New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Tsuga

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/25/2013

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Nomenclature

Pinus sect. Tsuga Endl., Syn. Conif. 83. 1847. Tsuga (Endl.) Carrière, Traité Conif. 185. 1855. TYPE: Tsuga sieboldii Carrière designated by Britton & Brown (1913), or Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière designated by Rehder (1949).

List of Tsuga Species

References to Tsuga

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  • Avery, G. S.; Creighton, H. B.; Hock, C. W. 1940. Annual rings in hemlocks and their relation to environmental factors. Amer. J. Bot. 27: 825-31.
  • Baldwin, H. 1934. Further notes on the germination of hemlock seed. J. Forest. 32: 99-100.
  • Beatty, S. W. 1984. Influence of microtopography and canopy species on spatial patterns of forest understory plants. Ecology 65: 1406-19.
  • Bentz, S. E. et.al. 2002. Hybridization and self-compatibility in controlled pollinations of eastern North American and asian hemlock (Tsuga) species. J. Arboric. 28: 200-205.
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  • Black, B. A.; Abrams, M. D. 2005. Disturbance history and climate response in an old-growth hemlock-white pine forest, central Pennsylvania. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 132: 103-114.
  • Black, R. A.; Mack, R. N. 1976. Tsuga canadensis in Ohio: synecological and phytogeographical relationships. Vegetatio 32: 11-9.
  • Boettcher, S. E.; Kalisz, P. J. 1990. Single-tree influence on soil properties in the mountains of eastern Kentucky. Ecology 71: 1365-72.
  • Borgmann, K. L.; Waller, D. M.; Rooney, T. P. 1999. Does balsam fir (Abies balsamea) facilitate the recruitment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis)? Amer. Midl. Naturalist 141: 391-397.
  • Bourdeau, P. F.; Laverick, M. L. 1958. Tolerance and photosynthetic adaptability to light intensity in white pine, red pine, hemlock, and ailanthus seedlings. Forest Sci. 4: 196-207.
  • Britton, Nathaniel L. 1906. The Hemlock Grove on the banks of the Bronx River, and what it signifies: With a review of the history and literature of the hemlock tree. Trans. Bronx Hist. Soc. 1: 5-15.
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  • Buchholz, J. T. 1948. Generic and subgeneric distribution of the Coniferales. Bot. Gaz. 110: 80-91.
  • Burkle, L. A.; Logan, B. A. 2003. Seasonal acclimation of photosynthesis in eastern hemlock and partridgeberry in different light environments. Northeastern Naturalist 10: 1-16.
  • Butts, D.; Buchholz, J. T. 1940. Cotyledon numbers in conifers. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 33: 58-62.
  • Carey, J. H. 1993. Tsuga canadensis. ()
  • Castaneda, C. A. 1976. Some aspects of the ecology of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) in Rhode Island. M.S. Thesis Univ. Rhode Island,
  • Charney, J. D. 1980. Hemlock-hardwood community relationships in the Highlands of southeastern New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 107: 249-57.
  • Clark, J.; Gibbs, R. D. 1957. Studies in tree physiology. IV. Further investigations of seasonal changes in moisture content of certain Canadian forest trees. Canad. J. Bot. 35: 219-53.
  • Clepper, H. E. 1934. Hemlock, the state tree of Pennsylvania. Dept. Forests and Waters Bull. No. 52, Harrisburg, PA.
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  • Cook, D. B. 1941. Five seasons' growth of conifers. Ecology 22(3): 285-96.
  • Cook, E. R.; Jacoby, G. C. 1977. Tree-ring drought relationships in the Hudson Valley, New York. Science 198(4315): 399-401. (Pinus, Quercus, & Tsuga used for dendrochronology)
  • Davidson, D. W.; Davis, R. M. 1964. Further observations on living stumps of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (hemlock) in northern New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 91: 233-4.
  • Davis, M. B.; Woods, K. D.; Webb, S. L.; Futyma, R. P. 1986. Dispersal versus climate: expansion of Fagus and Tsuga into the upper Great Lakes region. Vegetatio 67: 93-103.
  • Doccola, J. J. et.al. 2007. Efficacy and duration of trunk-injected Imidacloprid in the management of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). Arbor. Urban For. 33: 12-21.
  • Doyle, J.; Kam, A. 1944. Pollination in Tsuga pattoniana and in species of Abies and Picea. Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 24: 43-62.
  • Doyle, J.; O'Leary, M. 1935. Pollination in Tsuga, Cedrus, Pseudotsuga, and Larix. Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 24: 43-62.
  • Eckenwalder, J. E. 2009. Conifers of the world. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 720 pages. (ISBN 9780881929744)
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  • Ewers, F. W.; Zimmermann, M. H. 1984. The hydraulic architecture of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Canad. J. Bot. 62: 940-6.
  • Fajvan, M. A.; Seymour, R. S. 1993. Canopy stratification, age structure, and development of multicohort stands of eastern white pine, eastern hemlock, and red spruce. Canad. J. Forest Res. 23(9): 1799-809.
  • Farjon, A. 1990. A bibliography of conifers. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.
  • Farr, P. M.; Tyndall, R. W. 1992. Expansion of an eastern hemlock forest in Maryland. Castanea 57: 190-5.
  • Farwell, O. A. 1914. The correct name for the hemlock spruce. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 41: 621-9.
  • Fischer, R.; Dengler, N. G. 1977. Mesophyll cell walls in hemlock, Tsuga canadensis. Canad. J. Bot. 55(11): 1510-5.
  • Fitschen. 1929. Die Gattung Tsuga. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 1929: 1-12.
  • Foster, D. R.; Zebryk, T. M. 1993. Long-term vegetation dynamics and disturbance history of a Tsuga-dominated forest in New England. Ecology 74: 982-98.
  • Fowler, J. A. 1957. Hemlock on the coastal plain of Maryland. Atlantic Naturalist 12: 232-4.
  • Friesner, R. C.; Potzger, J. E. 1932. Factors concerned in hemlock reproduction in Indiana. Butler Univ. Bot. Stud. 2: 133-49.
  • Frothingham, E. H. 1915. The eastern hemlock.
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  • Gambles, R. L.; Dengler, N. G. 1974. The leaf anatomy of hemlock, Tsuga canadensis. Canad. J. Bot. 52(5): 1049-56.
  • Goder, H. A. 1955. A phytosociological study of Tsuga canadensis near the termination of its range in Wisconsin. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, WI,
  • Grant, D.; Hart, A. C. 1961. Effect of seedbed preparation on natural reproduction of spruce and hemlock under dense shade.
  • Hanna, W. J.; Grant, C. L. 1962. Spectrochemical analysis of the foliage of certain trees and ornamentals for 23 elements. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 89: 293-302.
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  • Henry, J. D.; Swan, J. M. A. 1974. Reconstructing forest history from live and dead plant material - an approach to the study of forest succession in southwest New Hampshire. Ecology 55: 772-83.
  • Hett, J. M.; Loucks, O. L. 1976. Age structure models of balsam fir and eastern hemlock. J. Ecol. 64: 1029-44.
  • Hett, J. M.; Loucks, O. L. 1968. Age structure models of balsam fir and eastern hemlock. J. Ecol. 64: 1029-44.
  • Hibbs, D. E. 1981. Leader growth and architecture of three North American hemlocks. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 476-80.
  • Holmes, S. 1932. A bisporangiate cone of Tsuga canadensis. Bot. Gaz. 93: 100-2.
  • Hotchkiss, A. T.; Van Stockum, R. R.; Van Osdol, B. 1976. New stations for Tsuga canadensis in southern Indiana. Castanea 41: 338-42.
  • Hume, E. P. 1971. Hemlock: graceful conifer. Morton Arbor. Quart. 7(4): 37-41.
  • Hupp, C. R. 1983. Seedling establishment on a landslide site. Castanea 48: 89-98.
  • Ingwell, L. et.al. 2009. Intraspecific variation in Tsuga canadensis foliar chemistry. Northeastern Naturalist 16: 585-594.
  • Jenkins, C. F. 1946. Hemlock- queen of the conifers. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 6: 49-60.
  • Kavanagh, K.; Kellman, M. 1986. Performance of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. at the center and northern edge of its range: a comparison. J. Biogeogr. 13: 145-57.
  • Kennedy, G.; Bergeron, S. 1991. Tree rings as monitors of heavy metal air pollution histories. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 151: 337-344.
  • Kessell, S. R. 1979. Adaptation and dimorphism in eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. Amer. Naturalist 113(3): 333-50.
  • Krueger, L. M.; Peterson, C. J. 2006. Effects of white-tailed deer on Tsuga canadensis regeneration: evidence of microsites as refugia from browsing. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 156: 353-362.
  • Lei, T. T. et.al. 2002. Effects of Rhododendron maximum thickets on tree seed dispersal, seedling morphology, and survivorship. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 991-1000.
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  • Logan, K. T. 1973. Growth of tree seedlings as affected by light intensity V. White ash, beech, eastern hemlock, and general conclusions.
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  • Manning, W. J. 1971. Effects of limestone dust on leaf condition, foliar disease incidence, and leaf surface microflora of native plants. Environmental Pollution 2: 69-76.
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  • Marshall, R. 1927. The growth of hemlock before and after release from suppression.
  • McManus, K. A.; Shields, K. S.; Souto, D. R. (eds.) (2000): 2000. Proceedings: Symposium on sustainable management of hemlock ecosystems in eastern North America. General Technical Report NE-267. USDA Forest Service, Newtown Square, PA. , 237 pages. (June 22-24, 1999, Durham, New Hampshire)
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  • Merrill, P. H.; Hawley, R. C. 1924. Hemlock: its place in the sylviculture of the southern New England forest. Bull. Yale Univ. School Forest. 12
  • Miles, M. C.; Smith, E. C. 1960. A study of the origin of hemlock forests in southwestern Nova Scotia. Forest. Chron. 36: 375-92.
  • Millet, J. et.al. 1998. Plagiotropic architectural development of four tree species of the temperate forest. Canad. J. Bot. 76: 2100-2118.
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  • Montgomery, M. E. 1999. Biological controls for the hemlock woolly adelgid. In: Proceedings, USDA interagency research forum on gypsy moth and other invasive species 1999. USDA, Forest Service, Radnor, PA. , (Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-266)
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  • Murray, E. 1984. Notae spermatophytae no. 4: unum minutum monographum generis Tsuga. Kalmia 14: 17-9.
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