New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Abies

Abies balsamea

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 04/16/2013

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Nomenclature

List of Abies Species

References to Abies

  • Abbott, H. G. 1962. Tree seed preferences of mice and voles in the Northeast. J. Forest. 60(2): 97-9.
  • Abrams, M. D. et.al. 2001. Dendroecology and climatic impacts for a relict, old-growth, bog forest in the Rodge and Valley Province of central Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Canad. J. Bot. 79: 58-69.
  • Ahlgren, C. E. 1957. Phenological observations of nineteen native tree species in northeastern Minnesota. Ecology 38: 622-8.
  • Alfieri, F. J.; Evert, R. F. 1973. Structure and seasonal development of the secondary phloem in the Pinaceae. Bot. Gaz. 134(1): 17-25.
  • Anderson, A. B. 1955. Recovery and utilization of tree extractives. Econ. Bot. 9(2): 108-40.
  • Bakuzis, E. V.; Hansen, H. L. 1965. Balsam fir. Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1931. The period of height growth in some northeastern conifers. Ecology 12: 665-89.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1933. The density of spruce and fir reproduction related to the direction of exposure. Ecology 14(2): 152-6.
  • Battles, J. J.; Fahey, T. J.; Harney, E. M. B. 1995. Spatial patterning in the canopy gap regime of a subalpine Abies-Picea forest in the northeastern United States. J. Veg. Sci. 6(6): 807-14.
  • Bazukis, E. V.; Hansen, H. L. 1965. Balsam fir. Univ. Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.
  • Boivin, B. 1959. Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. et ses variations. Naturaliste Canad. 86: 219-23.
  • Borgmann, K. L.; Waller, D. M.; Rooney, T. P. 1999. Does balsam fir (Abies balsamea) facilitate the recruitment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)? Amer. Midl. Naturalist 141: 391-397.
  • Brundrett, M.; Murase, G.; Kendrick, B. 1990. Comparative anatomy of roots and mycorrhizae of common Ontario trees. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 551-78. (French summary)
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1920. Embryo development and polyembryony in relation to the phylogeny of conifers. Amer. J. Bot. 7: 125-45.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1948. Generic and subgeneric distribution of the Coniferales. Bot. Gaz. 110: 80-91.
  • Busing, R. T. 2004. Red spruce dynamics in an old southern Appalachian forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131: 337-342. (also Abies fraseri)
  • Butts, D.; Buchholz, J. T. 1940. Cotyledon numbers in conifers. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 33: 58-62.
  • Carter, K. K. 1996. Provenance tests as indicators of growth response to climate change in 10 north temperate tree species. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 1089-95. (French summary)
  • Chabot, J. F.; Chabot, B. F. 1977. Ultrastructure of the epidermis and stomatal complex of balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Canad. J. Bot. 55(9): 1064-75.
  • Chabot, J. F.; Chabot, B. F. 1975. Development and seasonal patterns of mesophyll ultrastructure in Abies balsamea. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 295-304.
  • Clark, J.; Gibbs, R. D. 1957. Studies in tree physiology. IV. Further investigations of seasonal changes in moisture content of certain Canadian forest trees. Canad. J. Bot. 35: 219-53.
  • Clarkson, R. B.; Fairbrothers, D. E. 1970. A serological and electrophoretic investigation of eastern North American Abies (Pinaceae). Taxon 19: 720-7.
  • Cook, D. B. 1941. The period of growth in some northeastern trees. J. Forest. 39: 956-959.
  • Cope, E. A. 1986. Native and cultivated conifers of northeastern North America. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY.
  • Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B. 1966. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae, revised by S.G. Harrison. ed. St. Martins Press, New York.
  • Delucia, E. H.; Berlyn, G. P. 1984. The effect of increasing elevation on leaf cuticle thickness and cuticular transpiration in balsam fir. Canad. J. Bot. 62: 2423-31.
  • Denneler, B; Bergeron, Y.; Begin, Y. 1999. An attempt to explain the distribution of the tree species composing the riparian forests of Lake Duparquet, southern boreal region of Quebec, Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 77: 1744-1755.
  • Doyle, J.; Kam, A. 1944. Pollination in Tsuga pattoniana and in species of Abies and Picea. Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 24: 43-62.
  • Eckenwalder, J. E. 2009. Conifers of the world. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 720 pages. (ISBN 9780881929744)
  • Entry, J. A.; Cromack, K.; Stafford, S. G.; Castellano, M. A. 1987. The effect of pH and aluminum concentration on ectomycorrhizal formation in Abies balsamea. Canad. J. Forest Res. 17(8): 865-71.
  • Ewers, F. W.; Zimmermann, M. H. 1984. The hydraulic architecture of balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 60: 453-8.
  • Farjon, A. 1990. A bibliography of conifers. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.
  • Farjon, A.; Rushforth, K. D. 1989. A classification of Abies Miller (Pinaceae) Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 46: 59-80.
  • Fitzgerald, B. T. 1989. Growth and reproduction of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) P. Mill.) at Whiteface Mountain, New York. M.S. Thesis SUNY, Syracuse, NY,
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America, Volume 2. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, New York. , 475 pages. (For review see Castanea 59(4):368-369. 1994.)
  • Florin, R. 1955. The systematics of gymnosperms. In: A century of progress in the natural sciences, 1853-1953. California Acad. Sci., San Francisco. , 323-403 pages.
  • Flory, W. S. 1936. Chromosome numbers and phylogeny in the gymnosperms. J. Arnold Arbor. 17: 83-9.
  • Fulling, E. H. 1936. Abies intermedia, the Blue Ridge Fir, a new species. Castanea 1: 91-4.
  • Fulling, E. H. 1934. Identification, by leaf structure, of the species of Abies cultivated in the United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 61: 497-522.
  • Galipeau, C.; Kneeshaw, D.; Berberon, Y. 1997. White spruce (Picea glauca) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) colonization of a site in the southeastern boreal forest as observed 68 years after fire. Canad. J. Forest Res. 27: 139-47.
  • Genys, J. B. 1980. Growth rates of nine different pines and two other conifers in Maryland's piedmont plateau. Castanea 45: 16-24.
  • Gordon, A. G.; Gorham, E. 1963. Ecological aspects of air pollution from an iron-sintering plant at Wawa, Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 41: 1063-78.
  • Greene, D. F. et.al. 2002. The effect of light availability and basal area on cone production in Abies balsamea and Picea glauca. Canad. J. Bot. 80: 370-377.
  • Greene, D. F.; Johnson, E. A. 1994. Estimating the mean annual seed production of trees. Ecology 75: 642-7.
  • Hart, A. C.; Abbott, H. G.; Ladd, E. R. 1968. Do small mammals and birds affect reproduction of spruce and fir?
  • Hawley, G. J.; DeHayes, D. H. 1985. Hybridization among several North American firs. I. Crossability. II. Hybrid verification. Canad. J. Forest Res. 15: 42-55.
  • Heit, C. E. 1968. Thirty-five years' testing of tree and shrub seed. J. Forest. 66(8): 632-3.
  • Hett, J. M.; Loucks, O. L. 1976. Age structure models of balsam fir and eastern hemlock. J. Ecol. 64: 1029-44.
  • Hett, J. M.; Loucks, O. L. 1968. Age structure models of balsam fir and eastern hemlock. J. Ecol. 64: 1029-44.
  • Hornbeck, J. W.; Smith, R. B.; Federer, C. A. 1988. Growth trends in 10 species of trees in New England, 1950-1980. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18: 1337-40.
  • Houle, G. 1992. The reproductive ecology of Abies balsamea, Acer saccharum and Betula alleghaniensis in the TantarÚ Ecological Reserve, Quebec. J. Ecol. 80(4): 611-24.
  • Houle, G.; Payette, S. 1991. Seed dynamics of Abies balsamea and Acer saccharum in a deciduous forest of northeastern North America. Amer. J. Bot. 78(7): 895-905.
  • Hunt, R. S.; Von Rudloff, E. 1974. Chemosystematic studies in the genus Abies. I. Leaf and twig oil analysis of alpine and balsam firs. Canad. J. Bot. 52(3): 477-87.
  • Hutchinson, A. H. 1918. Limiting factors in relation to specific ranges of tolerance of forest trees. Bot. Gaz. 66: 465-93.
  • Hutchinson, A. H. 1924. Embryology of Abies. Bot. Gaz. 77: 280-9.
  • Isenberg, I. H. 1956. Papermaking fibers. Econ. Bot. 10(2): 176-93.
  • Jacobs, B. F.; Werth, C. R.; Guttman, S. I. 1984. Genetic relationships in Abies (fir) of eastern USA: an electrophoretic study. Canad. J. Bot. 62: 609-16.
  • Jensen, U.; Lixue, C. 1991. Abies seed protein profile divergent from other Pinaceae. Taxon 40: 435-40.
  • Kindel, K. H. 1986. Seeds of the Coniferae: 1. Pinaceae: Abies Miller. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 76: 93-8. (In German)
  • Klach, F. U.; Winieski, J. A. 1962. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Abies. Silvae Genet. 11: 130-42.
  • Kneeshaw, D. D.; Bergeron, Y. 1996. Ecological factors affecting the abundance of advanced regeneration in Quebec's southwestern boreal forest. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 888-98. (French summary)
  • Kozlowski, T. T. 1980. Responses of shade trees to pollution. J. Arboric. 6: 29-40. (Sulphur dioxide & ozone)
  • Kramer, P. J. 1943. Amount and duration of growth of various species of tree seedlings. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 18: 239-51.
  • Lamb, W. H. 1914. A conspectus of North American firs (exclusive of Mexico). Proc. Soc. Amer. Foresters 9: 528-38.
  • Leak, W. B. 1975. Age distribution in virgin red spruce and northern hardwoods. Ecology 56(6): 1451-4.
  • Lester, D. T. 1968. Variation in cone morphology of balsam fir Abies balsamea. Rhodora 70: 83-94.
  • Little, C. H. A. 1970. Seasonal changes in carbohydrate and moisture content in needles of balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Canad. J. Bot. 48: 2021-8.
  • Little, C. H. A. 1975. Inhibition of cambial activity in Abies balsamea by internal water stress: role of abscisic acid. Canad. J. Bot. 53(24): 3041-50.
  • Little, E. L. 1944. Nomina conservanda proposals for ten genera of trees and shrubs. Madrono 7: 240-51.
  • Liu, T. S. 1971. A monograph of the genus Abies. Dept. of Forestry, College of Agric., Nat. Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan. , 608 pages. (For review see Taxon 22:484-485, 1973.)
  • Liu, T. S. 1977. The genus Abies: 14.3: general bibliography. Quart. J. Taiwan Mus. 30(3-4): 253-321.
  • Logan, K. T. 1969. Growth of tree seedlings as affected by light intensity. Part IV. Black spruce, white spruce, balsam fir and eastern white cedar.
  • Malloch, D.; Malloch, B. 1981. The mycorrhizal status of boreal plants: species from northeastern Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 2167-72.
  • Marty, T. L.; Guries, R. P.; Mohn, C.; Wright, J. 1983. Fifteen-year results of a balsam fir provenance test in the Lake States.
  • Matzenko, A. E. 1968. Conspectus generis Abies Mill. Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 5: 9-12.
  • McIntosh, R. P.; Hurley, R. T. 1964. The spruce-fir forests of the Catskill Mountains. Ecology 45: 314-426.
  • McLaren, B. E. 1996. Plant-specific response to herbivory: simulated browsing of suppressed balsam fir on Isle Royale. Ecology 77: 228-35.
  • McLaren, B. E.; Janke, R. A. 1996. Seedbed and canopy cover effects on balsam fir seedling establishment in Isle Royale National Park. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 782-93. (French summary)
  • Mellerowicz, E. J.; Riding, R. T.; Little, C. H. A. 1990. Nuclear size and shape changes if fusiform cambial cells of Abies balsamea during the annual cycle of activity and dormancy. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 1857-63. (French summary)
  • Mitchell, R. S. (eds.) (1992): 1992. Pinophyta (Gymnosperms) of New York State. Vol. NY State Museum Bull. 483. Univ. of the state of NY, Albany, NY. , 80 pages.
  • Moloney, K. A. 1986. Wave and nonwave regeneration processes in a subalpine Abies balsamea forest. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 341-9.
  • Moore, B. 1917. Some factors influencing reproduction of red spruce, balsam fir and white pine. J. Forest. 15: 827-53.
  • Morris, R. F. 1951. The effects of flowering on the foliage production and growth of balsam fir. Forest. Chron. 27: 40-57.
  • Myers, O. Jr.; Bormann, F. H. 1963. Phenotypic variation in Abies balsamea in response to altitudinal and geographic gradients. Ecology 44: 429-36.
  • Neale, D. B.; Adams, W. T. 1981. Inheritance of isozyme variants in seed tissues of balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Canad. J. Bot. 59: 1285-91.
  • Neale, D. B.; Adams, W. T. 1985. Allozyme and mating system variation in balsam fir (Abies balsamea) across a continuous elevational transect. Canad. J. Bot. 63: 2448-53.
  • Niklas, K. J.; U., K. T. P. 1983. Conifer ovulate cone morphology: implications on pollen impaction patterns. Amer. J. Bot. 70(4): 568-77.
  • Oohata, S. 1994. Speciation and distribution in the genus Abies with reference to speciation of the genus Pinus. Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 63(2): 24-36.
  • Percy, K. 1986. The effects of simulated acid rain on germinative capacity, growth and morphology of forest tree seedlings. New Phyt. 104: 473-84.
  • Pielou, E. C. 1988. The world of northern evergreens. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY. , 174 pages.
  • Pitel, J. A.; Durzan, D. J. 1978. Chromosomal proteins of conifers. 1. Comparison of histones and nonhistone chromosomal proteins from dry seeds of conifers. Canad. J. Bot. 56(16): 1915-27.
  • Place, I. C. M. 1955. The influence of seed-bed conditions on the regeneration of spruce and balsam fir. (For. Res. Div. Tech Note 50?)
  • Post, L. J. 1970. Dry-matter production of mountain maple and balsam fir in northwest New Brunswick. Ecology 51(3): 548-50.
  • Powell, G. R. 1970. Postdormancy development and growth of microsporangiate and megasporangiate strobili of Abies balsamea. Canad. J. Bot. 48: 419-28.
  • Prager, E. M.; Fowler, D. P.; Wilson, A. C. 1976. Rates of evolution in conifers (Pinaceae). Evolution 30: 637-49.
  • Price, R. A. 1989. The genera of Pinaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 70: 247-305.
  • Ramseur, G. S. 1961. A hybrid index of the mid-Appalachian Abies (fir or balsam). ASB Bull. 8: 31.
  • Robinson, J. F.; Thor, E. 1969. Natural variation in Abies of the southern Appalachians. Forest Sci. 15: 238-45.
  • Robson, K. A.; Maze, J.; Scagel, R. K.; Banerjee, S. 1993. Ontogeny, phylogeny and intraspecific variation in North American Abies Mill. (Pinaceae): an empirical approach to organization and evolution. Taxon 42: 17-34.
  • Ruel, J. C.; Doucet, R.; Boily, J. 1995. Mortality of balsam fir and black spruce advance growth 3 years after clear-cutting. Canad. J. Forest Res. 25: 1528-37. (French summary)
  • Sakai, A.; Weiser, C. J. 1973. Freezing resistance of trees in North America with reference to tree regions. Ecology 54: 118-26.
  • Shea, K. L.; Furnier, G. R. 2002. Genetic variation and population structure in central and isolated populations of balsam fir, Abies balsamea (Pinaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 89: 783-791.
  • Sidhu, S. S.; Staniforth, R. J. 1986. Effects of atmospheric fluorides on foliage, and cone and seed production in balsam fir, black spruce, and larch. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 923-31.
  • Simard, M. J.; Berberon, Y.; Sirois, L. 1998. Conifer seedling recruitment in a southeastern Canadian boreal forest: The importance of substrate. J. Veg. Sci. 9: 575-582.
  • Solomon, D. S.; Leak, W. B. 1994. Migration of tree species in New England based on elevational and regional analysis.
  • Sprugel, D. G. 1976. Dynamic structure of wave-generated Abies balsamea forests in the northeastern United States. J. Ecol. 64: 889-911.
  • Sprugel, D. G.; Bormann, F. H. 1981. Natural disturbance and the steady state in high-altitude balsam fir forests. Science 211: 390-3.
  • St. Hilaire, L. R.; Leopold, D. J. 1995. Conifer seedling distribution in relation to microsite conditions in a central New York forested minerotrophic peatland. Canad. J. Forest Res. 5: 261-9. (French summary. See also St. Hilaire, 1994. M.S. thesis, SUNY, Syracuse, NY.)
  • Suringar, J. V. 1931. Nomenklaturalia. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 43: 199-217. (In German)
  • Uchytil, R. 1991. Abies balsamea. ()
  • Vaartaja, O. 1959. Evidence of photoperiodic ecotypes in trees. Ecol. Monogr. 29: 91-111.
  • Von Rudloff, E.; Granat, M. 1982. Seasonal variation of the terpenes of the leaves, buds, and twigs of balsam fir (Abies balsamea). Canad. J. Bot. 60: 2682-5.
  • Wall, R. E. 1988. Deterioration of severely defoliated balsam fir in relation to stand age, spacing, and foliar protection. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18(5): 490-7.
  • Warren, R.; Johnson, E. W. 1988. A guide to the firs (Abies spp.) of the Arnold Arboretum. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 48: 2-48.
  • Weiss, M. J. et al. et.al. 1985. Cooperative survey of red spruce and balsam fir decline and mortality in New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire, 1984. Interm Report. (Broomall, PA)
  • Xiang, Q. P. et.al. 2000. Length variation of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer in the genus Abies, with special reference to its systematic utility in Pinaceae. Acta Bot. Sin. 42: 946-951. (In Chinese; English summary)
  • Xiang, Q. P. et.al. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships in Abies (Pinaceae): evidence from PCR-RFLP of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145: 425-435.
  • Xiang, Q. P. et.al. 2009. Phylogeny of Abies (Pinaceae) inferred from nrITS sequence data. Taxon 58: 141-152.
  • Zagorska-Marek, B. 1985. Phyllotactic patterns and transitions in Abies balsamea. Canad. J. Bot. 63: 1844-54.
  • Zon, R. 1914. Balsam fir.