New York Metropolitan Flora

Family: Pinaceae

Pinus virginiana

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 04/16/2013

Nomenclature

List of Pinaceae Genera

References to Pinaceae

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  • Abbott, H. G. 1962. Tree seed preferences of mice and voles in the Northeast. J. Forest. 60(2): 97-9.
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  • Abrams, M. D. et.al. 2001. Dendroecology and climatic impacts for a relict, old-growth, bog forest in the Rodge and Valley Province of central Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Canad. J. Bot. 79: 58-69.
  • Abrams, M. D.; Orwig, D. A. 1996. A 300-year history of disturbance and canopy recruitment for co-occurring white pine and hemlock on the Allegheny Plateau, U.S.A. J. Ecol. 84: 353-63.
  • Abrams, M. D.; Orwig, D. A. 1995. Structure, radial growth dynamics and recent climatic variations of a 320-year-old <em>Pinus rigida</em> rock outcrop community. Oecologia 101: 353-60.
  • Adams, H. S.; Stephenson, S. L. 1989. Old-growth red spruce communities in the mid-Appalachians. Vegetatio 85: 45-56.
  • Adams, M. S.; Loucks, O. L. 1971. Summer air temperatures as a factor affecting net photosynthesis and distribution of eastern hemlock (<em>Tsuga canadensis</em> L. (Carriere)) in southwestern Wisconsin. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 85: 1-10.
  • Ahlgren, C. E.; Ahlgren, I. F. 1981. Some effects of different forest litters on seed germination and growth. Canad. J. Forest Res. 11: 710-714.
  • Alden, B. 1987. Taxonomy and geography of the genus <em>Picea</em>. Int. Dendr. Soc. Yearb. 1986: 85-96., London.
  • Alexander, E. J. 1958. <em>Pinus banksiana</em>. Addisonia 23: 39-40.
  • Alfieri, F. J.; Evert, R. F. 1973. Structure and seasonal development of the secondary phloem in the Pinaceae. Bot. Gaz. 134(1): 17-25.
  • Alfieri, F. J.; Evert, R. F. 1968. Seasonal development of the secondary phloem in <em>Pinus</em>. Amer. J. Bot. 55: 518-28.
  • Allen, G. S. 1941. Light and temperature as factors in the germination of the seed of Douglas fir (<em>Pseudotsuga taxifolia</em> (Lamb.) Britt.). Forest. Chron. 17: 99-109.
  • Alscher, R. G.; et al. et.al. 1989. Seasonal changes in the pigments, carbohydrates and growth of red spruce as affected by ozone. New Phyt. 113: 211-23.
  • Ammann, B. R. 1977. A pollenmorphological distinction between <em>Pinus banksiana</em> Lamb. and <em>P. resinosa</em> Ait. Pollen & Spores 19(4): 521-9.
  • Amundson, R. G.; et al. et.al. 1992. Comparisons of seasonal changes in photosynthetic capacity, pigments, and carbohydrates of healthy sapling and mature red spruce and of declining and healthy red spruce. Canad. J. Forest Res. 22: 1605-16.
  • Amundson, R. G.; et al. et.al. 1993. Moderate water stress alters carbohydrate content and cold tolerance of red spruce foliage. Environm. Exp. Bot. 33: 383-90.
  • Andersson, E. 1965. Cone and seed studies in Norway spruce (<em>Picea abies</em> (L.) Karst.). Stud. Forest. Suec. 23
  • Andresen, J. W. 1959. A study of pseudonanism in <em>Pinus rigida</em> Mill. Ecol. Monogr. 29: 309-32.
  • Andressen, J. W. 1957. Precocity of <em>Pinus rigida</em> Mill. Castanea 22: 130-4.
  • Argus, G. 1973. <em>Pinus banksiana</em> Lamb. or <em>Pinus divaricata</em> (Aiton) Dumont? Taxon 22: 318-319.
  • Argus, G. W. 1971. A necessary name change for jack pine: <em>Pinus divaricata</em> in lieu of <em>P. banksiana</em>. Canad. J. Bot. 49(4): 573-6.
  • Arp, P. A.; Manase, J. 1988. Red spruce stands downwind from a coal-burning power generator: tree-ring analysis. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18(2): 251-64.
  • Arthur, M. A.; Paratley, R. D. 1998. Single and repeated fires affect survival and regeneration of woody and herbaceous species in an oak-pine forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125: 225-236.
  • Auten, J. T. 1945. Relative influence of sassafras, black locust, and pines upon old-field soils. J. Forest. 43: 441-6.
  • Avery, G. S.; Creighton, H. B.; Hock, C. W. 1940. Annual rings in hemlocks and their relation to environmental factors. Amer. J. Bot. 27: 825-31.
  • Bailey, C. M.; Ware, S. 1990. Red spruce forests of Highland County, Virginia: biogeographical considerations. Castanea 55: 245-58.
  • Baker, S. S.; Rugh, C. L.; Whitmore, F. W.; Kamalay, J. C. 1996. Genes encoding 11S-Globulin-like proteins are expressed in the megagametophyte soon after fertilization in eastern white pine (<em>Pinus strobus</em> L.). Int. J. Plant Sci. 157: 453-61.
  • Bakuzis, E. V.; Hansen, H. L. 1965. Balsam fir. <em>Abies balsamea</em> (L.) Mill. Univ. of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  • Baldwin, H. 1934. Further notes on the germination of hemlock seed. J. Forest. 32: 99-100.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1932. Alcohol separation of empty seed, and its effect on the germination of red spruce. Amer. J. Bot. 19: 1-11.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1933. The density of spruce and fir reproduction related to the direction of exposure. Ecology 14(2): 152-6.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1935. Seasonal variations in the germination of red spruce. Amer. J. Bot. 22: 392-4.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1979. The distribution of <em>Pinus banksiana</em> Lamb. in New England and New York. Rhodora 81: 549-465.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1931. The period of height growth in some northeastern conifers. Ecology 12: 665-89.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1934. Germination of the red spruce. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 9: 491-532.
  • Barden, L. S. 1988. Drought and survival in a self-perpetuating <em>Pinus pungens</em> population: equilibrium or nonequilibrium? Amer. Midl. Naturalist 119(2): 253-7.
  • Barden, L. S. 1977. Self-maintaining populations of <em>Pinus pungens</em> Lam. in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Castanea 42(4): 316-23.
  • Bartholin, T. 1979. The <em>Picea-Larix</em> problem. IAWA Bull. 1: 7-10.
  • Bartholomay, G. A.; Eckert, R. T.; Smith, K. T. 1997. Reductions in tree-ring widths of white pine following ozone exposure at Acadia National Park, Maine, U.S.A. Canad. J. Forest Res. 27: 361-8.
  • Barton, A. M.; Wallenstein, M. D. 1997. Effects of invasion of <em>Pinus virginiana</em> on soil properties in serpentine barrens in southeastern Pennsylvania. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124: 297-305.
  • Barton, L. V. 1930. Hastening the germination of some coniferous seeds. Amer. J. Bot. 17: 88-115.
  • Battles, J. J.; Fahey, T. J. 1996. Spruce decline as a disturbance event in the subalpine forests of the northeastern United States. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26(3): 408-21. (French summary)
  • Battles, J. J.; Fahey, T. J.; Harney, E. M. B. 1995. Spatial patterning in the canopy gap regime of a subalpine <em>Abies-Picea</em> forest in the northeastern United States. J. Veg. Sci. 6(6): 807-14.
  • Battles, J. J.; et al. et.al. 1992. Red spruce death: effect on forest composition and structure on Whiteface Mountain, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 119: 418-30.
  • Bazukis, E. V.; Hansen, H. L. 1965. Balsam fir. Univ. Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.
  • Beal, J. M. 1934. Chromosome behavior in <em>Pinus banksiana</em> following fertilization. Bot. Gaz. 95: 660-6.
  • Beatty, S. W. 1984. Influence of microtopography and canopy species on spatial patterns of forest understory plants. Ecology 65: 1406-19.
  • Beaufait, W. R. 1960. Some effects of high temperatures on the cones and seeds of jack pine. Forest Sci. 6: 194-9.
  • Beaulieu, J.; Simon, J. P. 1995. Mating system in natural populations of eastern white pine in Quebec. Canad. J. Forest Res. 25: 1697-703.
  • Beaulieu, J.; Simon, J. P. 1995. Variation in cone morphology and seed characters in <em>Pinus strobus</em> in Quebec. Canad. J. Bot. 73(2): 262-71.
  • Beaulieu, J.; Simon, J. P. 1994. Genetic structure and variability in <em>Pinus strobus</em> in Quebec. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24: 1726-33.
  • Beck, C. B.; et al. et.al. 1988. Origin and evolution of Gymnosperms. Columbia University Press, New York. , 504 pages.
  • Begin, C.; Filion, L. 1999. Black spruce (<em>Picea mariana</em>) architecture. Canad. J. Bot. 77: 664-672.
  • Beland, M.; Bergeron, Y. 1993. Ecological factors affecting abundance of advanced growth in jack pine (<em>Pinus banksiana</em> Lamb.) stnads of the boreal forest of northwest Quebec. Forest. Chron. 69: 561-8.
  • Bentz, S. E. et.al. 2002. Hybridization and self-compatibility in controlled pollinations of eastern North American and asian hemlock (<em>Tsuga</em>) species. J. Arboric. 28: 200-205.
  • Bergeron, Y.; Brisson, J. 1990. Fire regime in red pine stands at the northern limit of the species' range. Ecology 71: 1352-64.
  • Bergeron, Y.; Leduc, A.; Li, T. X. 1997. Explaining the distribution of <em>Pinus</em> spp. in a Canadian boreal insular landscape. J. Veg. Sci. 8: 37-44.
  • Bergmann, F.; Gillet, E. M. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships among <em>Pinus</em> species (Pinaceae) inferred from different numbers of 6PGDH loci. Pl. Syst. Evol. 208: 25-34.
  • Bernier, P. Y. 1993. Comparing natural and planted black spruce seedlings. I. Water relations and growth. Canad. J. Forest Res. 23: 2427-34.
  • Best, G. N. 1886. <em>Pinus pungens</em> in New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 13: 121-2.
  • Bhiry, N.; Filion, L. 1996. Mid-holocene hemlock decline in eastern North America linked with phytophagus insect activity. Quatern. Res. 45: 312-20.
  • Bigras, F. J.; Colombo, S. J. (eds.) (2001): 2001. Conifer cold hardiness. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, Netherlands. , 596 pages.
  • Bigras, F. J.; Hebert, C. 1996. Freezing temperatures and exposure times during bud break and shoot elongation influence survival and growth of containerized black spruce (<em>Picea mariana</em>) seedlings. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 1481-9. (French summary)
  • Birks, H. J. B.; Peglar, S. M. 1980. Identification of <em>Picea</em> pollen of late Quaternary age in eastern North America: a numerical approach. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 2043-58.
  • Black, B. A.; Abrams, M. D. 2005. Disturbance history and climate response in an old-growth hemlock-white pine forest, central Pennsylvania. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132: 103-114.
  • Black, R. A.; Mack, R. N. 1976. <em>Tsuga canadensis</em> in Ohio: synecological and phytogeographical relationships. Vegetatio 32: 11-9.
  • Blum, B. M. 1988. Variation in the phenology of bud flushing in white and red spruce. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18(3): 315-9.
  • Bobola, M. S. 1996. Using nuclear and organelle DNA markers to discriminate among <em>Picea rubens, Picea mariana</em>, and their hybrids. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 433-43. (French summary)
  • Bobola, M. S. et.al. 1996. Hybridization between <em>Picea rubens</em> and <em>Picea mariana</em>: Differences observed between montane and coastal island populations. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 444-52. (French summary)
  • Boettcher, S. E.; Kalisz, P. J. 1990. Single-tree influence on soil properties in the mountains of eastern Kentucky. Ecology 71: 1365-72.
  • Boivin, B. 1959. <em>Abies balsamea</em> (L.) Mill. et ses variations. Naturaliste Canad. 86: 219-23.
  • Boivin, S.; Begin, Y. 1997. Development of a black spruce (<em>Picea mariana</em>) shoreline stand in relation to snow level variations at Lake Bienville in northern Quebec. Canad. J. Forest Res. 27: 295-303.
  • Bonan, G. B.; Sirois, L. 1992. Air temperature, tree growth, and the northern and southern range limits to <em>Picea mariana</em>. J. Veg. Sci. 3: 495-506.
  • Bongarten, B. C.; Hanover, J. W. 1982. Hybridization among white, red, blue and white x blue spruces. Forest Sci. 28: 129-34.
  • Borghetti, M. et.al. 1988. Geographic variation in cones of Norway spruce (<em>Picea abies</em> (L.) Karst.). Silvae Genet. 37: 178-184.
  • Borgmann, K. L.; Waller, D. M.; Rooney, T. P. 1999. Does balsam fir (<em>Abies balsamea</em>) facilitate the recruitment of eastern hemlock (<em>Tsuga canadensis</em>)? Amer. Midl. Naturalist 141: 391-397.
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  • Bormann, F. H. 1963. Ontogenetic relationships of the primary leaf of <em>Pinus taeda</em> L. and <em>P. echinata</em> Mill. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 90: 320-332.
  • Bormann, F. H. 1961. Intraspecific root grafting and the survival of eastern white pine stumps. Forest Sci. 7: 248-55.
  • Bormann, F. H. 1965. Changes in the growth pattern of white pine trees undergoing suppression. Ecology 46: 269-77.
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  • Carey, J. H. 1992. <em>Pinus pungens</em>. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1993. <em>Pinus strobus</em>. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1993. <em>Tsuga canadensis</em>. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. <em>Pinus echinata</em>. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1993. <em>Pinus banksiana</em>. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. <em>Pinus rigida</em>. ()
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  • Chabot, J. F.; Chabot, B. F. 1975. Development and seasonal patterns of mesophyll ultrastructure in <em>Abies balsamea</em>. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 295-304.
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