Genus: Ligustrum

Ligustrum vulgare
Ligustrum vulgare

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/15/2013

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Ligustrum L., Sp. Pl. 7. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 8. 1754. TYPE: Ligustrum vulgare L.

Faulia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 84. 1837. TYPE: Not designated.

Phlyarodoxa S. Moore, J. Bot. 13: 229. 1875. TYPE: Phlyarodoxa leucantha S. Moore. (=Ligustrum leucanthum (S. Moore) P. S. Green).

Key to the species of Ligustrum

1. Twigs glabrous; leaves glabrous...Ligustrum vulgare
1. Twigs minutely pubescent; leaves pubescent on midrib beneath...2

2. Panicles 2-3.5 cm; corolla tube 2-3 times longer than lobes...Ligustrum obtusifolium
2. Panicles 6-10 cm; corolla tube shorter than lobes...Ligustrum sinense

List of Ligustrum Species

References to Ligustrum

  • Bradley, B. A. 2010. Climate change increases risk of plant invasion in the eastern United States. Biological Invasions 12: 1855-1872.
  • Gayek, A.; Quigley, M. F. 2001. Does topography affect the colonization of Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum vulgare in a forested glen in southwestern Ohio? Ohio J. Science 101: 95-100.
  • Glenn, Steven D. 1995. Honeybees (Apis sp.) and bumblebees (Bombus sp.) visiting Ligustrum obtusifolium Sieb. & Zucc. flowers.
  • Harborne, J. B. 1980. A chemotaxonomic survey of flavonoids in leaves of the Oleaceae. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 81: 155-67.
  • Herron, P.M. 2007. Invasive plants and their ecological strategies: prediction and explanation of woody plant invasion in New England. Diversity and Distributions 13: 633-644.
  • Hunter, J. C.; Mattice, J. A. 2002. The spread of woody exotics into the forests of a northeastern landscape, 1938-1999. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 129: 220-227.
  • Höfker, H. 1930. Zur Gattung Ligustrum. Ergonzugen und Berichtigungen. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 42: 31-5.
  • Kuehny, J. S.; Halbrooks, M. C. 1993. Episodic whole plant growth patterns in Ligustrum. Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 89: 33-9.
  • Li, J.; Alexander, J. H.; Zhang, D. 2002. Paraphyletic Syringa (Oleaceae): evidence from sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS and ETS regions. Syst. Bot. 27: 592-597. (Also <em>Ligustrum</em>)
  • Lochmiller, R. L. 1978. Privet as a potential winter food supplement for songbirds. Bird-Banding 49: 279-80.
  • Mann, F. J. 1930. Winter root development of Ligustrum vulgare. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 46: 62-6.
  • Mansfeld, R. 1924. Vorarbeiten zu einer Monographie der Gattung Ligustrum. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 59(Beiblatt 132): 19-79. (In German)
  • Martine, C. T. 2008. Fifteen woody species with potential for invasiveness in New England. Rhodora 110: 345-353.
  • Merriam, R. W. 2003. The abundance, distribution and edge associations of six non-indigenous, harmful plants across North Carolina. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 130: 283-291.
  • Morris, L. L.; Walck, J. L.; Hidayati, S. N. 2002. Growth and reproduction of the invasive Ligustrum sinense and native Forestiera ligustrina (Oleaceae): implications for invasion and persistence of a nonnative shrub. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 1001-1010.
  • Pisula, N. L.; Meiners, S. J. 2010. Relative allelopathic potential of invasive plant species in a young disturbed woodland. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 137: 81-87.
  • Roberts, B. R. 1980. Trees as biological filters. J. Arboric. 6(1): 20-3. (Sulphur dioxide & ozone)
  • Rohwer, J. G. 1993. A preliminary survey of the fruits and seed of the Oleaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 115(2): 271-91.
  • Rohwer, J. G. 1996. The fruits of Ligustrum regelianum and Osmanthus heterophyllus (Oleaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 118: 177-86. (In German, English summary)
  • Sax, K.; Abbe, E. C. 1932. Chromosome numbers and the anatomy of the secondary xylem in the Oleaceae. J. Arnold Arbor. 13: 37-48.
  • Sherburne, J. A. 1972. Effects of seasonal changes in the abundance and chemistry of the fleshy fruits of northeastern woody shrubs on patterns of exploitation by frugivorous birds. Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell University, Ithaca, NY157 p.
  • Taylor, H. 1945. Cytotaxonomy and phylogeny of the Oleaceae. Brittonia 5: 337-67.
  • Umebayashi, M. 1996. Autumn germination in Ligustrum obtusifolium (Oleaceae). J. Phytogeogr. Taxon. 44: 90-1.
  • Webster, C. R. 2007. Invasion biology and control of invasive woody plants in eastern forests. Native Plants J. 8: 97-106.
  • Wilson, K. A.; Wood, C. E. 1959. The genera of Oleaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 40(4): 369-84.