New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Pinus

Pinus rigida
Pinus virginiana   Mill.  -  Virginia Pine
Photo © by Steven Clemants
Taken at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, NY, 1997.

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/25/2013

Back to Pinaceae

Nomenclature

Pinus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1000. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 434. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Pinus sylvestris L. designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Pinus sect. Strobus Sweet ex Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. (Spach) 11: 394. 1841. Strobus (Sweet ex Spach) Opiz, Lotos 4: 94. 1854. Leucopitys Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 69. 1913. TYPE: Strobus weymouthiana Opiz (=Pinus strobus L.).

Key to the species of Pinus

1. Needles in clusters of 5...Pinus strobus
1. Needles in clusters of 3 or less...2

2. Needles in clusters of 3 exclusively...Pinus rigida
2. Needles in clusters of 2 or 3...3

3. Needles in clusters of 2 and 3...4
3. Needles in clusters of 2 exclusively...5

4. Needles generally 3-6 cm...Pinus pungens
4. Needles generally 7-11 cm...Pinus echinata

5. Needles generally 7.5 cm or longer...6
5. Needles generally less than 7.5 cm...8

6. Buds not resinous...Pinus thunbergii
6. Buds resinous...7

7. Fresh needles snap or break when bent...Pinus resinosa
7. Fresh needles fold when bent...Pinus nigra

8. Needles generally 2.5 cm or less...Pinus banksiana
8. Needles generally 2.5 to 7.5 cm...9

9. Plant a low growing shrub...Pinus mugo
9. Plant a tree...10

10. Young twigs glaucous; needles with inconspicuous stomatal lines; bark on upper section of trunk reddish, scaly...Pinus virginiana
10. Young twigs not glaucous; needles with conspicuous stomatal lines; bark on upper section of trunk orange, platy...Pinus sylvestris

List of Pinus Species

References to Pinus

  • Abbott, H. G. 1962. Tree seed preferences of mice and voles in the Northeast. J. Forest. 60(2): 97-9.
  • Abbott, H. G. 1961. White pine seed consumption by small mammals. J. Forest. 59(3): 197-201.
  • Abbott, H. G.; Quink, T. F. 1970. Ecology of eastern white pine seed caches made by small forest mammals. Ecology 51(2): 271-8.
  • Abrams, M. D.; Orwig, D. A. 1996. A 300-year history of disturbance and canopy recruitment for co-occurring white pine and hemlock on the Allegheny Plateau, U.S.A. J. Ecol. 84: 353-63.
  • Abrams, M. D.; Orwig, D. A. 1995. Structure, radial growth dynamics and recent climatic variations of a 320-year-old Pinus rigida rock outcrop community. Oecologia 101: 353-60.
  • Ahlgren, C. E.; Ahlgren, I. F. 1981. Some effects of different forest litters on seed germination and growth. Canad. J. Forest Res. 11: 710-714.
  • Alexander, E. J. 1958. Pinus banksiana. Addisonia 23: 39-40.
  • Alfieri, F. J.; Evert, R. F. 1973. Structure and seasonal development of the secondary phloem in the Pinaceae. Bot. Gaz. 134(1): 17-25.
  • Alfieri, F. J.; Evert, R. F. 1968. Seasonal development of the secondary phloem in Pinus. Amer. J. Bot. 55: 518-28.
  • Ammann, B. R. 1977. A pollenmorphological distinction between Pinus banksiana Lamb. and P. resinosa Ait. Pollen & Spores 19(4): 521-9.
  • Andresen, J. W. 1959. A study of pseudonanism in Pinus rigida Mill. Ecol. Monogr. 29: 309-32.
  • Andressen, J. W. 1957. Precocity of Pinus rigida Mill. Castanea 22: 130-4.
  • Argus, G. 1973. Pinus banksiana Lamb. or Pinus divaricata (Aiton) Dumont? Taxon 22: 318-319.
  • Argus, G. W. 1971. A necessary name change for jack pine: Pinus divaricata in lieu of P. banksiana. Canad. J. Bot. 49(4): 573-6.
  • Arthur, M. A.; Paratley, R. D. 1998. Single and repeated fires affect survival and regeneration of woody and herbaceous species in an oak-pine forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125: 225-236.
  • Auten, J. T. 1945. Relative influence of sassafras, black locust, and pines upon old-field soils. J. Forest. 43: 441-6.
  • Baker, S. S.; Rugh, C. L.; Whitmore, F. W.; Kamalay, J. C. 1996. Genes encoding 11S-Globulin-like proteins are expressed in the megagametophyte soon after fertilization in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Int. J. Plant Sci. 157: 453-61.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1932. Alcohol separation of empty seed, and its effect on the germination of red spruce. Amer. J. Bot. 19: 1-11.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1931. The period of height growth in some northeastern conifers. Ecology 12: 665-89.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1979. The distribution of Pinus banksiana Lamb. in New England and New York. Rhodora 81: 549-465.
  • Barden, L. S. 1988. Drought and survival in a self-perpetuating Pinus pungens population: equilibrium or nonequilibrium? Amer. Midl. Naturalist 119(2): 253-7.
  • Barden, L. S. 1977. Self-maintaining populations of Pinus pungens Lam. in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Castanea 42(4): 316-23.
  • Bartholomay, G. A.; Eckert, R. T.; Smith, K. T. 1997. Reductions in tree-ring widths of white pine following ozone exposure at Acadia National Park, Maine, U.S.A. Canad. J. Forest Res. 27: 361-8.
  • Barton, A. M.; Wallenstein, M. D. 1997. Effects of invasion of Pinus virginiana on soil properties in serpentine barrens in southeastern Pennsylvania. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124: 297-305.
  • Barton, L. V. 1930. Hastening the germination of some coniferous seeds. Amer. J. Bot. 17: 88-115.
  • Beal, J. M. 1934. Chromosome behavior in Pinus banksiana following fertilization. Bot. Gaz. 95: 660-6.
  • Beaufait, W. R. 1960. Some effects of high temperatures on the cones and seeds of jack pine. Forest Sci. 6: 194-9.
  • Beaulieu, J.; Simon, J. P. 1995. Mating system in natural populations of eastern white pine in Quebec. Canad. J. Forest Res. 25: 1697-703.
  • Beaulieu, J.; Simon, J. P. 1994. Genetic structure and variability in Pinus strobus in Quebec. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24: 1726-33.
  • Beaulieu, J.; Simon, J. P. 1995. Variation in cone morphology and seed characters in Pinus strobus in Quebec. Canad. J. Bot. 73(2): 262-71.
  • Beland, M.; Bergeron, Y. 1993. Ecological factors affecting abundance of advanced growth in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) stnads of the boreal forest of northwest Quebec. Forest. Chron. 69: 561-8.
  • Bergeron, Y.; Brisson, J. 1990. Fire regime in red pine stands at the northern limit of the species' range. Ecology 71: 1352-64.
  • Bergeron, Y.; Leduc, A.; Li, T. X. 1997. Explaining the distribution of Pinus spp. in a Canadian boreal insular landscape. J. Veg. Sci. 8: 37-44.
  • Bergmann, F.; Gillet, E. M. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships among Pinus species (Pinaceae) inferred from different numbers of 6PGDH loci. Pl. Syst. Evol. 208: 25-34.
  • Best, G. N. 1886. Pinus pungens in New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 13: 121-2.
  • Bormann, B. T.; Bormann, F. H.; et al. et.al. 1993. Rapid N2 fixation in pines, alder, and locust: evidence from the sandbox ecosystem study. Ecology 74: 583-98.
  • Bormann, F. H. 1966. Significance of root grafts in Pinus strobus L. Ecol. Monogr. 36: 1-26.
  • Bormann, F. H. 1961. Intraspecific root grafting and the survival of eastern white pine stumps. Forest Sci. 7: 248-55.
  • Bormann, F. H. 1963. Ontogenetic relationships of the primary leaf of Pinus taeda L. and P. echinata Mill. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 90: 320-332.
  • Bormann, F. H. 1965. Changes in the growth pattern of white pine trees undergoing suppression. Ecology 46: 269-77.
  • Bormann, F. H. 1953. Factors determining the role of loblolly pine and sweetgum in early old-field succession in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Ecol. Monogr. 23: 339-58.
  • Bormann, F. H.; Graham, B. F. Jr. 1959. The occurrence of natural root grafting in eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., and its ecological implications. Ecology 40: 677-91.
  • Bourdeau, P. F.; Laverick, M. L. 1958. Tolerance and photosynthetic adaptability to light intensity in white pine, red pine, hemlock, and ailanthus seedlings. Forest Sci. 4: 196-207.
  • Boyle, C. D.; Hellenbrand, K. E. 1991. Assessment of the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on drought tolerance of conifer seedlings. Canad. J. Bot. 69(8): 1764-71.
  • Bramble, W. C. 1946. Natural reproduction of Jack pine in Pennsylvania. J. Forest. 44: 204.
  • Bramble, W. C.; Goddard, M. K. 1942. Effect of animal coaction and seedbed conditions on regeneration of pitch pine in the barrens of central Pennsylvania. Ecology 23: 330-5.
  • Brand, D. G.; Janas, P. S. 1988. Growth and acclimation of planted white pine and white spruce seedlings in response to environmental conditions. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18(3): 320-9.
  • Brown, H. P. 1915. Growth studies in forest trees. II. Pinus strobus L. Bot. Gaz. 59: 197-241.
  • Brown, H. P. 1912. Growth studies in forest trees. I. Pinus rigida Mill. Bot. Gaz. 54: 386-402.
  • Brown, J. H.; Stires, J. L. 1984. Growth of white pine in relation to soils and topography in southeastern Ohio.
  • Brown, R. T. 1967. Influence of naturally occurring compounds on germination and growth of jack pine. Ecology 48: 542-6. (Also discussions on Cornus, Gaultheria, & Prunus)
  • Buchert, G. P. 1994. Genetics of white pine and implications for management and conservation. Forest. Chron. 70: 427-34.
  • Buchert, G. P.; Rajora, O. P.; Hood, J. V.; Dancik, B. P. 1997. Effects of harvesting on genetic diversity in old-growth eastern white pine in Ontario, Canada. Conserv. Biol. 11: 747-58.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1920. Embryo development and polyembryony in relation to the phylogeny of conifers. Amer. J. Bot. 7: 125-45.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1948. Generic and subgeneric distribution of the Coniferales. Bot. Gaz. 110: 80-91.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1944. The cause of sterility in cross-pollinations between species of pines. Amer. J. Bot. 31: Suppl. p. 2s.
  • Buchholz, K. 1983. Initial responses of pine and oak to wildfire in the New Jersey Pine Barrens Plains. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 91-6.
  • Buchholz, K. 1980. Mineral nutrient accumulations in Pinus rigida Mill. from Plains and Barrens populations in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, and an analysis of density, biomass and net annual above-ground productivity of Plains Pinus rigida. Ph.D. Dissertation Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ185 p.
  • Buchholz, K.; Good, R. E. 1982. Density, age structure, biomass and net annual above-ground productivity of dwarfed Pinus rigida Mill. from the New Jersey Pine Barrens Plains. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 109: 24-34.
  • Buell, J. H. 1940. Red pine in West Virginia. Castanea 5: 1-6.
  • Buell, M. F. 1947. Mass dissemination of pine pollen J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 63: 163-7.
  • Buell, M. F. 1946. A size frequency study of Pinus banksiana pollen. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 62: 221-8.
  • Bump, N. G. 1926. Some observations of forest tree seeds and the early development of the seedlings. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY64 p.
  • Bunce, J. A.; Miller, L. N.; Chabot, B. F. 1977. Competative exploitation of soil water by five eastern North American tree species. Bot. Gaz. 138(2): 168-73.
  • Burgess, D.; Wetzel, S. 2002. Recruitment and early growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) regeneration after partial cutting and site preparation. Forestry (Oxford) 75: 419-423.
  • Butts, D.; Buchholz, J. T. 1940. Cotyledon numbers in conifers. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 33: 58-62.
  • Byram, G. M.; Doolittle, W. T. 1950. A year of growth for a shortleaf pine. Ecology 31: 27-35.
  • Cain, S. A. 1948. Size frequency characteristics of Pinus echinata pollen. Bot. Gaz. 110: 325-30.
  • Canham, C. D. et.al. 1996. Biomass allocation and multiple resource limitation in tree seedlings. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 1521-30. (French summary)
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. Pinus rigida. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1993. Pinus strobus. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. Pinus pungens. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. Pinus echinata. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1993. Pinus banksiana. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1993. Pinus resinosa. ()
  • Carleton, T. J.; Maycock, P. F.; Arnup, R.; Gordon, A. M. 1996. In situ regeneration of Pinus strobus and P. resinosa in the Great Lakes forest communities of Canada. J. Veg. Sci. 7: 431-44.
  • Carlisle, A. 1958. A guide to the named variants of Scots pine. Forestry (Oxford) 31: 203-24.
  • Carter, J. C. 1975. Major tree diseases of the century. J. Arboric. 1(8): 141-7.
  • Carter, K. K. 1996. Provenance tests as indicators of growth response to climate change in 10 north temperate tree species. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 1089-95. (French summary)
  • Cayford, J. H.; Waldron, R. M. 1965. Multiple jack pine seedlings. Canad. J. Bot. 43: 481-2.
  • Cechich, R. A. 1979. Ovule development and abortion in Pinus banksiana. (Abstr. in Ref. Zhurn. Biol., 8(2):V263. 1980.)
  • Cecich, R. A. 1984. The histochemistry and ultrastructure of jack pine microsporangia during the winter. Amer. J. Bot. 71(6): 851-64.
  • Chamberlin, E. A.; Aarssen, L. W. 1996. The cost of apical dominance in white pine (Pinus strobus L.): Growth in multi-stemmed versus single-stemmed trees. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 268-72.
  • Chaney, W. R.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1969. Seasonal and diurnal changes in water balance of fruits, cones, and leaves of forest trees. Canad. J. Bot. 47: 1407-17.
  • Chapman, H. H. 1952. The place of fire in the ecology of pines. Bartonia 26: 39-44.
  • Cheliak, W. M. et.al. 1985. Temporal variation and mating system in a natural population of jack pine. Genetics 109: 569-84.
  • Cherosciewicz, Z. 1990. Site conditions for jack pine seeding. Forest. Chron. 66: 579-84.
  • Cheyney, E. G. 1932. The roots of a jack pine tree. J. Forest. 30: 929-32.
  • Ching, T. M.; Ching, K. K. 1964. Freeze-drying pine pollen. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 39: 705-9.
  • Chisman, H. H.; Lylo, N. 1958. A dwarf form of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). J. Forest. 56: 110-2.
  • Clark, J. S. 1991. Disturbance and tree life history on the shifting mosaic landscape. Ecology 72: 1102-18.
  • Clements, J. R. 1970. Shoot responses of young red pine to watering applied over two seasons. Canad. J. Bot. 48: 75-80.
  • Clements, J. R.; Fraser, J. W.; Stiell, W. M. 1968. Exploratory studies of the compatibility of young red pine with sweet-fern.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1942. Scotch pine. Amer. Forests 48: 34-5.
  • Constantinidou, H. A.; Kozlowski, T. T.; Hensen, K. 1976. Effect of sulphur dioxide on Pinus resinosa seedlings in the cotyledon stage. J. Environ. Qual. 5: 141-4.
  • Cook, D. B. 1941. Five seasons' growth of conifers. Ecology 22(3): 285-96.
  • Cook, D. B.; Smith, R. H. 1964. Planting an adverse site in New York -II. J. Forest. 62(3): 161-2.
  • Cook, D. B.; Smith, R. H.; Stone, E. L. 1952. The natural distribution of red pine in New York. Ecology 33: 500-12.
  • Cook, E. R.; Jacoby, G. C. 1977. Tree-ring drought relationships in the Hudson Valley, New York. Science 198(4315): 399-401. (Pinus, Quercus, & Tsuga used for dendrochronology)
  • Cooke, R. R. 1989. Stand and individual tree growth of eastern white pine. M.S. Thesis Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH149 p.
  • Cope, E. A. 1986. Native and cultivated conifers of northeastern North America. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY.
  • Cope, J. A. 1932. Northern white pine in the southern Appalachians. J. Forest. 30: 821-8. (Also Ribes)
  • Costonis, A. C. 1970. Acute foliar injury of eastern white pine induced by sulfur dioxide and ozone. Phytopathology 60: 994-9.
  • Costonis, A. C.; Sinclair, W. A. 1969. Relationship of atmospheric ozone to needle blight of eastern white pine. Phytopathology 59: 1566-74.
  • Craine, S. I.; Orians, C. M. 2006. Effects of flooding on pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) growth and survivorship. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133: 289-296.
  • Critchfield, W. B. 1986. Hybridization and classification of the white pines (Pinus section Strobus). Taxon 35: 647-56.
  • Critchfield, W. B. 1975. Interspecific hybridization in Pinus: a summary review.
  • Critchfield, W. B.; Little, E. L. 1966. Geographic distribution of the pines of the world.
  • Curtis, J. D.; Popham, R. A. 1972. The developmental anatomy of long-branch terminal buds of Pinus banksiana. Amer. J. Bot. 59: 194-202.
  • Dallimore, W. 1921. The yellow pines of North America. Kew Bull. 1921: 330-5.
  • Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B. 1966. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae, revised by S.G. Harrison. ed. St. Martins Press, New York.
  • Daughtrey, M.; Kowalsick, T. 1988. The Japanese black pine - What's happening?
  • Davis, J. E. 1926. A study of the natural reproduction of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY60 p.
  • De Steven, D. 1991. Experiments on mechanisms of tree establishment in old-field succession: seedling survival and growth. Ecology 72: 1076-88.
  • De Steven, D. 1991. Experiments on mechanisms of tree establishment in old-field succession: seedling emergence. Ecology 72: 1066-75.
  • DeMent, J. A.; Stone, E. L. 1968. Influence of soil and site on red pine plantations in New York. II. Soil type and physical properties.
  • Demeritt, M. E.; Kettlewood, H. C. 1975. Eastern white pine seed source variation in the northeastern United States: 16-year results.
  • Despland, E.; Houle, G. 1997. Climate influences on growth and reproduction of Pinus banksiana (Pinaceae) at the limit of the species distribution in eastern North America. Amer. J. Bot. 84: 928-37.
  • Desponts, M.; Payette, S. 1992. Recent dynamics of jack pine at its northern distribution in northern Quebec. Canad. J. Bot. 70: 1157-67.
  • Dickmann, D. I. 1969. Physiological investigations of first- and second-year pistillate strobili of red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, WI,
  • Dickmann, D. I.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1969. Seasonal growth patterns of ovulate strobili of Pinus resinosa in central Wisconsin. Canad. J. Bot. 47: 839-48.
  • Dickmann, D. I.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1971. Cone size and seed yield in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 85: 431-5.
  • Dickmann, D. I.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1969. Seasonal variations in reserve and structural components of Pinus resinosa cones. Amer. J. Bot. 56: 515-20.
  • Dils, R. E.; Day, M. W. 1952. The effect of precipitation and temperature upon the radial growth of red pine. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 48: 730-4.
  • Doyle, J. 1963. Proembryogeny in Pinus in relation to that in other conifers - a survey. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. 62: 181-216.
  • Doyle, J.; O'Leary, M. 1935. Pollination in Pinus. Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 24
  • Duffield, J. W. 1952. Relationships and species hybridization in the genus Pinus. Silvae Genet. 1: 93-7.
  • Duffield, J. W.; Snow, A. G. 1941. Pollen longevity of Pinus strobus and Pinus resinosa as controlled by humidity and temperature. Amer. J. Bot. 28: 175-7.
  • Durzan, D. J.; Chalupa, V.; et al. et.al. 1976. Growth and metabolism of cells and tissue of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Parts 1-7. Canad. J. Bot. 54(5-6): 437-517.
  • Durzan, D. J.; Mia, A. J.; Ramaiah, P. K. 1971. The metabolism and subcellular organization of the jack pine embryo (Pinus banksiana) during germination. Canad. J. Bot. 49: 927-38.
  • Eames, A. J. 1911. Stump-healing in Pinus strobus. Rhodora 13: 253.
  • Eberhardt, J.; Brennan, E.; Kuser, J.; Harkov, R. 1988. Ozone tolerance in New Jersey field-grown eastern white pine. J. Arboric. 14(8): 185-92.
  • Eberhardt, R. M.; Latham, R. E. 2000. Relationships among vegetation, surficial geology and soil water content at the Pocono mesic till barrens. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 127: 115-124.
  • Echt, C. S.; Deverno, L. L.; Anzidei, M.; Vendramin, G. G. 1998. Chloroplast microsatellites reveal population genetic diversity in red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait. Molec. Ecol. 7: 307-16.
  • Eckenwalder, J. E. 2009. Conifers of the world. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 720 pages. (ISBN 9780881929744)
  • Edens, D. L.; Ash, S. W. 1969. The development of a white pine stand in a bog environment at Cranberry Glades, West Virginia. Castanea 34: 204-10.
  • Ehrenberg, C. E.; Simak, M. 1956. Flowering and pollination in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Meddeland. Statens Skogs-Forskningsinst. 46(12): 1-23.
  • Eliason, E. J.; Heit, C. E. 1940. The effect of temperature, light and dormancy on the germination of Scotch pine. Proc. Assoc. Off. Seed Analysts N. Amer. 32: 92-102.
  • Eliason, E. J.; Heit, C. E. 1973. Red pine seed shows high germination after 42 years in storage. J. Forest. 71(12): 776.
  • Emig, W. H. 1935. The megagametophyte of Pinus. I. Introduction. Amer. J. Bot. 22: 500-2.
  • Engstrom, F. B.; Mann, D. H. 1991. Fire ecology of red pine (Pinus resinosa) in northern Vermont, USA. Canad. J. Forest Res. 21: 882-9.
  • Epperson, B. K.; Chung, M. G. 2001. Spatial genetic structure of allozyme polymorphisms within populations of Pinus strobus (Pinaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 88: 1006-1010.
  • Fagin, D. 1995. Long Island up a tree.
  • Fajvan, M. A.; Seymour, R. S. 1993. Canopy stratification, age structure, and development of multicohort stands of eastern white pine, eastern hemlock, and red spruce. Canad. J. Forest Res. 23(9): 1799-809.
  • Fang, W. et.al. 2006. Sources of variation in growth, form, and survival in dwarf and normal-stature pitch pines (Pinus rigida, Pinaceae) in long-term transplant experiments. Amer. J. Bot. 93: 1125-1133.
  • Farjon, A. 1984. Pines: drawings and descriptions of the genus Pinus. E.J. Brill & Dr. W. Backhuys, Leiden. , 220 pages.
  • Farjon, A. 1990. A bibliography of conifers. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.
  • Farjon, A.; Frankis, M. P. 2002. 442. Pinus pungens. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 19: 97-103.
  • Fenton, R. H.; Sucoff, E. I. 1965. Effects of storage treatments on the ripening and viability of Virginia pine seed.
  • Ferguson, M. C. 1904. Contributions to the knowledge of the life history of Pinus with special reference to sporogenesis, the development of the gametophytes and fertilization. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. 6: 1-202.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1911. A botanical expedition to Newfoundland and southern Labrador. Rhodora 13: 109-62.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1919. Lithological factors limiting the range of Pinus banksiana and Thuja occidentalis. Rhodora 21(243): 41-67.
  • Fernbach, E.; Mohr, H. 1992. Photoreactivation of the UV light effects on growth of Scots pine seedlings. Trees 6: 232-5.
  • Flannigan, M. D. 1993. Fire regime and the abundance of red pine. Int. J. Wildl. Fire 3: 241-7.
  • Flannigan, M. D.; Woodward, F. I. 1994. Red pine abundance: current climatic control and responses to future warming. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24: 1166-75.
  • Florin, R. 1955. The systematics of gymnosperms. In: A century of progress in the natural sciences, 1853-1953. California Acad. Sci., San Francisco. , 323-403 pages.
  • Flory, W. S. 1936. Chromosome numbers and phylogeny in the gymnosperms. J. Arnold Arbor. 17: 83-9.
  • Fowler, D. P. 1965. Effects of inbreeding in red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait. II. Pollination studies. Silvae Genet. 14: 12-23.
  • Fowler, D. P. 1965. Effects of inbreeding in red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait. III. Factors affecting natural selfing. Silvae Genet. 14: 37-46.
  • Fowler, D. P. 1964. Effects of inbreeding in red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait. III. Factors affecting natural selfing. Silvae Genet. 14: 37-46.
  • Fowler, D. P.; Dwight, T. W. 1964. Provenance differences in the stratification requirements of white pine. Canad. J. Bot. 42: 669-75.
  • Frasco, B. R.; Good, R. E. 1976. Cone, seed, and germination characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) from the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Bartonia 44: 50-7.
  • Fraser, J. W. 1969. Influences of sweet-fern on germination, survival, and early growth of red pine. Canad. J. Bot. 47: 1681-3.
  • Frothingham, E. H. 1914. White pine under forest management.
  • Funk, D. T. 1979. Genetic variation in volume growth of eastern white pine. Forest Sci. 25: 2-6.
  • Funk, D. T. comp. 1986. Eastern white pine: today and tomorrow. Symposium proceedings; 1985 June 12-14, Durham, NH.
  • Gambles, R. L.; Dengler, R. E. 1982. The anatomy of the leaf of red pine, Pinus resinosa. I. Nonvascular tissues. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 2788-803.
  • Gambles, R. L.; Dengler, R. E. 1982. The anatomy of the leaf of red pine, Pinus resinosa. II. Vascular tissues. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 2804-24.
  • Garrett, P. W.; Schreiner, E. J.; Kettlewood, H. 1973. Geographic variation of eastern white pine in the northeast.
  • Garrett, P. W.; Zahner, R. 1973. Fascicle density and needle growth reponses of red pine to water supply over two seasons. Ecology 54: 1328-34.
  • Gates, F. C. 1938. Layering in black spruce. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 19: 589-94.
  • Gauthier, S.; Bergeron, Y.; Simon, J. P. 1996. Effects of fire regime on the serotiny level of jack pine (Pinus banksiana, Pinaceae). J. Ecol. 84: 539-48.
  • Gauthier, S.; Bergeron, Y.; Simon, J. P. 1993. Cone serotiny in jack pine: ontogenetic, positional and environmental effects. Canad. J. Forest Res. 23: 394-401.
  • Gauthier, S.; Simon, J. P.; Bergeron, Y. 1992. Genetic structure and variability in jack pine populations: effects of insularity. Canad. J. Forest Res. 22: 1958-65.
  • Gelderen, D. M. van 1982. Pinus. Dendroflora 19: 3-28.
  • Genys, J. B. 1980. Growth rates of nine different pines and two other conifers in Maryland's piedmont plateau. Castanea 45: 16-24.
  • Genys, J. B. 1987. Provenance variation among different populations of Pinus strobus from Canada and the United States. Canad. J. Forest Res. 17: 228-35.
  • Genys, J. B.; Wright, J. W.; Forbes, D. C. 1974. Intraspecific variation in Virginia pine, results of a provenance trial in Maryland, Michigan and Tennessee. Silvae Genet. 23(4): 99-103.
  • Gernandt, D. S. et.al. 2005. Phylogeny and classification of Pinus. Taxon 54: 29-42.
  • Gernandt, D. S.; Liston, A.; Pinero, D. 2003. Phylogenetics of Pinus subsections Cembroides and Nelsoniae inferred from cpDNA sequences. Syst. Bot. 28: 657-673.
  • Gibson, D. J.; Good, R. E. 1987. The seedling habitat of Pinus echinata and Melampyrum lineare in oak-pine forests of the New Jersey pine barrens. Oikos 49: 91-100.
  • Gibson, J. P. 1990. A study of the population genetic structure and breeding system of Pinus pungens Lambert (table mountain pine). M.S. Thesis Univ. Georgia, Athens, GA,
  • Gibson, J. P.; Hamrick, J. L. 1991. Heterogeneity in pollen allele frequencies among cones, whorls, and trees of table mountain pine (Pinus pungens). Amer. J. Bot. 78(9): 1244-51.
  • Giertych, M. M.; Farrar, J. L. 1961. The effect of photoperiod and nitrogen on the growth and development of seedlings of jack pine. Canad. J. Bot. 39: 1247-54.
  • Gill, D. E. 1978. Spatial patterning of pines and oaks in the New Jersey pine barrens. J. Ecol. 63: 291-8.
  • Gill, D. S.; Marks, P. L. 1991. Tree and shrub seedling colonization of old fields in central New York. Ecol. Monogr. 61: 183-205.
  • Glerum, C.; Balatinecz, J. 1980. Formation and distribution of food reserves during autumn and their subsequent utilization in jack pine. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 40-54.
  • Godbout, J. et.al. 2010. Phylogeographic structure of jack pine (Pinus banksiana: Pinaceae) supports the existence of a coastal glacial refugium in northeastern North America. Amer. J. Bot. 97: 1903-1912.
  • Goldthwait, L.; Lyon, C. J. 1937. Secondary growth of white pine in relation to its water supply. Ecology 18(3): 406-15.
  • Good, R. E.; Good, N. F. 1975. Growth characteristics of two populations of Pinus rigida Mill. from the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Ecology 56(5): 1215-20.
  • Gordon, J. C.; Gatherum, G. E. 1969. Effect of environmental factors and seed source on CO2 exchange of scotch-pine seedlings. Bot. Gaz. 130(1): 5-9.
  • Gordon, J. C.; Larson, P. R. 1968. Seasonal course of photosythesis, respiration, and distribution of 14C in young Pinus resinosa trees as related to wood formation. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 43: 1617-24.
  • Gorham, E.; Gordon, A. G. 1960. Some effects of smelter pollution northeast of Falconbridge, Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 38: 307-12.
  • Govindaraju, D.; Lewis, P.; Cullis, C. 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of pines using ribosomal DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Pl. Syst. Evol. 179: 141-53.
  • Graber, R. E. 1965. Germination of eastern white pine seed as influenced by stratification.
  • Grafton, W. N.; Carvell, K. L. 1970. Growth response of white pine seedlings to release after heavy single-tree cuttings. Castanea 35: 136-44.
  • Greene, D. F. et.al. 1999. A review of the regeneration dynamics of North American boreal forest tree species. Canad. J. Forest Res. 29: 824-839.
  • Griffiths, M. E.; Orians, C. M. 2004. Salt spray effects on forest succession in rare coastal sandplain heathlands: evidence from field surveys and Pinus rigida transplant experiments. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131: 23-31.
  • Guries, R. P.; Ledig, F. T. 1982. Genetic diversity and population structure in pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.). Evolution 36: 387-402.
  • Haddow, W. R. 1948. Distribution and occurrence of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) at the northern limit of their range in Ontario. J. Arnold Arbor. 29: 217-26.
  • Hall, R.; Hofstra, G.; Lumis, G. P. 1972. Effects of deicing salt on eastern white pine: foliar injury, growth suppression and seasonal changes in foliar concentration of sodium and chloride. Canad. J. Forest Res. 2: 244-9.
  • Hallé, N. 1979. Phyllotaxy of the pine cone: a new descriptive method and its bearings on the taxonomy of the genus Pinus. Compt. Rend. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 288(1): 59-62. (In French; English summary)
  • Hallé, N. 1979. Analysis of the phyllotaxic pattern of the cone scales in Pinus. Adansonia 18(4): 393-408. (In French; English summary)
  • Hanna, W. J.; Grant, C. L. 1962. Spectrochemical analysis of the foliage of certain trees and ornamentals for 23 elements. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 89: 293-302.
  • Hard, J. S. 1964. Vertical distribution of cones in red pine.
  • Harlow, W. M. 1931. The identification of the pines of the United States, native and introduced, by needle structure.
  • Harlow, W. M. 1945. Jack pine: the tree that swallows its own cones. Amer. Forests 51: 543.
  • Harlow, W. M.; CotÚ, W. A. Jr.; Day, A. C. 1964. The opening mechanism of pine cone scales. J. Forest. 62(8): 538-40.
  • Hatch, A. B.; Doak, K. D. 1933. Mycorrhizal and other features of the root systems of Pinus. J. Arnold Arbor. 14: 85-98.
  • Hawley, G. J. et.al. 2002. The importance of preserving genetic uniqueness in pitch pine restoration. Ecological Restoration 20: 281-282.
  • Haydon, W. T. 1908. The seed production of Pinus sylvestris. Proc. & Trans. Liverpool Biol. Soc. 22: 3-32.
  • Heale, E. L.; Ormrod, D. P. 1982. Effects of nickle and copper on Acer rubrum, Cornus stolonifera, Lonicera tatarica, and Pinus resinosa. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 2674-81.
  • Henry, J. D.; Swan, J. M. A. 1974. Reconstructing forest history from live and dead plant material - an approach to the study of forest succession in southwest New Hampshire. Ecology 55: 772-83.
  • Hepting, G. H. 1945. Reserve food storage in shortleaf pine in relation to little-leaf disease. Phytopathology 35: 106-19.
  • Hepting, G. H. 1964. Damage to forests from air pollution. J. Forest. 62(9): 630-4.
  • Herr, D. G.; Duchesne, L. C. 1996. Effects of organic horizon removal, ash, watering regime, and shading on red pine seedling emergence. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 422-7. (French summary)
  • Hibbs, D. E. 1982. White pine in the transitional hardwood forest. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 2046-53.
  • Hoddincott, J.; Scott, R. 1996. The influence of light quality and carbon dioxide enrichment on the growth and physiology of seedlings of three conifer species. I. Growth respones. II. Physiological responses. Canad. J. Bot. 74(3): 383-402.
  • Hofstra, G.; Hall, R. 1971. Injury on roadside trees: leaf injury on pine and white cedar in relation to foliar levels of sodium and chloride. Canad. J. Bot. 49: 613-22.
  • Holla, T. A.; Knowles, P. 1988. Age structure analysis of a virgin white pine, Pinus strobus, population. Canad. Field-Naturalist 102: 221-6.
  • Hollick, A. 1924. Pinus rigida. Addisonia 24: 45-6.
  • Horsman, J. 1981. Pines in cultivation: a survey of the species. The Plantsman 2(4): 225-56.
  • Horton, K. W.; Bedell, G. H. D. 1960. White and red pine: ecology, silviculture and management.
  • Horton, K. W.; Brown, W. G. E. 1960. Ecology of white and red pine in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence forest region.
  • Hosner, J. F.; Graney, D. L. 1970. The relative growth of three forest tree species on soils associated with different successional stages in Virginia. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 84: 418-27.
  • Hough, A. F. 1967. Twenty-five-year results of a red pine provenance study. Forest Sci. 13: 156-66.
  • Hough, A. F.; Forbes, R. D. 1943. The ecology and silvics of forests in the high plateaus of Pennsylvania. Ecol. Monogr. 13: 299-320.
  • Houle, G.; Filion, L. 1993. Interannual variations in the seed production of Pinus banksiana at the limit of the species distribution in northern Quebec, Canada. Amer. J. Bot. 80: 1242-50.
  • Huberman, M. A. 1943. Sunscald of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L. Ecology 24: 456-71.
  • Hudson, R. H. 1960. The anatomy of the genus Pinus in relation to its classification. Jour. Inst. Wood Sci. 6: 26-46.
  • Hunt, D. R. 1972. Pinus banksiana Lamb.: still the correct name of the jack pine. Taxon 21: 717.
  • Hunt, F. M. 1951. Effect of flooded soil on growth of pine seedlings. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 26: 363-8.
  • Iverson, L. R.; Prasad, A.; Schwartz, M. W. 1999. Modeling potential future individual tree-species distributions in the eastern United States under a climate change scenario: a case study with Pinus virginiana. Ecological Modelling 115: 77-93.
  • Jackson, L. W. R. 1971. Notes on morphology of shortleaf pine. Castanea 36: 313-8.
  • Jackson, L. W. R. 1962. Effect of size of forest openings on morphology of pine seedlings. Ecology 43: 768-70.
  • Jarrett, T. W. 1964. Depth of planting affects germination of white pine seed. J. Forest. 62(7): 502.
  • Jeffers, R. M.; Jensen, R. A. 1980. Twenty-year results of the Lake States jack pine seed source study.
  • Jensen, K. F.; Gatherum, G. E. 1965. Effects of temperature, photoperiod, and provenance on growth and development of scotch pine seedlings. Forest Sci. 11: 189-99.
  • Jester, J. R.; Kramer, P. J. 1939. The effect of length of day on the height growth of certain forest tree seedlings. J. Forest. 37(10): 796-803.
  • Jiang, H.; Wang, K.; Zhang, Y. 1986. Morphological character of Pinus pollen and its implication. Wuhan Bot. Res. 4(1): 17-26. (In Chinese; English summary)
  • Johnson, R. W.; Riding, R. T. 1981. Structure and ontogeny of the stomatal complex in Pinus trobus L. and Pinus banksiana Lamb. Amer. J. Bot. 68(2): 260-8.
  • Johnstone, G. R. 1940. Further studies on polyembryony and germination of polyembryonic pine seeds. Amer. J. Bot. 27: 808-11.
  • Kaundun, S. S.; Lebreton, P. 2010. Taxonomy and systematics of the genus Pinus based on morphological, biogeographical and biochemical characters. Pl. Syst. Evol. 284: 1-15.
  • Kelley, A. P. 1931. Occurrence of Pinus pungens Lamb. on the Atlantic coastal plain. Torreya 31: 8.
  • Kellison, R. C.; Zobel, B. J. 1973. Genetics in the virginia pine.
  • Kenkel, N. C. 1988. Pattern of self-thinning in jack pine: testing the random mortality hypothesis. Ecology 69: 1017-24.
  • Kenkel, N. C.; Hendrie, M. L.; Bella, I. E. 1997. A long-term study of Pinus banksiana population dynamics. J. Veg. Sci. 8: 241-54.
  • Kenkel, N. C.; Hoskins, J. A.; Hoskins, W. D. 1989. Local competition in a naturally established jack pine stand. Canad. J. Bot. 67(9): 2630-5.
  • Klaus, W. 1980. New observations on the morphology of Pinus cones and their bearing on taxonomy, fossil determination, distribution, and evolution of the genus. Pl. Syst. Evol. 134: 137-71. (In German, English summary)
  • Kornik Arboretum. 1975. Scots pine- Pinus sylvestris. National Centre for Scientific, Technical and Economic Information, Warsaw, Poland. , 315 pages. (English transl. by W.H. Paryski published for USDA and NSF, Washington, D.C.; originally published in Polish 1971)
  • Kozlowski, T. T. 1943. Transpiration rates of some forest tree species during the dormant season. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 18: 252-60.
  • Kozlowski, T. T.; Borger, G. A. 1971. Effect of temperature and light intensity early in ontogeny on growth of Pinus resinosa seedlings. Canad. J. Forest Res. 1: 57-65.
  • Kozlowski, T. T.; Peterson, T. A. 1962. Seasonal growth of dominate, intermediate, and suppressed red pine trees. Bot. Gaz. 124(2): 146-54.
  • Kozlowski, T. T.; Winget, C. H. 1964. The role of reserves in leaves, branches, stems, and roots on shoot growth of red pine. Amer. J. Bot. 51: 522-9.
  • Kramer, P. J. 1943. Amount and duration of growth of various species of tree seedlings. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 18: 239-51.
  • Kremer, A.; Xu, L.; Huyon, J. P.; Roussel, G. 1989. Genetic, age, and ontogenetic variation of phyllotactic arrangements in pine species. Canad. J. Bot. 67(4): 1254-61.
  • Kriebel, H. D. 1972. Embryo development and hybridity barriers in the white pines (section Strobus). Silvae Genet. 21: 39-44.
  • Krol, M. et al. et.al. 1995. Low-temperature stress and photoperiod affect an increased tolerance to photoinibition in Pinus banksiana seedlings. Canad. J. Bot. 73(8): 1119-27.
  • Krupkin, A. B.; Liston, A.; Strauss, S. H. 1996. Phylogenetic analysis of the hard pines (Pinus subgenus Pinus, Pinaceae) from chloroplast DNA restriction site analysis. Amer. J. Bot. 83(4): 489-98.
  • Kulfinski, F. B. 1953. The effect of grazing upon succession as related to its use as a silvicultural tool in the maintenance of white pine. M.S. Thesis Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst, MA96 p.
  • Kupila-Ahvenniemi, S.; Taanila, A.; Hohtola, A. 1980. Structure of the strobili of Scotch pine from initiation to opening. Aquilo 17: 1-10.
  • Laitakari, E. 1929. The root system of pine (Pinus sylvestris): a morphological investigation. Acta Forestalia Fennica 33: 1-306.
  • Landry, P. 1994. A revised synopsis of the pines: 5. The subgenera of Pinus, and their morphology and behavior. Phytologia 76: 73-9.
  • Landry, P. 1981. A taxonomic note on Pinus banksiana Lambert: historical account of its synonym P. divaricata (Aiton) Dumont de Courset. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 128(3): 213-7. (In French; English summary)
  • Landry, P. 1974. Provancher et la nomenclature taxonomique du pin blanc. Naturaliste Canad. 101(5): 805-7. (In French)
  • Landry, P. 1995. A revised synopsis of the pines 6: Supplement to the subgenera. Phytologia 78(4): 287-90.
  • Landry, P. 1989. A revised synopsis of the white pines (Pinus, section Quinquefoliis). Phytologia 65(6): 467-74.
  • Lapp, M. S.; Von Rudloff, E. 1982. Chemosystematic studies in the genus Pinus, 4. Leaf oil composition and geographic variation in jackpine, Pinus banksiana, of eastern North America. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 2762-9.
  • Larocque, G. R.; Marshall, P. L. 1994. Crown development in red pine stands. I. & II. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24(4): 762-84.
  • Larson, P. R. 1963. The indirect effect of drought on tracheid diameter in red pine. Forest Sci. 9: 52-62.
  • Latham, R. E.; Thompson, J. E.; Riley, S. A.; Wibiralske, A. W. 1996. The Pocono till barrens: shrub savanna persisting on soils favoring forest. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 330-49.
  • Law, K. N.; Valade, J. L. 1994. Status of the utilization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in the pulp and paper industry. Canad. J. Forest Res. 4: 2078-84.
  • Lawrey, J. D. 1977. Trace metal accumulation by plant species from a coal strip-mining area in Ohio. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 368-375.
  • Leaf, A. L.; Leonard, R. E.; Berglund, J. V. 1971. Root distribution of a plantation-grown red pine in an outwash soil. Ecology 52(1): 153-8.
  • Leak, W. B.; Cullen, J. B.; Frieswyk, T. S. 1995. Dynamics of white pine in New England.
  • Ledig, F. R.; Fryer, J. H. 1974. Genetics of pitch pine.
  • Ledig, F. R.; Fryer, J. H. 1972. A pocket of variability in Pinus rigida. Evolution 26: 259-66.
  • Ledig, F. T.; Clark, J. G.; Drew, A. P. 1977. The effects of temperature treatment on photosynthesis of pitch pine from northern and southern latitudes. Bot. Gaz. 138(1): 7-12.
  • Ledig, F. T.; Little, S. 1979. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.): Ecology, physiology, and genetics. In: Pine barrens; Ecosystem and landscape. Academy Press, NY. , 347-71 pages.
  • Lester, D. T. 1967. Variation in cone production of red pine in relation to weather. Canad. J. Bot. 45: 1683-91.
  • Lester, D. T. 1968. Developmental patterns of axillary meristematic activity in seedlings of Pinus. Bot. Gaz. 129(3): 206-10.
  • Lewis, J. 1986. The genus Pinus. Int. Dendrol. Soc. Year Book 1985: 76-84.
  • Little, E. L.; Critchfield, W. B. 1969. Subdivisions of the genus Pinus (Pines).
  • Little, S. 1981. Implications from the growth of Pinus rigida and planted P. Stobus in the Pine Plains of southern New Jersey. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 108: 85-94.
  • Little, S. 1972. Growth of planted white pine and pitch seedlings in a south Jersey plain area. Bull. New Jersey Acad. Sci. 17: 18-23.
  • Little, S.; McCormick, J.; Anderson, J. W. 1970. A selected and annotated bibliography of pitch pine(Pinus rigida Mill.).
  • Littlefield, E. W. 1960. Jack pine: poor relation or pioneer. New York State Conservationist April-May: 4-7.
  • Littlefield, E. W. 1981. More on Pinus banksiana in New York. Rhodora 83(834): 317-8.
  • Littlefield, E. W. 1942. Pinus thunbergii: A successful exotic on the North Atlantic coast. J. Forest. 40: 566-73.
  • Logan, E. T. 1975. Factors affecting salt tolerance of Pinus strobus and Pinus thunbergii. M.S. Thesis Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ106 p.
  • Lopez, G. G.; Kamiya, K.; Harada, K. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of Diploxylon pines (Subgenus Pinus) based on plastid sequence data. Int. J. Plant Sci. 163: 737-747.
  • Lutz, H. J. 1939. Layering in eastern white pine. Bot. Gaz. 101: 505-7.
  • Lyons, L. A. 1956. The seed production capacity and efficiency of red pine cones (Pinus resinosa Ait.). Canad. J. Bot. 34: 27-36.
  • Madgwick, H. A. 1970. Caloric values of Pinus virginiana as affected by time of sampling, tree age, and position in stand. Ecology 51: 1095-7.
  • Maissurow, D. K. 1935. Fire as a necessary factor in the perpetuation of white pine. J. Forest. 33: 373-8.
  • Mallik, A. U.; Roberts, B. A. 1994. Natural regeneration of Pinus resinosa on burned and unburned sites in Newfoundland. J. Veg. Sci. 5: 179-86.
  • Man, R.; Lieffers, V. J. 1997. Seasonal variations of photosynthetic capacities of white spruce (Picea glauca) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) saplings. Canad. J. Bot. 75: 1766-71.
  • Masters, M. T. 1904. A general view of the genus Pinus. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 35: 560-659.
  • Mattoon, W. R. 1940. Shortleaf pine.
  • Mattoon, W. R. 1915. Life history of shortleaf pine.
  • Mattson, W. J. 1978. The role of insects in the dynamics of cone production of red pine. Oecologia 33: 327-49.
  • Maull, T. W. 1963. Seed germination and establishment of Pinus rigida. An autecological study. Diss. Abstr. 23: 3607-8.
  • McAfee, B. J.; Fortin, J. A. 1989. Ectomycorrhizal colonization on black spruce and jack pine seedlings outplanted in reforestation sites. Pl. & Soil 116: 9-17.
  • McCormick, J.; Andresen, J. W. 1963. The role of Pinus virginiana Mill. in the vegetation of southern New Jersey. New Jersey Nature News (NJ Audubon Soc.) 13: 27-38.
  • McCormick, L. H.; Bowersox, T. W. 1997. Grass or fern competition reduce growth and survival of planted tree seedlings.
  • McCune, B. 1988. Ecological diversity in North American pines. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 353-68.
  • McHugh, C. P. 1973. A numerical taxonomic study of some North American species of Pinus. (abstract). Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 83: 397.
  • McIntyre, A. C. 1932. Seeding habit of pitch pine. Forest Leaves 23: 109-11.
  • McIntyre, A. C. 1929. A cone and seed study of the mountain pine (Pinus pungens Lambert). Amer. J. Bot. 16: 402-6.
  • McQuattie, C. J.; Schier, G. A. 2001. Morphological and anatomical responses of pitch pine mycorrhizea to environmental pollutants. Ohio J. Science 101: A46-A47.
  • McQuattie, C. J.; Schier, G. A. 1993. Effect of ozone and aluminum on pitch pine (Pinus rigida) seedlings: needle ultrastructure. Canad. J. Forest Res. 23: 1375-87.
  • McQuilkin, W. E. 1960. Establishing white pine on open land; what's known about managing eastern white pine.
  • McWilliam, J. R. 1959. Interspecific incompatability in Pinus. Amer. J. Bot. 46: 425-33.
  • McWilliam, J. R. 1958. The role of the micropyle in the pollination of Pinus. Bot. Gaz. 120(2): 109-17.
  • McWilliam, J. R.; Mergen, F. 1958. Cytology of fertilization in Pinus. Bot. Gaz. 119(4): 246-9.
  • Meichenheimer, R. D. et.al. 2008. Anatomical basis for biophysical differences between Pinus nigra and P. resinosa (Pinaceae) leaves. Amer. J. Bot. 95: 1191-1198.
  • Meilleur, A.; Brisson, J.; Bouchard, A. 1997. Ecological analysis of the northernmost population of pitch pine (Pinus rigida). Canad. J. Forest Res. 27: 1342-50.
  • Mergen, F. 1963. Ecotypic variation in Pinus strobus L. Ecology 44: 716-27.
  • Meyer, B. S. 1928. Seasonal variations in the physical and chemical properties of the leaves of the pitch pine, with especial reference to cold resistance. Amer. J. Bot. 15: 449-72.
  • Millar, C. J. 1993. Impact of the Eocene on the evolution of Pinus L. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: 471-98.
  • Mirov, N. T. 1967. The genus Pinus. Ronald Press, New York. , 602 pages.
  • Mirov, N. T.; Hasbrouck, J. 1976. The story of pines. Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington, IN. , 148 pages.
  • Mitchell, R. S. (eds.) (1992): 1992. Pinophyta (Gymnosperms) of New York State. Vol. NY State Museum Bull. 483. Univ. of the state of NY, Albany, NY. , 80 pages.
  • Moore, B. 1922. Influence of certain soil factors on the growth of tree seedlings and wheat. Ecology 3: 65-83.
  • Moore, B. 1917. Some factors influencing reproduction of red spruce, balsam fir and white pine. J. Forest. 15: 827-53.
  • Moore, B. 1926. Influence of certain soil and light conditions on the establishment of reproduction in northeastern conifers. Ecology 7: 191-220.
  • Moore, E. B. 1936. Seedling-sprout growth of shortleaf and pitch pine in New Jersey. J. Forest. 34: 879-82.
  • Moore, M. I.; Nozzolillo, C. 1991. Illustrated guide to stages of jack pine cone development.
  • Morris, D. M.; Parker, W. H. 1992. Variable-quality form in mature jack pine stands: quantification and relationship with environmental factors. Canad. J. Forest Res. 22(3): 279-89.
  • Muona, O.; Harju, A. 1989. Effective population sizes, genetic variability, and mating system in natural stands and seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris. Silvae Genet. 38: 221-8.
  • Muratova, E. H. 1983. Karyology and phylogeny of the genus Pinus. Uspehi Sovrem. Biol. 96: 163-79.
  • Murray, E. 1983. Pinus: unum minutum monographum generis pinorum (Pinus L.). Kalmia 13: 11-21.
  • Nakai, I. 1986. Crossability in interspecific pollinations among species of hard pine in the genus Pinus. J. Jap. Forest. Soc. 68: 406-16.
  • Nash, G. V. 1920. Pinus thunbergii. Addisonia 5: 55-6.
  • Niejenhuis, A van.; Parker, W. H. 1996. Adaptive variation in jack pine from north central Ontario determined by short-term common garden tests. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 2006-14. (French summary)
  • Niklas, K. J. 1984. The motion of windborne pollen grains around conifer ovulate cones: Implications on wind pollination. Amer. J. Bot. 71(3): 356-74.
  • Niklas, K. J.; U., K. T. P. 1983. Conifer ovulate cone morphology: implications on pollen impaction patterns. Amer. J. Bot. 70(4): 568-77.
  • Nilsen, E. T. et.al. 1999. Inhibition of seedling survival under Rhododendron maximum (Ericaceae): could allelopathy be a cause? Amer. J. Bot. 86: 1597-1605.
  • Norby, R. J.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1981. Response of SO2-fumigated Pinus resinosa seedlings to postfumigation temperature. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 470-5.
  • Norby, R. J.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1980. Allelopathic potential of ground cover species on Pinus resinosa seedlings. Pl. & Soil 57: 363-74.
  • Norby, R. J.; O'Neill, E. G.; Hood, W. G.; Luxmoore, R. J. 1987. Carbon allocation, root exudation and mycorrhizal colonization of Pinus echinata seedlings grown under elevated CO2 enrichment. Tree Physiology 3: 203-10.
  • Norwacki, G. J.; Abrams, M. D. 1994. Forest composition, structure, and disturbance history of the Alan Seeger Natural Area, Huntington County, Pennsylvania. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 121(3): 277-91.
  • O'Connell, B. M.; Kelty, M. J. 1994. Crown architecture of understory and open-grown white pine (Pinus strobus L.) saplings. Tree Physiology 14: 89-102.
  • Olsvig, L. S. 1980. A comparative study of northeastern pine barrens vegetation. Ph.D. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY479 p.
  • Oohata, S. 1994. Speciation and distribution in the genus Abies with reference to speciation of the genus Pinus. Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 63(2): 24-36.
  • Oosting, H. J.; Kramer, P. J. 1946. Water and light in relation to pine reproduction. Ecology 27(1): 47-53.
  • Ostfeld, R. S.; Manson, R. H.; Canham, C. D. 1997. Effects of rodents on survival of tree seeds and seedlings invading old fields. Ecology 78: 1531-42.
  • Owston, P. W. 1969. The shoot apex in eastern white pine: its structure, seasonal development, and variation within the crown. Canad. J. Bot. 46: 1181-8.
  • Palik, B.J.; Pregitzer, K. S. 1995. Varibility in early height growth rate of forest trees: implications for retrospective studies of stand dynamics. Canad. J. Forest Res. 25: 767-76. (French summary)
  • Paratley, R. D. 1986. Vegetation-environment relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 113: 357-371.
  • Parker, J. 1959. Seasonal changes in white pine leaves: A comparison of cold resistance and free-sugar fluctuations. Bot. Gaz. 121(1): 46-50.
  • Parker, J. 1961. Seasonal changes in cold resistance of some northeastern woody evergreens. J. Forest. 59(2): 108-11.
  • Parker, K. C. et al. et.al. 1997. Allozyme diversity in Pinus virginiana (Pinaceae): intraspecific and interspecific comparisons. Amer. J. Bot. 84: 1372-82.
  • Parker, W. C. et.al. 2004. Effect of seed mass on early seedling growth of five eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) familes under contrasting light environments. Canad. J. Bot. 82: 1645-1655.
  • Peck, J. E.; Zenner, E. K. 2009. Spatial patterns of natural Pinus strobus L. regeneration in a Pinus resinosa Ait. stand. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136: 369-379.
  • Peet, R. K. 1984. Twenty-six years of change in a Pinus strobus, Acer saccharum forest, Lake Itaska, Minnesota. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 111: 61-8.
  • Pelletier, G.; Laliberte, S. 2000. Effect of embryo orientation on the developmental sequence of adventitious organogenesis in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). Canad. J. Bot. 78: 1348-1360.
  • Penny, L. 1995. Pitch pine on eastern Long Island. Long Island Botanical Society Newsletter 5: 35-7.
  • Penny, L. 1997. The native white pine forest on Long Island's South Fork. Long Island Botanical Society Newsletter 7: 21-2.
  • Percy, K. 1986. The effects of simulated acid rain on germinative capacity, growth and morphology of forest tree seedlings. New Phyt. 104: 473-84.
  • Percy, K. E.; Riding, R. T. 1981. Histology and histochemistry of elongating needles of Pinus strobus subjected to a long-duration, low-concentration exposure of sulphur dioxide. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 2558-67.
  • Phillips, S. O.; Skelly, J. M.; Burkhart, H. E. 1977. Eastern white pine exhibits growth retardation by fluctuating air pollution levels: interaction of rainfall, age, and symptom expression. Phytopathology 67: 721-5.
  • Pielou, E. C. 1988. The world of northern evergreens. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY. , 174 pages.
  • Pillai, A. 1964. Root apical organization in gymnosperms- some conifers. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 91: 1-13.
  • Piovesan, G.; Pelosi, C.; Schirone, A.; Schirone, B. 1993. Taxonomic evaluations of the genus Pinus(Pinaceae) based on electrophoretic data of salt soluble and insoluble seed storage proteins. Pl. Syst. Evol. 186: 57-68.
  • Pitel, J. A.; Cheliak, W. M. 1988. Metabolism of enzymes with imbibition and germination of seeds of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Canad. J. Bot. 66: 542-7.
  • Pitel, J. A.; Durzan, D. J. 1978. Chromosomal proteins of conifers. 1. Comparison of histones and nonhistone chromosomal proteins from dry seeds of conifers. Canad. J. Bot. 56(16): 1915-27.
  • Pitel, J. A.; Durzan, D. J. 1978. Chromosomal proteins of conifers. 2. Tissue specificity of the chromosomal proteins of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Canad. J. Bot. 56(16): 1928-31.
  • Pitel, J.; Durzan, D. J. 1975. Pyrimidine metabolism in seeds and seedlings of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Canad. J. Bot. 53(7): 673-86.
  • Plym Forshell, C. 1953. The development of cones and seeds in the case of self and cross pollination in Pinus sylvestris L. Meddeland. Statens Skogs-Forskningsinst. 43(10): 1-42. (In Swedish, English summary pp. 24-27)
  • Pomeroy, M. K.; Siminovitch, D.; Wightman, F. 1970. Seasonal biochemical changes in the living bark and needles of red pine (Pinus resinosa) in relation to adaptation to freezing. Canad. J. Bot. 48: 953-67.
  • Prager, E. M.; Fowler, D. P.; Wilson, A. C. 1976. Rates of evolution in conifers (Pinaceae). Evolution 30: 637-49.
  • Pratt, W. F.; Littlefield, E. W. 1938. Western extension of the range of Pinus banksiana in New York. Rhodora 40(474): 241-2.
  • Pregitzer, K. S. et.al. 2002. Fine root architecture of nine North American trees. Ecol. Monogr. 72: 293-309.
  • Price, R. A. 1989. The genera of Pinaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 70: 247-305.
  • Prus-Glowacki, W. 1987. Serotaxonomy of the genus Pinus. 14th Intern. Bot. Congr. Abstracts 1987: 300.
  • Puettmann, K. J.; Reich, P. B. 1995. The differential sensitivity of red pine and quaking aspen to competition. Canad. J. Forest Res. 25(11): 1731-7.
  • Rajora, O. P. et.al. 2000. Microsatellite DNA analysis of genetic effects of harvesting in old-growth eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) in Ontario, Canada. Molec. Ecol. 9: 339-348.
  • Rajora, O. P.; Deverno, L.; Mosseler, A.; Innes, D. J. 1998. Genetic diversity and population structure of disjunct Newfoundland and central Ontario populations of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). Canad. J. Bot. 76: 500-8.
  • Rajora, O. P.; Mosseler, A.; Major, J. E. 2002. Mating system and reproductive fitness traits of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) in large, central versus small, isolated, marginal populations. Canad. J. Bot. 80: 1173-1184.
  • Rand, E. L. 1889. Pinus banksiana on the Maine coast. Gard. & Forest 2: 578.
  • Reed, J. 1939. Root and shoot growth of shortleaf and loblolly pines in relation to certain environmental conditions. Bull. School Forest. Duke Univ. 4: 1-52.
  • Rehfeldt, G. E.; Lester, D. T. 1966. Variation in shoot elongation of Pinus resinosa Ait. Canad. J. Bot. 44: 1457-69.
  • Reich, P. B. et al. et.al. 1987. Effects of ozone and acid rain on white pine (Pinus strobus) seedlings grown in five soils. I. Net photosynthesis and growth. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 977-87. (See Erratum, Can. J. Bot. 66(1):207. 1988.)
  • Reich, P. B.; Schoettle, A. W.; Stroo, H. F.; Amundson, R. G. 1988. Effects of ozone and acid rain on white pine (Pinus strobus) seedlings grown in five soils. III. Nutrient relations. Canad. J. Bot. 66: 1517-31.
  • Reiners, W. A. 1967. Relationships between vegetational strata in the pine barrens of central Long Island, New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 94: 87-99.
  • Richardson, D. M. (eds.) (1998): 1998. Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. , 527 pages. (ISBN 0521551765)
  • Riding, R. T. 1967. Early ontogeny of jack pine and red pine seedlings. M.S. Thesis Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, WI,
  • Riding, R. T. 1978. Within-crown variation in dormant long-shoot apices of mature trees of Pinus resinosa. Canad. J. Bot. 56(2): 141-7.
  • Righter, F. I.; Duffield, J. W. 1951. Interspecies hybrids in pines. J. Heredity 42: 75-80.
  • Roberts, B. R. 1976. The response of field grown white pine seedlings to different sulphur dioxide environments. Environm. Pollut., A. 11: 175-80.
  • Roe, E. I. 1940. Longevity of red pine seed. Proc. Minnesota Acad. Sci. 8: 28-30.
  • Roe, E. J. 1940. Longevity of red pine seed. Proc. Minnesota Acad. Sci. 8: 28-30.
  • Roussy, A. M.; Kevan, P. G. 2000. How accessible are receptive megastrobili to pollen? The example of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Amer. J. Bot. 87: 215-220.
  • Routien, J. B.; Dawson, R. F. 1943. Some interrelationships of growth, salt absorption, respiration, and mycorrhizal development in Pinus echinata. Amer. J. Bot. 30: 440-51.
  • Ruby, J. L. 1967. The correspondence between genetic, morphological, and climatic variation patterns in Scots pine. Silvae Genet. 16: 50-6.
  • Ruby, J. L.; Wright, J. W. 1976. A revised classification of geographic varieties in Scots Pine. Silvae Genet. 25: 169-75.
  • Rudolf, P. O. 1958. Silvical characteristics of jack pine (Pinus banksiana).
  • Rudolf, P. O.; Clausen, K. E. 1962. Red pine seed germination after 30 years of storage. J. Forest. 60(2): 128-31.
  • Rudolph, T. D. 1985. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.).
  • Rudolph, T. D.; Wheeler, N. C.; Dhir, N. K. 1986. Cone clusters in jack pine. Canad. J. Forest Res. 16: 1180-4.
  • Rudolph, T. D.; Yeatman, C. W. 1982. Genetics of jack pine.
  • Ryu, J. B. 1982. Genetic structure of Pinus strobus L. based on foliar isozymes from 27 provenances. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham,
  • Sanders, G.; Buckner, E. 1988. Fire: is it an important component in table mountain pine ecosystems?
  • Sarvas, R. 1962. Investigations on the flowering and seed crop of Pinus sylvestris. Commun. Inst. For. Fenn. 53: 1-198.
  • Sasaki, S.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1968. The role of cotyledons in early development of pine seedlings. Canad. J. Bot. 46: 1173-83.
  • Saylor, L. C. 1983. Karyotype analysis of the genus Pinus subgenus Strobus. Silvae Genet. 32(3-4): 119-24.
  • Schantz-Hansen, T. 1941. A study of jack pine seed. J. Forest. 39: 980-90.
  • Scherzer, A. J.; Rebbeck, J.; Boerner, R. E. J. 1998. Foliar nitrogen dynamics and decomposition of yellow-poplar and eastern white pine during four seasons of exposure to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Forest Ecol. & Manag. 109: 355-366.
  • Schier, G. A.; McQuattie, C. J. 1998. Effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on response of mycorrhizal pitch pine (Pinus rigida) to aluminum: growth and mineral nutrition. Trees 12: 340-346.
  • Schoenike, R. E. 1976. Geographical variation in jack pine (Pinus banksiana).
  • Schoenike, R. E. 1962. Natural variation in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis,
  • Schultz, R. C.; Gatherum, G. E. 1971. Photosynthesis and distribution of assimilate of scotch pine seedlings in relation to soil moisture and provenance. Bot. Gaz. 132(2): 91-6.
  • Seischab, F. K.; Bernard, J. M. 1991. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) communities in central and western New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 118: 412-23.
  • Selender, M. D. 1980. Increment borings of pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill., Pinaceae) from sites on the Shawangunk Ridge and the Ramapo Mountains of southwestern New York State: age and growth dynamics. Skenectada 2: 1-9.
  • Sharik, T. L.; Ford, R. H.; Davis, M. L. 1989. Repeatability of invasion of eastern white pine on dry sites in northern Lower Michigan. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 122: 133-41.
  • Shaw, G. R. 1914. The genus Pinus. Arnold Arbor. Pub. No. 5., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.
  • Shaw, G. R. 1924. Notes on the genus Pinus. J. Arnold Arbor. 5: 225-7.
  • Shen, H. H.; Rudin, D.; Lindgren, D. 1981. Study of the pollination pattern in a Scots pine seed orchard by means of isozyme analysis. Silvae Genet. 30: 7-14.
  • Shirley, H. L. 1945. Reproduction of upland conifers in the Lake States as affected by root competition and light. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 33: 537-612.
  • Shirley, H. L.; Meuli, L. J. 1939. The influence of soil nutrients on drought resistance of two-year-old red pine. Amer. J. Bot. 26: 355-60.
  • Sionit, N. et al. et.al. 1985. Long term atmospheric CO2 enrichment affects the growth and development of Liquidambar styraciflua and Pinus taeda seedlings. Canad. J. Forest Res. 15: 468-71.
  • Sittmann, K.; Tyson, H. 1971. Estimates of inbreeding in Pinus banksiana. Canad. J. Bot. 49: 1241-5.
  • Smith, L. F. 1940. Factors controlling the early development and survival of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) in central New England. Ecol. Monogr. 10(3): 373-420.
  • Smouse, P. E. 1971. Population studies in the genus Pinus L. Dissertation Abstracts Int., B 32(1): 120. (Abstract)
  • Smouse, P. E.; Saylor, L. C. 1973. Studies of the Pinus rigida-Pinus serotina complex: 1. A study of geographic variation. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 174-91.
  • Snyder, T. P.; Steward, D. A.; Strickler, A. F. 1985. Temporal analysis of breeding structure in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). Canad. J. Forest Res. 15: 1159-66.
  • Solomon, D. S.; Leak, W. B. 1994. Migration of tree species in New England based on elevational and regional analysis.
  • Spalteholz, C. O. R. 1929. The effect of soil covering on development of red pine. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY60 p.
  • Sparrow, A. H.; Shairer, L. A.; Woodwell, G. M. 1965. Tolerance of Pinus rigida trees to a ten year exposure to chronic gamma irradiation from cobalt-60. Rad. Bot. 5: 7-22.
  • Spaudling, V. M. 1899. The white pine.
  • Spurr, A. R. 1950. Organization of the procambium and development of the secretory cells in the embryo of Pinus strobus L. Amer. J. Bot. 37: 185-97.
  • Spurr, A. R. 1949. Histogenesis and organization of the embryo in Pinus strobus L. Amer. J. Bot. 36: 629-41.
  • Spurr, S. H. 1944. Effect of seed weight and seed origin on the early development of eastern white pine. J. Arnold Arbor. 25: 467-80.
  • Squires, E. R.; Klosterman, J. E. 1981. Spatial patterning and competition in an aspen-white pine successional system. Amer. J. Bot. 68(6): 790-4.
  • St. Hilaire, L. R.; Leopold, D. J. 1995. Conifer seedling distribution in relation to microsite conditions in a central New York forested minerotrophic peatland. Canad. J. Forest Res. 5: 261-9. (French summary. See also St. Hilaire, 1994. M.S. thesis, SUNY, Syracuse, NY.)
  • Stahle, D. W. 1996. Tree rings and ancient forest relics. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 56: 2-10.
  • Stanley, R. G. 1958. Methods and concepts applied to a study of flowering in pine. In: The physiology of forest trees. Ronald Press, New York. , 583-99 pages.
  • Steiner, K. C.; Berrang, P. C. 1990. Microgeographic adaptation to temperature in pitch pine progenies. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 123: 292-300.
  • Stephenson, S. L.; Adams, H. S.; Lipford, M. L. 1986. Ecological composition of indigenous stands of red pine (Pinus resinisa) in West Virginia. Castanea 51: 31-41.
  • Stephenson, S. L.; Mills, H. H. 1999. Contrasting vegetation of noses and hollows in the Valley and Ridge province, southwestern Virginia. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126: 197-212.
  • Stergas, R. L.; Adams, K. B. 1989. Jack pine barrens in northeastern New York: postfire macronutrient concentrations, heat content, and understory biomass. Canad. J. Forest Res. 19: 904-10.
  • Stevens, C. L. 1931. Root growth of white pine (Pinus strobus L.).
  • Stewart, J. D.; Hoddincott, J. 1993. Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and UV irradiation in Pinus banksiana. Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 88: 493-500.
  • Stiell, W. M. 1978. Characteristics of eastern white pine and red pine. In: White and red pine symposium. Dept. Environment, Canadian Forest Service, Great Lakes Forest Center, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. , 7-51 pages. (Symposium Proceedings 0-6-P. 178 pp.)
  • Stone, E. L.; Stone, M. H. 1943. Dormant buds in certain species of Pinus. Amer. J. Bot. 30: 346-51.
  • Strauss, S. H.; Ledig, F. T. 1985. Seedling architecture and life history evolution in pines. Amer. Naturalist 125: 702-15.
  • Stroo, H. F. et al. et.al. 1988. Effects of ozone and acid rain on white pine (Pinus strobus) seedlings grown in five soils. II. Mycorrhizal infection. Canad. J. Bot. 66: 1510-6.
  • Sucoff, E. 1971. Timing and rate of bud formation in Pinus resinosa. Canad. J. Bot. 49: 1821-32.
  • Sucoff, E. I.; Church, T. W. 1960. Seed production and dissemination by Virginia pine. J. Forest. 58: 885-8.
  • Sucoff, E.; Feller, R.; Kanten, D. 1975. Deicing salt (sodium chloride) damage to Pinus resinosa Ait. Canad. J. Forest Res. 5: 546-56.
  • Sullivan, J. 1993. Pinus sylvestris. ()
  • Sullivan, J. 1993. Pinus nigra. ()
  • Sullivan, J. 1993. Pinus virginiana. ()
  • Sullivan, J. H.; Teramura, A. H. 1988. Effects of ultraviolet-b irradiation on seedling growth in the Pinaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 75(2): 225-30.
  • Sutton, R. F. 1987. Root growth capacity and field performance of jack pine and black spruce in boreal stand establishment in Ontario. Canad. J. Forest Res. 17(8): 794-804.
  • Szmidt, A. E.; Sigurgeirsson, A.; Wang, X. R.; Hallgren, J. E.; Lindgren, D. 1988. Genetic relationships among Pinus species based on chloroplast DNA polymorphism. In: Molecular genetics of forest trees. Frans Kempe Symp., Umea. , 33-47 pages.
  • Tainter, F. H.; French, D. W. 1971. The role of wound periderm in the resistance of eastern larch and jack pine to dwarf mistletoe. Canad. J. Bot. 49: 501-4.
  • Takaso, T. 1990. "Pollination drop" time at the Arnold Arboretum. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 50: 2-7.
  • Tang, Z. C.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1983. Responses of Pinus banksiana and Pinus resinosa seedlings to flooding. Canad. J. Forest Res. 13: 633-9.
  • Tappeiner, J. C. 1971. Invasion and development of beaked hazel in red pine stands in northern Minnesota. Ecology 52: 514-9.
  • Tarbox, E. E.; Reed, P. M. 1924. Quality and growth of white pine as influenced by density, site, and associated species.
  • Teich, A. H. 1970. Cone serotiny and inbreeding in natural populations of Pinus banksiana and Pinus contorta. Canad. J. Bot. 48: 1805-9.
  • Thomas, R. B. 1951. Reproduction in Pinus virginiana Miller. Ph.D. Dissertation Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN80 p.
  • Ting, W. S. 1966. Determination of Pinus species by pollen statistics. Univ. California Publ. in Geological Sciences vol. 58, Berkeley & Los Angeles. , 183 pages. (See review by W. Punt in Taxon 17(2):222. 1968.)
  • Tolley, L. C.; Strain, B. R. 1984. Effects of CO2 enrichment and water stress on growth of Liquidambar styraciflua and Pinus taeda seedlings. Canad. J. Bot. 62: 2135-9.
  • Tolliver, K. S.; Martin, D. W.; Young, D. R. 1997. Freshwater and saltwater flooding response for woody species common to barrier island swales. Wetlands 17: 10-8.
  • Toole, E. H.; Snow, A. G.; Toole, V. K.; Borthwick, H. A. 1956. Effects of light and temperature on germination of Virginia pine seeds. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 31: xxxvi. (Abstr. Suppl.)
  • Townsend, A. M.; Dochinger, L. S. 1982. Relative sensitivity of pine species to ozone. J. Arboric. 8(7): 186-8.
  • Townsend, A. M.; Kwolek, W. F. 1987. Relative susceptibility of thirteen pine species to sodium chloride spray. J. Arboric. 13(9): 225-8.
  • Tyndall, R. W.; Farr, P. M. 1990. Vegetation and flora of the Pilot Serpentine area in Maryland. Castanea 55: 259-65. (Drought stress inhibits Pinus virginiana succession)
  • Ursic, M.; Peterson, R. L. 1997. Morphological and anatomical characterization of ectomycorrhizas and ectendomycorrhizas on Pinus strobus seedlings in a southern Ontario nursery. Canad. J. Bot. 75: 2057-72.
  • Vaartaja, O. 1962. Ecotype variation in photoperiodism of trees with special reference to Pinus resinosa and Thuja occidentalis. Canad. J. Bot. 40: 849-56.
  • Vaartaja, O. 1950. On factors affecting the initial development of pine. Oikos 2: 89-108.
  • Vaartaja, O. 1954. Photoperiodic ecotypes of trees. Canad. J. Bot. 32: 392-9.
  • Vander Kloet, S. P. 1973. The biological status of pitch pine, Pinus rigida Miller, in Ontario and adjacent New York. Canad. Field-Naturalist 87: 249-53.
  • Voigt, G. K.; Mergen, F. 1961. Seasonal variation in toxicity of Ailanthus leaves to pine seedlings. Bot. Gaz. 123(4): 262-5.
  • Vozzo, J. A.; Hacskaylo, E. 1964. Anatomy of mycorrhizae of selected eastern forest trees. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 91: 378-387.
  • Wakamiya, I.; Newton, R. J.; Johnston, J. S.; Price, H. J. 1993. Genome size and environmental factors in the genus Pinus. Amer. J. Bot. 80: 1235-41.
  • Wakeley, P. C.; Barnett, J. P. 1968. Viability of slash and shortleaf pine seed stored for 35 years. J. Forest. 66(11): 840-1.
  • Walker, R. F.; McLaughlin, S. B. 1993. Growth and xylem water potential of white oak and loblolly pine seedlings as affected by simulated acidic rain. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 129: 26-34.
  • Walter, R.; Epperson, B. K. 2004. Microsatellite analysis of spatial structure among seedlings in populations of Pinus strobus (Pinaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 91: 549-557.
  • Walter, R.; Epperson, B. K. 2005. Geographic pattern of genetic diversity in Pinus resinosa: contact zone between descendants of glacial refugia. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 92-100.
  • Wareing, P. F. 1950. Growth studies in woody species I. Photoperiodism in first-year seedlings of Pinus sylvestris. Physiol. Pl. (Copenhagen) 3: 258-76.
  • Warren, R.; Fordham, A. J. 1978. The fire pines. Arnoldia (Jamaica Plain) 38: 1-11.
  • Warrillow, M.; Mou, P. 1999. Ice storm damage to forest tree species in the ridge and valley region of southwestern Virginia. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126: 147-158.
  • Weber, M. G. 1988. Fire and ecosystem dynamics in eastern Canadian Pinus banksiana forests. In: Vegetation structure in relation to carbon and nutrient economy. S.P.B. Academic Publishing, The Hague, Netherlands. , 93-105 pages.
  • Weiner, J. 1984. Neighborhood interference amongst Pinus rigida individuals. J. Ecol. 63: 1237-41.
  • Wells, O. O.; Wakely, P. C. 1970. Variation in shortleaf pine from several geographic sources. Forest Sci. 16: 415-23.
  • West, M. M.; Lott, J. N. A. 1993. Studies of mature seeds of eleven Pinus species differing in seed weight. II. Subcellular structure and localization of elements. Canad. J. Bot. 71(4): 577-85.
  • West, M. M.; Lott, J. N. A. 1993. Studies of mature seeds of eleven Pinus species differing in seed weight. I. Element concentrations in embryos and female gametophytes. Canad. J. Bot. 71(4): 570-6.
  • Westing, A. H. 1964. Needle number in red pine. Rhodora 66: 27-31.
  • Whang, S. S.; Kim, K.; Hill, R. S. 2004. Cuticle micromorphology of leaves of Pinus (Pinaceae) from North America. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 144: 303-320.
  • White, E. E.; Watkins, R. F.; Fowler, D. P. 1993. Comparative restriction site maps of chloroplast DNA of Picea abies, Picea glauca, Picea mariana, and Picea sitchensis. Canad. J. Forest Res. 23: 427-35. (Also Pinus & Pseudotsuga)
  • Whitmore, F. W.; Zahner, R. 1966. Development of the xylem ring in stems of young red pine trees. Forest Sci. 12: 198-210.
  • Whitney, G. G. 1982. A demographic analysis of the leaves of open and shade grown Pinus strobus L. and Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. New Phyt. 90: 447-53.
  • Wight, W. 1933. Radial growth of the xylem and the starch reserves of Pinus sylvestris: A preliminary survey. New Phyt. 32: 77-96.
  • Wilcox, H. 1967. Seasonal patterns of root initiation and mycorrhizal development in Pinus resinosa Ait.
  • Wilcox, H. E. 1968. Morphological studies of the roots of red pine, Pinus resinosa. I. Growth characteristics and patterns of branching. Amer. J. Bot. 55: 247-54.
  • Wilcox, H. E. 1977. Effects of ecto-, ectendo-, and endomycorrhizal fungi on root morphology in Pinus.
  • Wilcox, H. E. 1968. Morphological studies of the roots of red pine, Pinus resinosa. II. Fungal colonization of roots and the development of mycorrhizae. Amer. J. Bot. 55: 686-700.
  • Wilcox, H. E.; Wang, C. J. K. 1987. Ectomycorrhizal and ectendomycorrhizal associations of Phialophora finlandia with Pinus resinosa, Picea rubens, and Betula alleghaniensis. Canad. J. Forest Res. 17(8): 976-90.
  • Wilde, S. A.; Iyer, J. G. 1962. Growth of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) on scalped soils. Ecology 43: 771-4.
  • Wilder, C. M.; Holtzclaw, F . W.; Clebsch, E. E. C. 1999. Succession, sapling density and growth in canopy gaps along a topographic gradient in a second growth east Tennessee forest. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 142: 201-212.
  • Williams, C. E.; Johnson, W. C. 1990. Age structure and the maintenance of Pinus pungens in pine-oak forests in southwest Virginia. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 124: 130-41.
  • Wilson, B. F. 1998. Branches versus stems in woody plants: control of branch diameter growth and angle. Canad. J. Bot. 76: 1852-1856.
  • Wilson, R. W.; Hough, A. F. 1966. A selected and annotated bibliography of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), 1890-1954.
  • Wilson, R. W.; McQuilkin, W. E. 1963. Silvical characteristics of eastern white pine.
  • Wood, O. M. 1932. An example of white pine reproduction on burned lands in northeastern Pennsylvania. J. Forest. 30: 838-45.
  • Woodwell, G. M. 1974. Variation in the nutrient content of leaves of Quercus alba, Quercus coccinea, and Pinus rigida in the Brookhaven forest from bud-break to abscission. Amer. J. Bot. 61: 749-53.
  • Woodwell, G. M.; Whittaker, R. H.; Houghton, R. A. 1975. Nutrient concentrations in plants in the Brookhaven pine-oak forest. Ecology 56: 318-32.
  • Wright, J. W. 1953. Pollen dispersion studies: some practical applications. J. Forest. 51: 114-8.
  • Wright, J. W. 1952. Pollen dispersion of some forest trees.
  • Wright, J. W. 1970. Genetics of eastern white pine.
  • Wyman, J.; Laliberte, S.; Tremblay, M. F. 1997. Nuclear DNA content variation in seeds from 22 half-sib families of jack pine (Pinus banksiana, Pinaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 84: 1351-61.
  • Xie, C. Y.; Knowles, P. 1991. Spatial genetic substructure within natural populations of jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Canad. J. Bot. 69(3): 547-51.
  • Yakimchuk, R.; Hoddinott, J. 1994. The influence of ultraviolet-B light and carbon dioxide enrichment on the growth and physiology of seedlings of three conifer species. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24: 1-8.
  • Yarranton, M.; Yarranton, G. A. 1975. Demography of a jack pine stand. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 310-4.
  • Yeatman, C. W. 1967. Biogeography of jack pine. Canad. J. Bot. 45: 2201-11. (See Erratum- in the first column of Table II, ^Interglacial^ should read ^Lateglacial^ Can. J. Bot.)
  • Yeatman, C. W. 1966. Geographic variation in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) seedlings. Ph.D. Dissertation Yale Univ., New Haven, CT,
  • Yeaton, R. I. 1978. Some ecological aspects of reproduction in the genus Pinus L. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 105: 306-11.
  • Yeaton, R. I. 1978. Competition and spacing in plant communities: differential mortality of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) in a New England woodlot. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 100: 285-93.
  • Yocom, H. A. 1968. Shortleaf pine seed dispersal. J. Forest. 66(5): 422.
  • York, H. H.; Littlefield, E. W. 1942. The naturalization of scotch pine, northeastern Oneida County, New York. J. Forest. 40: 552-9.
  • Yoshie, F.; Sakai, A. 1985. Types of Florin rings, distributional patterns of epicuticular wax, and their relationships in the genus Pinus. Canad. J. Bot. 63: 2150-8.
  • Zampella, R. A. et.al. 1999. Sixe-class structure and hardwood recruitment in Atlantic white cedar swamps of the New Jersey pinelands. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 126: 268-275.
  • Ziegler, S. S. 1995. Relict eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) stands in southwestern Wisconsin. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 133: 88-100.
  • Zobel, D. B. 1970. Morphological characterization of Pinus pungens. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 86: 214-21.
  • Zobel, D. B. 1969. Factors affecting the distribution of Pinus pungens, an Appalachian endemic. Ecol. Monogr. 39: 303-33.
  • de Groot, P.; Fleming, R. A. 1994. Analysis and modelling of cohort life tables of jack pine seed cones. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24: 1579-92.