey, M. J. 1912. Variation studies of the veination angles and leaf dimensions in Vitis. Proc. Am. Breeders Assoc. 7: 227-50.
  • Dorsey, M. J. 1914. Pollen development in the grape with special reference to sterility. Univ. Minn. Agric. Exper. Sta. Bull. 144: 1-60.
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  • Esau, K. 1948. Phloem structure in the grapevine, and its seasonal changes. Hilgardia 18: 217-96.
  • Esau, K. 1948. Anatomy and cytology of Vitis phloem. Hilgardia 37: 17-72.
  • Featherly, H. I. 1941. The effect of grapevines on trees. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 21: 61-2.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1936. Plants of the Outer Coastal Plain of Virginia. Rhodora 38: 376-404,414-52.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1917. A new Vitis from New England. Rhodora 19(224): 144-7.
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