Genus: Larix

Larix decidua
Larix decidua

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 04/16/2013

Back to Pinaceae


Larix Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4, [“L”]. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Larix larix (L.) Karst., nom. illeg. (=Larix decidua Mill.), designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Key to the species of Larix

1. Twigs orange-brown; needles angled on upper surface; seed cones 2 cm or less with 10-30 scales...Larix laricina
1. Twigs yellow or yellow-brown; needles flat on upper surface; seed cones 2-3.5 cm with 35 or more scales...Larix decidua

List of Larix Species

References to Larix

  • Ahlgren, C. E. 1957. Phenological observations of nineteen native tree species in northeastern Minnesota. Ecology 38: 622-8.
  • Alfieri, F. J.; Evert, R. F. 1973. Structure and seasonal development of the secondary phloem in the Pinaceae. Bot. Gaz. 134(1): 17-25.
  • Anderson, A. B. 1955. Recovery and utilization of tree extractives. Econ. Bot. 9(2): 108-40.
  • Bartholin, T. 1979. The Picea-Larix problem. IAWA Bull. 1: 7-10.
  • Bovrov, E. G. 1972. Synopsis Speciarum Generis Larix. Novosti Sist. Vyssih Rast. 7: 4-15. (In Russian)
  • Brewster, D. R. 1918. Relation between height growth of larch seedlings and weather conditions. J. Forest. 16: 861-70.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1948. Generic and subgeneric distribution of the Coniferales. Bot. Gaz. 110: 80-91.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1920. Embryo development and polyembryony in relation to the phylogeny of conifers. Amer. J. Bot. 7: 125-45.
  • Butts, D.; Buchholz, J. T. 1940. Cotyledon numbers in conifers. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 33: 58-62.
  • Carter, K. K. 1996. Provenance tests as indicators of growth response to climate change in 10 north temperate tree species. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 1089-95. (French summary)
  • Cech, F. C.; Keys, R. N.; Frenchak, B. W. 1983. Fifteen-year results of a limited range eastern larch study.
  • Chandler, C.; Mavrodineanu, S. 1965. Meiosis in Larix laricina Koch. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 23(4): 67-76.
  • Charrette, P. 1990. The effect of photoperiod on apical growth cessation in tamarack (Larix laricina) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) provenances from northern Ontario. M.S. Thesis Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, Ontario80 p.
  • Cheliak, W. M.; Wang, J.; Pitel, J. A. 1988. Population structure and genetic diversity in tamarack, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18(10): 1318-24.
  • Clausen, J. J.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1967. Seasonal growth characteristics of long and short shoots of tamarack. Canad. J. Bot. 45: 1643-51.
  • Clausen, J. J.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1970. Observations on growth of long shoots of Larix laricina. Canad. J. Bot. 48: 1045-8.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1941. Tamarack. Amer. Forests 47: 430-1.
  • Cook, D. B. 1939. European larch reproduces in eastern New York. J. Forest. 37(11): 891-3.
  • Cook, D. B. 1941. The period of growth in some northeastern trees. J. Forest. 39: 956-959.
  • Cook, D. B. 1941. Five seasons' growth of conifers. Ecology 22(3): 285-96.
  • Cook, D. B.; Smith, R. H. 1964. Planting an adverse site in New York -II. J. Forest. 62(3): 161-2.
  • Cooley, G. E. 1903. Silvicultural features of Larix americana. Forest. Quart. 2: 148-60.
  • Cope, E. A. 1986. Native and cultivated conifers of northeastern North America. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY.
  • Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B. 1966. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae, revised by S.G. Harrison. ed. St. Martins Press, New York.
  • Denneler, B; Bergeron, Y.; Begin, Y. 1999. An attempt to explain the distribution of the tree species composing the riparian forests of Lake Duparquet, southern boreal region of Quebec, Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 77: 1744-1755.
  • Doyle, J. 1926. The ovule of Larix and Pseudotsuga. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. 37: 170-80.
  • Doyle, J.; O'Leary, M. 1935. Pollination in Tsuga, Cedrus, Pseudotsuga, and Larix. Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 24: 43-62.
  • Duncan, D. P. 1954. A study of some of the factors affecting the natural regeneration of tamarack (Larix laricina) in Minnesota. Ecology 35: 498-521.
  • Eckenwalder, J. E. 2009. Conifers of the world. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 720 pages. (ISBN 9780881929744)
  • Farjon, A. 1990. A bibliography of conifers. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.
  • Farmer, R. E.; O'Reilly, G.; Shaotang, D. 1993. Genetic variation in juvenile growth of tamarack (Larix laricina) in northwestern Ontario. Canad. J. Forest Res. 23: 1852-62.
  • Florin, R. 1955. The systematics of gymnosperms. In: A century of progress in the natural sciences, 1853-1953. California Acad. Sci., San Francisco. , 323-403 pages.
  • Flory, W. S. 1936. Chromosome numbers and phylogeny in the gymnosperms. J. Arnold Arbor. 17: 83-9.
  • Frampton, C. V. 1960. Some aspects of the developmental anatomy of the long shoot in Larix laricina Mill., with particular reference to seasonal periodicity. New Phyt. 58: 175-91.
  • Freiherr, H. 1935. Zur systematik der Gattung Larix. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 47: 1-7.
  • Gevorkiantz, S. R. 1957. Site index curves for tamarack in the Lake States.
  • Hakansson, A. 1960. Seed development in Larix. Bot. Not. 113: 29-40.
  • Hall, J. P. 1982. Microsporogenesis in Larix laricina. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 797-805.
  • Horsman, J. 1988. Larches: a survey of the species. The Plantsman 10: 37-62.
  • Hunt, S. S. 1932. European larch in the northeastern United States. Bull. Harvard Forest 16
  • Jean, M.; Bouchard, A. 1996. Tree-ring analysis of wetlands of the upper St. Lawrence River, Quebec: response to hydrology and climate. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 482-91. (French summary)
  • Joyce, D. G. 1988. Adaptive variation in cold hardiness of eastern larch, Larix laricina, in northern Ontario. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18(1): 85-9.
  • Kienholz, R. 1941. Seasonal course of height growth in some hardwoods in Connecticut. Ecology 22: 249-58.
  • Kirkwood, J. E. 1916. Bisporangiate cones of Larix. Bot. Gaz. 61: 256-7.
  • Klimaszewska, K. et al. 1997. Larix laricina (tamarack): somatic embryogenesis and genetic transformation. Canad. J. Forest Res. 27: 538-50.
  • Knowles, P.; Furnier, G. R.; Aleksiuk, M. A.; Perry, D. J. 1987. Significant levels of self-fertilization in natural populations of tamarack. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 1087-91.
  • Knudson, L. 1913. Observations on the inception, season, and duration of cambium development in the American larch (Larix laricina (Du Roi) Koch). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 40: 271-93.
  • Kosinski, G. 1986. Megagametogenesis, fertilization, and embryo development in Larix decidua. Canad. J. Forest Res. 16: 1301-9.
  • Kozlowski, T. T.; Clausen, J. J. 1966. Seasonal development of long and short shoot components of tamarack. Bull. Ecol. Soc. Amer. 47: 113-4.
  • Lieffers, V. J.; Rothwell, R. L. 1987. Rooting of peatland black spruce and tamarack in relation to depth of water table. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 817-21.
  • Lieffers, V. J.; Rothwell, R. L. 1986. Effects of depth of water table and substrate temperature on root and top growth of Picea mariana and Larix laricina seedlings. Canad. J. Forest Res. 16: 1201-6.
  • Liu, Z.; Knowles, P. 1991. Patterns of allozyme variation in tamarack (Larix laricina) from northern Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 69: 2468-74.
  • McCurdy, W. D.; Powell, G. R. 1987. Syllepsis in Larix laricina: association of sylleptic branching with cross-sectional stem growth and stem form of saplings. Canad. J. Forest Res. 17: 1609-19.
  • Mitchell, R. S. (eds.) (1992): 1992. Pinophyta (Gymnosperms) of New York State. Vol. NY State Museum Bull. 483. Univ. of the state of NY, Albany, NY. , 80 pages.
  • Montague, T. G. 1993. Comparative growth, shade tolerance, and stand dynamics of Picea mariana and Larix laricina along environmental gradients in northern Wisconsin peatlands. M.A. Thesis Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, WI,
  • Montague, T. G.; Givnish, T. J. 1996. Distribution of black spruce versus eastern larch along peatland gradients: relationship to relative stature, growth rate, and shade tolerance. Canad. J. Bot. 74(9): 1514-32. (Also Thuja)
  • Murray, E. 1984. Notae spermatophytae no. 4: unum minutum monographum generis Laricinis. Kalmia 14: 8-10.
  • Naczi, R. F. C.; Thieret, J. W. 1996. The gold-cone tamarack (Larix laricina forma lutea, Pinaceae) in Pennsylvania. Bartonia 59: 123-4.
  • Niklas, K. J. 1984. The motion of windborne pollen grains around conifer ovulate cones: Implications on wind pollination. Amer. J. Bot. 71(3): 356-74.
  • Niklas, K. J.; U., K. T. P. 1983. Conifer ovulate cone morphology: implications on pollen impaction patterns. Amer. J. Bot. 70(4): 568-77.
  • Ostenfeld, C. H.; Larsen, S. C. 1930. The species of the genus Larix and their geographical distribution. Kongel. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Biol. Madd. 9(2): 1-106.
  • Owens, J. N. 1995. Reproductive biology of larch.
  • Paratley, R. D. 1986. Vegetation-environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 113: 357-371.
  • Park, Y. S.; Fowler, D. P. 1982. Effects of inbreeding and genetic variances in a natural population of tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch) in eastern Canada. Silvae Genet. 31: 21-6.
  • Parker, W. H.; Dickinson, T. A. 1990. Range-wide morphological and anatomical variation in Larix laricina. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 832-40. (French summary)
  • Penalba, M. C.; Payette, S. 1997. Late-Holocene expansion of eastern larch (Larix laricina [Du Roi] K. Koch) in northwestern Quebec. Quatern. Res. 48: 114-21.
  • Piatnitsky, S. S. 1934. Experiments on self-pollination of Larix, Acer, and Quercus. Trudy Bot. Inst. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 4: 297-318.
  • Pielou, E. C. 1988. The world of northern evergreens. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY. , 174 pages.
  • Pitel, J. A.; Cheliak, W. M. 1986. Enzyme activities during imbibition and germination of seeds of tamarack (Larix laricina). Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 67: 562-9.
  • Pitel, J. A.; Durzan, D. J. 1978. Chromosomal proteins of conifers. 1. Comparison of histones and nonhistone chromosomal proteins from dry seeds of conifers. Canad. J. Bot. 56(16): 1915-27.
  • Powell, G. R. 1987. Syllepsis in Larix laricina: Analysis of tree leaders with and without sylleptic long shhots. Canad. J. Forest Res. 17: 490-8.
  • Powell, G. R.; Tosh, K. J. 1991. The pollination mechanism and development after bud burst of cones of Larix laricina. Canad. J. Bot. 69(6): 1179-87.
  • Powell, G. R.; Tosh, K. J.; Remphrey, W. R. 1984. Occurrence and distribution of cones borne laterally on long shoots of Larix laricina. Canad. J. Bot. 62: 771-7.
  • Prager, E. M.; Fowler, D. P.; Wilson, A. C. 1976. Rates of evolution in conifers (Pinaceae). Evolution 30: 637-49.
  • Price, R. A. 1989. The genera of Pinaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 70: 247-305.
  • Qian, T.; Ennos, R. A.; Helgason, T. 1995. Genetic relationships among larch species based on analysis of restriction fragment variation for chloroplast DNA. Canad. J. Forest Res. 25: 1197-202. (French summary)
  • Reed, D. D.; Jones, E. A.; Wallach, M. A.; Berrang, P. C.; Teahan, K. M. 1988. Genetic variation among tamarack (Larix laricina) provenances and growth comparisons with European larch (Larix decidua).
  • Rehfeldt, G. E. 1970. Genecology of Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch in Wisconsin. Silvae Genet. 19: 9-16.
  • Remphrey, W. R.; Powell, G. R. 1987. Crown architecture of Larix laricina saplings: an analysis of higher order branching. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 268-79.
  • Remphrey, W. R.; Powell, G. R. 1988. Crown architecture of Larix laricina saplings: production and disposition of foilage and their simulation. Canad. J. Bot. 66: 2234-46.
  • Remphrey, W. R.; Powell, G. R. 1984. Crown architecture of Larix laricina saplings: quantitative analysis and modeling of (non-sylleptic) order 1 branching in relation to development of the main stem. Canad. J. Bot. 62: 1904-15. (See Erratum, Can. J. Bot. 64(4):903. 1986.)
  • Remphrey, W. R.; Powell, G. R. 1985. Crown architecture of Larix laricina saplings: sylleptic branching on the main stem. Canad. J. Bot. 63: 1296-302.
  • Remphrey, W. R.; Powell, G. R. 1984. Crown architecture of Larix laricina saplings: shoot preformation and neoformation and their relationships to shoot vigor. Canad. J. Bot. 62: 2181-92.
  • Roe, E. I. 1957. Silvical characteristics of tamarack (Larix laricina).
  • Samson, J.; Fortin, J. A. 1986. Ectomycorrhizal fungi of Larix laricina and the interspecific and intraspecific variation in response to temperature. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 3020-8.
  • Sax, H. J. 1932. Chromosome pairing in Larix species. J. Arnold Arbor. 13: 368-73.
  • Schopf, J. M. 1943. The embryology of Larix. Illinois Biol. Monogr. 19(4): 1-97.
  • Sidhu, S. S.; Staniforth, R. J. 1986. Effects of atmospheric fluorides on foliage, and cone and seed production in balsam fir, black spruce, and larch. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 923-31.
  • Simak, M. 1971. De amerikanska larkarterna; Larix occidentalis, Larix lyallii, Larix laricina. Sveriges Skogsvardsf. Tidskr. 69(1): 59-80.
  • Sindelar, J. 1973. Some further data on the geographic variability on European larch Larix decidua Mill. Cas. Slezsk. Muz., C, Dendrol. 1: 17-24. (In Chech.?; English summary)
  • Sobata, M. 1996. Reestablishing Larix laricina in wetland restoration in southeastern Wisconsin.
  • Sullivan, J. 1994. Larix decidua. ()
  • Szmidt, A. E.; Alden, T.; Hallgren, J. E. 1987. Paternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA in Larix. Plant Mol. Biol. 9: 59-64.
  • Tainter, F. 1970. Wound periderm formation in Larix laricina in response to Arceuthobium pusillum. Phytopathology 60: 555-6.
  • Tainter, F. H.; French, D. W. 1971. The role of wound periderm in the resistance of eastern larch and jack pine to dwarf mistletoe. Canad. J. Bot. 49: 501-4.
  • Tilton, D. L. 1977. Seasonal growth and foliar nutrients of Larix laricina in three wetland ecosystems. Canad. J. Bot. 55(10): 1291-8.
  • Tosh, K. J.; Powell, G. R. 1986. Proliferated, bisporangiate, and other atypical cones occurring on young, plantation-grown Larix laricina. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 469-75.
  • Tyrell, L. E.; Boerner, R. E. J. 1987. Larix laricina and Picea mariana: relationships among leaf lifespan, foliar nutrient patterns, nutrient conservation, and growth efficiency. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 1570-7.
  • Tyrrell, L. E.; Boerner, E. J. 1987. Larix laricina and Picea mariana: relationships among leaf life-span, foliar nutrient patterns, nutrient conservation, and growth efficiency. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 1570-7.
  • Uchytil, R. J. 1991. Larix laricina. ()
  • Vaartaja, O. 1957. Photoperiodic responses in seedlings of northern tree species. Canad. J. Bot. 35: 133-8.
  • Vaartaja, O. 1959. Evidence of photoperiodic ecotypes in trees. Ecol. Monogr. 29: 91-111.
  • Wei, X. X.; Wang, X. Q. 2003. Phylogenetic split of Larix: evidence from paternally inherited cpDNA trnT-trnF region. Pl. Syst. Evol. 239: 67-77.