New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Magnolia

Magnolia virginiana
Magnolia virginiana   L.  -  Sweet-bay
Photo © by Peter Nelson
Taken at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, NY, 1987.

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/15/2013

Back to Magnoliaceae

Nomenclature

Magnolia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 535. 1753. Gen. Pl. 240. 1754. TYPE: Magnolia virginiana L.

Talauma A. Juss., Gen. Pl. 281. 1789. TYPE: Talauma plumierii (Sw.) DC. (=Magnolia plumierii Sw.).

Yulania Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. 7: 462. 1839. TYPE: Not designated.

Tulipastrum Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. 7: 481. 1839. TYPE: Tulipastrum americanum Spach, nom. illeg. (=Magnolia acuminata L.).

Buergeria Siebold et Zucc., Fl. Jap. 1: 78. 1843. TYPE: Not designated.

Kobus Kaempf. ex Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 297. 1914. TYPE: Unknown.

Key to the species of Magnolia

1. Flowers appearing before the leaves...Magnolia kobus
1. Flowers appearing with or after the leaves...2

2. Leaves green beneath...3
2. Leaves glaucous beneath...4

3. Leaves widest near or below the middle, scattered along twig; winter terminal buds hairy...Magnolia acuminata
3. Leaves widest well above the middle, in terminal whorl-like clusters; winter terminal buds glabrous...Magnolia tripetala

4. Leaves acute to broadly rounded at base...Magnolia virginiana
4. Leaves distinctly cordate at base...Magnolia macrophylla

List of Magnolia Species

References to Magnolia

  • Afanasiev, M. 1937. A physiological study of dormancy in seed of Magnolia acuminata L. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY122 p.
  • Afanasiev, M. 1937. A physiological study of dormancy in seed of Magnolia acuminata. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 208: 1-37.
  • Andrews, F. M. 1901. Karyokinesis in Magnolia and Liriodendron, with special reference to behavior of chromosomes. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 11: 134-42.
  • Appleton, B. et.al. 1999. Evaluating trees for saltwater spray tolerance for oceanfront sites. J. Arboric. 25: 205-209.
  • Azuma, H. et.al. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the Magnoliaceae: the biogeography of tropical and temperate disjunctions. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 2275-2285.
  • Azuma, H. et.al. 2011. Intraspecific sequnce variation of cpDNA shows two distinct groups within Magnolia virginiana L. of eastern North America and Cuba. Castanea 76: 118-123.
  • Baranova, M. A. 1962. The structure of stomata and epidermal cells in Magnoliales as related to the taxonomy of the genus Magnolia L. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 47: 1108-15. (In Russian?)
  • Basinger, M. A. 1999. Notes on some naturalized woody plant species new to Illinois. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 92: 32-36.
  • Bõrtels, A. 1974. Amerikanische Magnolien. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 67: 55-9. (In German)
  • Callaway, D. J. 1994. The World of Magnolias. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 322 pages.
  • Callaway, D. J. 1994. Magnolias. B. T. Batsford, London. , 260 pages.
  • Canright, J. E. 1960. The comparative morphology and relationships of the Magnoliaceae. II. Carpels. Amer. J. Bot. 47: 145-55.
  • Coladoanto, M. 1991. Magnolia virginiana. ()
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1943. Cucumber tree. Amer. Forests 49: 352-3.
  • Dandy, J. E. 1927. Key to the species of Magnolia. J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 52: 260-4.
  • Daumann, E. 1930. Das Bl³tennektarium von Magnolia und die Futterk÷rper in der Bl³te von Calycanthus. Planta 11: 108-16. (In German)
  • Del Tredici, P. 1981. Magnolia virginiana in Massachusetts. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 41: 36-49.
  • Demuth, P.; Santamour, F. S. 1978. Carotenoid flower pigments in Liriodendron and Magnolia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 105: 65-6.
  • Earle, T. T. 1938. Origin of the seed coats in Magnolia. Amer. J. Bot. 25: 221-2.
  • Eaton, R. J. 1928. The present status of Magnolia virginiana in Massachusetts. Rhodora 30(358): 207-8.
  • Farr, C. H. 1918. Cell division by furrowing in Magnolia. Amer. J. Bot. 5: 379-95.
  • Figlar, R. B. 1998. Molecular analysis: a new look at umbrella magnolias. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 57: 22-9.
  • Fogg, J. M. Jr. 1961. The temperate American Magnolias. Morris Arbor. Bull. 12: 51-8.
  • Freeman, O. M. 1951. New Magnolia hybrids. Natl. Hort. Mag. 30: 132-5.
  • Freeman, O. M. 1937. A new Magnolia hybrid. Natl. Hort. Mag. 16: 161-2.
  • Gibson, H. H. 1906. American forest trees - 39. Cucumber tree, Magnolia acuminata Linn. Hardwood Rec. 23: 16-7.
  • Good, R. D. 1925. The past and present distribution of Magnoliae. Ann. Bot. (London) 39: 409-30.
  • Gray, A. 1858. A short exposition on the structure of the ovule and seed coats of Magnolia. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 2: 106-10.
  • Greller, A. M. et.al. 2011. Magnolia acuminata, M. macrophylla, and M. tripetala in oak-dominated forests on the North shore of Long Island, New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 138: 225-238.
  • Grier, N. M. 1917. Note on fruit of mountain Magnolia. Rhodora 19: 256.
  • Grieve, M. 1971. A Modern Herbal. 2 Vols. Dover Publications, Inc., New York. , 888 pages.
  • Hardin, J. W. 1954. An analysis of variation within Magnolia acuminata L. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 70: 298-312.
  • Hardin, J. W.; Jones, K. A. 1989. Atlas of foliar surface features in woody plants, X. Magnoliaceae of the United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 116: 164-73.
  • Harvill, A. M. 1964. The Magnolias of Virginia. Castanea 29: 186-8.
  • Heiser, C. B. Jr. 1962. Some observations on pollination and compatability in Magnolia. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 72: 259-66.
  • Jack, J. G. 1889. Magnolia glauca in its most northern home. Gard. & Forest 2: 363-4.
  • Johnson, D. L. 1989. Species and cultivars of the genus Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) cultivated in the United States. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY168 p.
  • Johnson, M. A.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1965. Comparison and interpretation of serological data in the Magnoliaceae. Bot. Gaz. 126(4): 260-9.
  • Jones, K. A. 1988. Foliar surface features of the Magnoliaceae native in the United States. M.S. Thesis North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC,
  • Kennedy, G. G. 1916. Some historical data regarding the sweet bay and its station on Cape Ann. Rhodora 18): 205-12.
  • Kim, S. et.al. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships in family Magnoliaceae inferred from NDHF sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 717-728.
  • Knapp, A. K.; Carter, G. A. 1998. Variability in leaf optical properties among 26 species from a broad range of habitats. Amer. J. Bot. 85: 940-946.
  • Leppik, E. E. 1976. Morphogenic stagnation in the evolution of Magnolia flowers. Phytomorphology 25(4): 451-64.
  • Li, J.; Conran, J. G. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in Magnoliaceae subfam. Magnolioideae: a morphological cladistic analysis. Pl. Syst. Evol. 242: 33-47.
  • Maneval, W. B. 1914. The development of Magnolia and Liriodendron. Bot. Gaz. 67: 1-31.
  • McDaniel, J. C. 1967. Self-infruitfulness of some Magnolias. Morris Arbor. Bull. 18: 64-9.
  • McDaniel, J. C. 1963. Recent hybridizations with American Magnolias. Inter. Prop. Soc. Comb. Proc. 13: 124-32.
  • McDaniel, J. C. 1966. Variations in the sweet bay magnolias. Morris Arbor. Bull. 17: 7-12.
  • McVaugh, R. 1936. The cucumber tree in eastern New York. Castanea 1: 39-41.
  • Mitchell, R. S.; Beal, E. D. (eds.) (1979): 1979. Magnoliaceae through Ceratophyllaceae of New York State. Vol. NY State Museum Bull. 435. Vol. Contributions to a Flora of New York State II.. Univ. of the state of NY, Albany, NY.
  • Murray, E. 1972. A Magnolia species checklist. Kalmia 4: 1-12.
  • Murray, E. 1973. Magnolia species descriptions. Kalmia 5: 1-17.
  • Peigler, R. S. 1988. A review of pollination of Magnolia by beetles, with a collecting survey made in the Carolinas. Magnolia 45: 1-7.
  • Pickering, J. L.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1967. A serological and disc electrophoretic investigation of Magnolia taxa. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 94: 468-79.
  • Pickering, J. L.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1966. A serological investigation of Magnolia hybrids and parental species. Bull. Serol. Mus. 36: 3-7.
  • Primack, R. B.; Hendry, E.; Del Tredici, P. 1986. Current status of Magnolia virginiana in Massachusetts. Rhodora 88(855): 357-65.
  • Qiu, Y. L.; Parks, C. R. 1994. Disparity of allozyme variation levels in three Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) species from the southeastern United States. Amer. J. Bot. 81(10): 1300-8.
  • Rhoads, A. F. 1994. Magnolia tripetala in Pennsylvania. Bartonia 58: 75-77.
  • Rockwell, H. C. 1966. The genus Magnolia in the United States.. M.A. Thesis West Virginia Univ., Morgantown,
  • Rudkin, W. H. 1883. Magnolia glauca L., on Long Island. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 10: 95. (see also Miller,ES (1885))
  • Santamour, F. S. 1970. Implications of cytology and biochemistry for Magnolia hybridization. Newslett. Amer. Magnolia Soc. 7: 8-10.
  • Santamour, F. S. 1965. Biochemical studies in Magnolia. Morris Arbor. Bull. 16-17: 43-8, 63-4(16); 13, 65-8(17).
  • Sargent, C. S. 1891. Magnolia. In: Silva North America. ,
  • Song, Q. et al. et.al. 1998. Sesquiterpenes from southern Magnolia virginiana. Phytochemistry 47: 221-6.
  • Spongberg, S. A. 1976. Magnoliaceae hardy in temperate North America. J. Arnold Arbor. 57: 250-312.
  • Spongberg, S. A. 1974. A tentative key to the cultivated magnolias. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 34(1): 1-11.
  • Spring, J. J. 1962. The propagation of Magnolias from seed. J. Calif. Hort. Soc. 23: 48-50.
  • Thien, L. B. 1974. Floral biology of Magnolia. Amer. J. Bot. 61(10): 1037-45.
  • Thien, L. B.; Heimermann, W. H.; Holman, R. T. 1975. Floral odors and quantitative taxonomy of Magnolia and Liriodendron. Taxon 24: 557-68.
  • Thorgrimson, O. B. 1947. Magnolias- American species. Arbor. Bull. 10: 6-7;26-7.
  • Tobe, J. D. 1993. A molecular systematic study of eastern North American species of Magnolia L. Ph.D. Dissertation Clemson Univ., Clemson, S.C.144 p.
  • Treseder, N. G. 1972. Magnolias and their cultivation. J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 97: 336-46.
  • Treseder, N. G. 1978. Magnolias. Faber & Faber, London. , xviii, 243 pages.
  • Tryon, E. H.; True, R. P. 1968. Radial increment response of Appalachian hardwood species to a spring freeze. J. Forest. 66(6): 488-91.
  • University of British Columbia Arboretum 1995. An ethnobotany of the UBC Arboretum.
  • Whitaker, T. W. 1933. Chromosome number and relationship in the Magnoliales. J. Arnold Arbor. 14: 376-85.
  • Wilber, G. M. 1885. The Long Island station for Magnolia glauca. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 12: 87. (See also Rudkin,W.H. 1883.)
  • Willis, O. R. 1870. Magnolia glauca. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 1: 11.
  • Wood, C. E. 1958. The genera of the woody Ranales of the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 39(3): 296-346.
  • Xu, F. X. 2003. Sclerotesta morphology and its systematic implications in magnoliaceous seeds. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 142: 407-424.
  • Zampella, R. A. et.al. 1999. Sixe-class structure and hardwood recruitment in Atlantic white cedar swamps of the New Jersey pinelands. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126: 268-275.