New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Magnoliaceae

Magnolia virginiana

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/15/2013

Nomenclature

List of Magnoliaceae Genera

References to Magnoliaceae

  • Afanasiev, M. 1937. A physiological study of dormancy in seed of <em>Magnolia acuminata</em>. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 208: 1-37.
  • Afanasiev, M. 1937. A physiological study of dormancy in seed of <em>Magnolia acuminata</em> L. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY122 p.
  • Andrews, F. M. 1901. Karyokinesis in <em>Magnolia</em> and <em>Liriodendron</em>, with special reference to behavior of chromosomes. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 11: 134-42.
  • Andrews, S. 1994. Further notes on <em>Liriodendron</em>. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Year Book 1993: 42.
  • Andrews, S. 1993. Tree of the year: <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Year Book 1992: 15-8.
  • Angelo, R.; Boufford, D. E. 2010. Atlas of the flora of New England: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Rhodora 112: 244-326.
  • Anonymous 1915. Commercial uses of the tulip or yellow poplar. Amer. Forests 21: 834-40.
  • Anonymous 1970. Tuliptree, <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>. Morton Arbor. Quart. 6: 14-5.
  • Appleton, B. et.al. 1999. Evaluating trees for saltwater spray tolerance for oceanfront sites. J. Arboric. 25: 205-209.
  • Axelrod, D. I. 1983. Biogeography of oaks in the arcto-tertiary province. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 70: 629-57. (Many other genera disscussed)
  • Azuma, H. et.al. 2011. Intraspecific sequnce variation of cpDNA shows two distinct groups within <em>Magnolia virginiana</em> L. of eastern North America and Cuba. Castanea 76: 118-123.
  • Azuma, H. et.al. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the Magnoliaceae: the biogeography of tropical and temperate disjunctions. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 2275-2285.
  • Balter, H.; Loeb, R. E. 1983. Arboreal relationships on limestone and gneiss in northern New Jersey and southeastern New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 370-9.
  • Baranova, M. A. 1962. The structure of stomata and epidermal cells in Magnoliales as related to the taxonomy of the genus <em>Magnolia</em> L. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 47: 1108-15. (In Russian?)
  • Barbanova, M. 1972. Systematic anatomy of the leaf epidermis in the Magnoliaceae and some related families. Taxon 21: 447-69.
  • Barkley, F. A. 1975. A note concerning two flowering plants. Phytologia 32: 304.
  • Basinger, M. A. 1999. Notes on some naturalized woody plant species new to Illinois. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 92: 32-36.
  • Beck, D. E.; Della-Bianca, L. 1981. Yellow-poplar: characteristics and management.
  • Berry, E. W. 1903. <em>Liriodendron</em> notes. Torreya 3: 129-32.
  • Berry, E. W. 1902. Additional notes on <em>Liriodendron</em> leaves. Torreya 2: 33-7.
  • Berry, E. W. 1902. Notes on the phylogeny of <em>Liriodendron</em>. Bot. Gaz. 34: 44-63.
  • Berry, E. W. 1901. The origin of stipules in <em>Liriodendron</em>. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 28: 493-8.
  • Betts, H. S. 1954. Yellow-poplar (<em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>).
  • Bhanderi, N. N. 1971. Embryology of the Magnoliales and comments of their relationships. J. Arnold Arbor. 52: 1-39; 285-304.
  • Bigelow, J. 1818. <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>. Amer. Med. Bot. 2: 107-14.
  • Blaney, J. R.; Tryon, E. H.; Linsky, B. 1977. Effect of coal smoke on growth of four tree species. Castanea 42: 193-203.
  • Boettcher, S. E.; Kalisz, P. J. 1990. Single-tree influence on soil properties in the mountains of eastern Kentucky. Ecology 71: 1365-72.
  • Boyce, S. G.; Hosner, J. F. 1963. Alternating storage temperatures increase the germination of yellow-poplar seed. J. Forest. 61(10): 731-3.
  • Braham, R. R.; Kellison, R. C. 1987. Suppressed buds in yellow-poplar. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 103(2): 47-55.
  • Brandt, C. J.; Rhoades, R. W. 1973. Effects of limestone dust accumulation on lateral growth of forest trees. Environmental Pollution 4: 207-13.
  • Buckner, E.; McCracken, W. 1978. Yellow poplar: a component of climax forests. J. Forest. 76: 421-3.
  • Busing, R. T. 1995. Disturbance and the population dynamics of <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>: simulations with a spatial model of forest succession. J. Ecol. 83: 45-53.
  • Bõrtels, A. 1974. Amerikanische Magnolien. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 67: 55-9. (In German)
  • Callaway, D. J. 1994. Magnolias. B. T. Batsford, London. , 260 pages.
  • Callaway, D. J. 1994. The World of Magnolias. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 322 pages.
  • Canright, J. E. 1960. The comparative morphology and relationships of the Magnoliaceae. II. Carpels. Amer. J. Bot. 47: 145-55.
  • Canright, J. E. 1955. The comparative morphology and relationships of the Magnoliaceae. IV. Wood and nodal anatomy. J. Arnold Arbor. 36: 119-40.
  • Canright, J. E. 1952. The comparative morphology and relationships of the Magnoliaceae. I. Trends of specialization in the stamens. Amer. J. Bot. 39: 484-97.
  • Canright, J. E. 1953. The comparative morphology and relationships of the Magnoliaceae. I. Significance of the pollen. Phytomorphology 3: 355-65.
  • Canright, L. J. 1957. Vegetative propagation of <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>. J. Forest. 55: 892-3.
  • Carvell, K. L.; Koristian, C. F. 1955. Production and dissemination of yellow poplar seed. J. Forest. 53: 169-70.
  • Carvell, K. L.; Korstian, C. F. 1955. Production and dissemination of yellow-poplar seed. J. Forest. 53: 169-70.
  • Chapman, A. G. 1933. Some effects of varying amounts of nitrogen on the growth of tulip poplar seedlings. Ohio J. Science 33: 164-81.
  • Chappelka, A. H.; Chevone, B. I.; Burke, T. E. 1985. Growth response of yellow-poplar (<em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em> L.) seedlings to ozone, sulfur dioxide, and simulated acid precipitation alone and in combination. Environm. Exp. Bot. 25: 33-244.
  • Cheadle, V. I. 1964. Secondary phloem of <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 36: 143-252.
  • Chen, T.; Zhang, H. 1996. A phytogeographical analysis of Magnoliaceae. Wuhan Bot. Res. 14: 141-6. (In Chinese; English summary)
  • Clark, B. F.; Boyce, S. G. 1964. Yellow poplar seed remains viable in the forest litter. J. Forest. 62(8): 564-7.
  • Clark, F. B. 1964. Micro-organisms and soil structure affect yellow-poplar growth.
  • Clark, F. B. 1963. Endotrophic mycorrhizae influence yellow poplar seedling growth. Science 140: 1220-3.
  • Clinton, B. D.; Boring, L. R.; Swank, W. T. 1994. Regeneration patterns in canopy gaps of mixed-oak forests of the southern Appalachians: influences of topographic position and evergreen understory. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 132: 308-19.
  • Coker, W. C. 1930. The bald cypress. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 46: 86-8. (Also Platanus & Liriodendron)
  • Coladoanto, M. 1991. <em>Magnolia virginiana</em>. ()
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1943. Cucumber tree. Amer. Forests 49: 352-3.
  • Crang, R. E. et al. et.al. 1983. Acid fog effects on yellow poplar leaf morphology. Micron 14: 75-6.
  • Crang, R. E.; McQuattie, C. J. 1986. Qualitative and quantitative effects of acid misting and two air pollutants on foliar structures of <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 1237-43.
  • Creasy, W. D. 1954. Secondary succession and growth of yellow poplar on the "Green Mountain" Nicholas County, West Virginia. Castanea 19: 81-7.
  • Curtis, C. C. 1901. Second flowering of the tulip-tree. J. New York Bot. Gard. 2: 136-8.
  • Curtis, W. 1794. <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>. Common tulip-tree. Bot. Mag. 8: t. 275.
  • Dandy, J. E. 1927. The genera of Magnolieae. Kew Bull. 1927: 257-65.
  • Dandy, J. E. 1927. Key to the species of <em>Magnolia</em>. J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 52: 260-4.
  • Daumann, E. 1930. Das Bl³tennektarium von <em>Magnolia</em> und die Futterk÷rper in der Bl³te von <em>Calycanthus</em>. Planta 11: 108-16. (In German)
  • Day, F. P.; Monk, C. D. 1977. Net primary production and phenology on a Southern Appalachian watershed. Amer. J. Bot. 64: 1117-25.
  • De Steven, D. 1991. Experiments on mechanisms of tree establishment in old-field succession: seedling survival and growth. Ecology 72: 1076-88.
  • De Steven, D. 1991. Experiments on mechanisms of tree establishment in old-field succession: seedling emergence. Ecology 72: 1066-75.
  • Decker, K. L. M.; Boerner, R. E. J. 1997. CA:Al ratio effects on growth and competitive interactions of northern red oak (<em>Quercus rubra</em>) and yellow-poplar (<em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>). J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124: 286-96.
  • Del Tredici, P. 1985. What's in a leaf? Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 45: 2-6.
  • Del Tredici, P. 1981. <em>Magnolia virginiana</em> in Massachusetts. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 41: 36-49.
  • Demuth, P.; Santamour, F. S. 1978. Carotenoid flower pigments in <em>Liriodendron</em> and <em>Magnolia</em>. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 105: 65-6.
  • Doley, D. 1970. Effects of simulated drought on shoot development in <em>Liriodendron</em> seedlings. New Phyt. 69: 655-73.
  • Downs, A. A. 1946. Response to release of sugar maple, white oak, and yellow-poplar. J. Forest. 44: 22-7.
  • Earle, T. T. 1938. Origin of the seed coats in <em>Magnolia</em>. Amer. J. Bot. 25: 221-2.
  • Eaton, R. J. 1928. The present status of <em>Magnolia virginiana</em> in Massachusetts. Rhodora 30(358): 207-8.
  • Echternach, J. L.; Rose, R. K. 1987. Use of woody vegetation by beavers in southeastern Virginia USA. Virginia J. Sci. 38: 226-232.
  • Elliott, K.; Swank, W. 1994. Impacts of drought on tree mortality and growth in a mixed hardwood forest. J. Veg. Sci. 5: 229-36.
  • Erbar, C.; Leins, P. 1983. On the sequence of floral organs in some Magnoliidae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 103(4): 433-49.
  • Farr, C. H. 1918. Cell division by furrowing in <em>Magnolia</em>. Amer. J. Bot. 5: 379-95.
  • Figlar, R. B. 1998. Molecular analysis: a new look at umbrella magnolias. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 57: 22-9.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America, Volume 3. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford University Press, New York. , 590 pages.
  • Floyd, B. W.; Noble, R. D. 1980. Intraseasonal variation in chlorophyll content and chloroplast ultrastructure of selected plant species in a deciduous forest. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 1504-19.
  • Fogg, J. M. Jr. 1961. The temperate American Magnolias. Morris Arbor. Bull. 12: 51-8.
  • Freeman, O. M. 1937. A new <em>Magnolia</em> hybrid. Natl. Hort. Mag. 16: 161-2.
  • Freeman, O. M. 1951. New <em>Magnolia</em> hybrids. Natl. Hort. Mag. 30: 132-5.
  • Frodin, D. G.; Govaerts, R. 1996. World checklist and bibliography of Magnoliaceae. Kew Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. , 72 pages.
  • Gibson, H. H. 1905. American forest trees - poplar or whitewood, <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em> Linn. Hardwood Rec. 19: 14-5.
  • Gibson, H. H. 1906. American forest trees - 39. Cucumber tree, <em>Magnolia acuminata</em> Linn. Hardwood Rec. 23: 16-7.
  • Giersbach, J.; Crocker, W. 1929. The effect of stratification on seeds of <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em> L. Amer. J. Bot. 16: 855.
  • Good, R. D. 1925. The past and present distribution of Magnoliae. Ann. Bot. (London) 39: 409-30.
  • Gray, A. 1858. A short exposition on the structure of the ovule and seed coats of <em>Magnolia</em>. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 2: 106-10.
  • Green, D. S. 1980. The terminal velocity and dispersal of spinning samaras. Amer. J. Bot. 67: 1218-24.
  • Greene, D. F.; Johnson, E. A. 1992. Fruit abscission in <em>Acer saccharinum</em> with reference to seed dispersal. Canad. J. Bot. 70(11): 2277-83.
  • Greller, A. M. et.al. 2011. <em>Magnolia acuminata</em>, <em>M. macrophylla</em>, and <em>M. tripetala</em> in oak-dominated forests on the North shore of Long Island, New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 138: 225-238.
  • Grier, N. M. 1917. Note on fruit of mountain <em>Magnolia</em>. Rhodora 19: 256.
  • Grieve, M. 1971. A Modern Herbal. 2 Vols. Dover Publications, Inc., New York. , 888 pages.
  • Griffith, R. S. 1991. <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>. ()
  • Guard, A. T. 1943. The development of the seed of <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em> L. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 53: 75-7.
  • Guard, A. T.; Wean, R. E. 1941. Seed production in the yellow poplar. J. Forest. 39: 1032-3.
  • Guedes, M. 1968. The carpel of the tulip-tree, <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 115: 372-8.
  • Guzzo, F. et al. et.al. 1994. Pollen development in <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>: some unusual features. Canad. J. Bot. 72(3): 352-8. (French summary)
  • Hardin, J. W. 1954. An analysis of variation within <em>Magnolia acuminata</em> L. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 70: 298-312.
  • Hardin, J. W.; Jones, K. A. 1989. Atlas of foliar surface features in woody plants, X. Magnoliaceae of the United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 116: 164-73.
  • Harvill, A. M. 1964. The Magnolias of Virginia. Castanea 29: 186-8.
  • Heiser, C. B. Jr. 1962. Some observations on pollination and compatability in <em>Magnolia</em>. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 72: 259-66.
  • Hengst, G. E.; Dawson, J. O. 1994. Bark properties and fire resistance of selected tree species from the central hardwood region of North America. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24: 688-96.
  • Hildebrand, E.; Skelly, J. M.; Fredericksen, T. S. 1996. Foliar response of ozone-sensitve hardwood tree species from 1991 to 1993 in the Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 658-69. (French summary)
  • Hollick, A. 1896. Appendages to the petioles of <em>Liriodendron</em>. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 23: 249-50 + 2pl..
  • Holm, T. 1909. Medicinal plants of North America. 30. <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em> L. Merck Rep. 18: 198-201.
  • Holsoe, T. 1951. Yellow poplar reaction to crown release and other factors influencing growth.
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  • Ingelsby, B. 1958. Distribution of the tulip tree (<em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em> L.) in southwestern New York. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 59: 397-417.
  • Jack, J. G. 1889. <em>Magnolia glauca</em> in its most northern home. Gard. & Forest 2: 363-4.
  • Jackson, L. W. R.; Driver, C. H. 1969. Morphology of mycorrhizae on deciduous forest tree species. Castanea 34: 230-5.
  • Jacquart, E. M.; Armentano, T. V.; Spingarn, A. L. 1992. Spatial and temporal tree responses to water stress in an old-growth deciduous forest. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 127: 158-71.
  • Johnson, D. L. 1989. Species and cultivars of the genus <em>Magnolia</em> (Magnoliaceae) cultivated in the United States. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY168 p.
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  • Jones, K. A. 1988. Foliar surface features of the Magnoliaceae native in the United States. M.S. Thesis North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC,
  • Kavanagh, K.; Carleton, T. J. 1990. Seed production and dispersal patterns in populations of <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em> at the northern edge of its range in southern Ontario, Canada. Canad. J. Forest Res. 20(9): 1461-70.
  • Kennedy, G. G. 1916. Some historical data regarding the sweet bay and its station on Cape Ann. Rhodora 18): 205-12.
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  • Kolb, T. E.; Steiner, K. C.; McCormick, L. H.; Bowersox, T. W. 1990. Growth response of northern red oak and yellow-poplar seedlings to light, soil moisture and nutrients in relation to ecological strategy. Forest Ecol. & Manag. 38: 65-78.
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  • Kramer, P. J. 1943. Amount and duration of growth of various species of tree seedlings. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 18: 239-51.
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  • Law, Y. W. 1984. A preliminary study on the taxonomy of the family Magnoliaceae. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 22(2): 89-109. (In Chinese; English summary)
  • Lawrey, J. D. 1977. Trace metal accumulation by plant species from a coal strip-mining area in Ohio. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 368-375.
  • Leppik, E. E. 1976. Morphogenic stagnation in the evolution of <em>Magnolia</em> flowers. Phytomorphology 25(4): 451-64.
  • Li, J.; Conran, J. G. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in Magnoliaceae subfam. Magnolioideae: a morphological cladistic analysis. Pl. Syst. Evol. 242: 33-47.
  • Liu, Y.; Muller, R. N. 1993. Effect of drought and frost on radial growth of overstory and understory stems in a deciduous forest. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 129: 19-25.
  • Lloyd, J. U. 1884. <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em>. Drugs Med. N. Amer. 2: 8-18.
  • Loach, K. 1967. Shade tolerance in tree seedlings. I. Leaf photosynthesis and respiration in plants raised under artificial shade. New Phyt. 66: 607-21.
  • Loach, K. 1970. Shade tolerance in tree seedlings. II. Growth analysis of plants raised under artificial shade. New Phyt. 69: 273-86.
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  • McCarthy, E. F. 1953. Yellow poplar characteristics, growth, and management.
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  • McDaniel, J. C. 1967. Self-infruitfulness of some Magnolias. Morris Arbor. Bull. 18: 64-9.
  • McDaniel, J. C. 1966. Variations in the sweet bay magnolias. Morris Arbor. Bull. 17: 7-12.
  • McDermott, J. J. 1941. Changes in chemical composition of twigs and buds of Yellow Poplar during the dormant period. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 16: 415-8.
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  • McVaugh, R. 1936. The cucumber tree in eastern New York. Castanea 1: 39-41.
  • Melville, R. 1969. Studies in floral structure and evolution. I. The Magnoliales. Kew Bull. 23: 133-80.
  • Meyer, B. S. 1932. The daily periodicity of transpiration in the tulip poplar, <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em> L. Ohio J. Science 32: 104-14.
  • Miller, N. G.; Parks, C. R. 1980. A study of the bitypic genus <em>Liriodendron</em> (Magnoliaceae). (Abstract)
  • Millington, W. F.; Gunckel, J. E. 1950. Structure and development of the vegetative shoot tip of <em>Liriodendron tulipifera</em> L. Amer. J. Bot. 37: 326-35.
  • Minckler, L. S.; Jensen, C. E. 1959. Reproduction of upland central hardwoods as affected by cutting, topography, and litter depth. J. Forest. 57: 424-8.
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  • Moseley, M. F. 1973. Vegatative anatomy and morphology of Amentiferae. Brittonia 25(4): 356-70.
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  • Nowacki, G. J.; Abrams, M. D. 1994. Forest composition, structure, and disturbance history of the Alan Seeger Natural Area, Huntington County, Pennsylvania. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 121: 277-91.
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  • Paton, R. R. 1945. Storage of tuliptree seeds. J. Forest. 43: 765.
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