New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Pinus

Pinus virginiana Pinus rigida

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 01/25/2013

Back to Pinaceae

Nomenclature

Pinus L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1000. 1753. Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 434. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Pinus sylvestris L. designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Pinus sect. Strobus Sweet ex Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. (Spach) 11: 394. 1841. Strobus (Sweet ex Spach) Opiz, Lotos 4: 94. 1854. Leucopitys Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 69. 1913. TYPE: Strobus weymouthiana Opiz (=Pinus strobus L.).

List of Pinus Species

References to Pinus

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  • Abbott, H. G. 1961. White pine seed consumption by small mammals. J. Forest. 59(3): 197-201.
  • Abbott, H. G.; Quink, T. F. 1970. Ecology of eastern white pine seed caches made by small forest mammals. Ecology 51(2): 271-8.
  • Abrams, M. D.; Orwig, D. A. 1996. A 300-year history of disturbance and canopy recruitment for co-occurring white pine and hemlock on the Allegheny Plateau, U.S.A. J. Ecol. 84: 353-63.
  • Abrams, M. D.; Orwig, D. A. 1995. Structure, radial growth dynamics and recent climatic variations of a 320-year-old Pinus rigida rock outcrop community. Oecologia 101: 353-60.
  • Ahlgren, C. E.; Ahlgren, I. F. 1981. Some effects of different forest litters on seed germination and growth. Canad. J. Forest Res. 11: 710-714.
  • Alexander, E. J. 1958. Pinus banksiana. Addisonia 23: 39-40.
  • Alfieri, F. J.; Evert, R. F. 1973. Structure and seasonal development of the secondary phloem in the Pinaceae. Bot. Gaz. 134(1): 17-25.
  • Alfieri, F. J.; Evert, R. F. 1968. Seasonal development of the secondary phloem in Pinus. Amer. J. Bot. 55: 518-28.
  • Ammann, B. R. 1977. A pollenmorphological distinction between Pinus banksiana Lamb. and P. resinosa Ait. Pollen & Spores 19(4): 521-9.
  • Andresen, J. W. 1959. A study of pseudonanism in Pinus rigida Mill. Ecol. Monogr. 29: 309-32.
  • Andressen, J. W. 1957. Precocity of Pinus rigida Mill. Castanea 22: 130-4.
  • Argus, G. 1973. Pinus banksiana Lamb. or Pinus divaricata (Aiton) Dumont? Taxon 22: 318-319.
  • Argus, G. W. 1971. A necessary name change for jack pine: Pinus divaricata in lieu of P. banksiana. Canad. J. Bot. 49(4): 573-6.
  • Arthur, M. A.; Paratley, R. D. 1998. Single and repeated fires affect survival and regeneration of woody and herbaceous species in an oak-pine forest. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 125: 225-236.
  • Auten, J. T. 1945. Relative influence of sassafras, black locust, and pines upon old-field soils. J. Forest. 43: 441-6.
  • Baker, S. S.; Rugh, C. L.; Whitmore, F. W.; Kamalay, J. C. 1996. Genes encoding 11S-Globulin-like proteins are expressed in the megagametophyte soon after fertilization in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Int. J. Plant Sci. 157: 453-61.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1932. Alcohol separation of empty seed, and its effect on the germination of red spruce. Amer. J. Bot. 19: 1-11.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1931. The period of height growth in some northeastern conifers. Ecology 12: 665-89.
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1979. The distribution of Pinus banksiana Lamb. in New England and New York. Rhodora 81: 549-465.
  • Barden, L. S. 1988. Drought and survival in a self-perpetuating Pinus pungens population: equilibrium or nonequilibrium? Amer. Midl. Naturalist 119(2): 253-7.
  • Barden, L. S. 1977. Self-maintaining populations of Pinus pungens Lam. in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Castanea 42(4): 316-23.
  • Bartholomay, G. A.; Eckert, R. T.; Smith, K. T. 1997. Reductions in tree-ring widths of white pine following ozone exposure at Acadia National Park, Maine, U.S.A. Canad. J. Forest Res. 27: 361-8.
  • Barton, A. M.; Wallenstein, M. D. 1997. Effects of invasion of Pinus virginiana on soil properties in serpentine barrens in southeastern Pennsylvania. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 124: 297-305.
  • Barton, L. V. 1930. Hastening the germination of some coniferous seeds. Amer. J. Bot. 17: 88-115.
  • Beal, J. M. 1934. Chromosome behavior in Pinus banksiana following fertilization. Bot. Gaz. 95: 660-6.
  • Beaufait, W. R. 1960. Some effects of high temperatures on the cones and seeds of jack pine. Forest Sci. 6: 194-9.
  • Beaulieu, J.; Simon, J. P. 1995. Mating system in natural populations of eastern white pine in Quebec. Canad. J. Forest Res. 25: 1697-703.
  • Beaulieu, J.; Simon, J. P. 1994. Genetic structure and variability in Pinus strobus in Quebec. Canad. J. Forest Res. 24: 1726-33.
  • Beaulieu, J.; Simon, J. P. 1995. Variation in cone morphology and seed characters in Pinus strobus in Quebec. Canad. J. Bot. 73(2): 262-71.
  • Beland, M.; Bergeron, Y. 1993. Ecological factors affecting abundance of advanced growth in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) stnads of the boreal forest of northwest Quebec. Forest. Chron. 69: 561-8.
  • Bergeron, Y.; Brisson, J. 1990. Fire regime in red pine stands at the northern limit of the species' range. Ecology 71: 1352-64.
  • Bergeron, Y.; Leduc, A.; Li, T. X. 1997. Explaining the distribution of Pinus spp. in a Canadian boreal insular landscape. J. Veg. Sci. 8: 37-44.
  • Bergmann, F.; Gillet, E. M. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships among Pinus species (Pinaceae) inferred from different numbers of 6PGDH loci. Pl. Syst. Evol. 208: 25-34.
  • Best, G. N. 1886. Pinus pungens in New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 13: 121-2.
  • Bormann, B. T.; Bormann, F. H.; et al. et.al. 1993. Rapid N2 fixation in pines, alder, and locust: evidence from the sandbox ecosystem study. Ecology 74: 583-98.
  • Bormann, F. H. 1966. Significance of root grafts in Pinus strobus L. Ecol. Monogr. 36: 1-26.
  • Bormann, F. H. 1961. Intraspecific root grafting and the survival of eastern white pine stumps. Forest Sci. 7: 248-55.
  • Bormann, F. H. 1963. Ontogenetic relationships of the primary leaf of Pinus taeda L. and P. echinata Mill. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 90: 320-332.
  • Bormann, F. H. 1965. Changes in the growth pattern of white pine trees undergoing suppression. Ecology 46: 269-77.
  • Bormann, F. H. 1953. Factors determining the role of loblolly pine and sweetgum in early old-field succession in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Ecol. Monogr. 23: 339-58.
  • Bormann, F. H.; Graham, B. F. Jr. 1959. The occurrence of natural root grafting in eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., and its ecological implications. Ecology 40: 677-91.
  • Bourdeau, P. F.; Laverick, M. L. 1958. Tolerance and photosynthetic adaptability to light intensity in white pine, red pine, hemlock, and ailanthus seedlings. Forest Sci. 4: 196-207.
  • Boyle, C. D.; Hellenbrand, K. E. 1991. Assessment of the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on drought tolerance of conifer seedlings. Canad. J. Bot. 69(8): 1764-71.
  • Bramble, W. C. 1946. Natural reproduction of Jack pine in Pennsylvania. J. Forest. 44: 204.
  • Bramble, W. C.; Goddard, M. K. 1942. Effect of animal coaction and seedbed conditions on regeneration of pitch pine in the barrens of central Pennsylvania. Ecology 23: 330-5.
  • Brand, D. G.; Janas, P. S. 1988. Growth and acclimation of planted white pine and white spruce seedlings in response to environmental conditions. Canad. J. Forest Res. 18(3): 320-9.
  • Brown, H. P. 1915. Growth studies in forest trees. II. Pinus strobus L. Bot. Gaz. 59: 197-241.
  • Brown, H. P. 1912. Growth studies in forest trees. I. Pinus rigida Mill. Bot. Gaz. 54: 386-402.
  • Brown, J. H.; Stires, J. L. 1984. Growth of white pine in relation to soils and topography in southeastern Ohio.
  • Brown, R. T. 1967. Influence of naturally occurring compounds on germination and growth of jack pine. Ecology 48: 542-6. (Also discussions on Cornus, Gaultheria, & Prunus)
  • Buchert, G. P. 1994. Genetics of white pine and implications for management and conservation. Forest. Chron. 70: 427-34.
  • Buchert, G. P.; Rajora, O. P.; Hood, J. V.; Dancik, B. P. 1997. Effects of harvesting on genetic diversity in old-growth eastern white pine in Ontario, Canada. Conserv. Biol. 11: 747-58.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1920. Embryo development and polyembryony in relation to the phylogeny of conifers. Amer. J. Bot. 7: 125-45.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1948. Generic and subgeneric distribution of the Coniferales. Bot. Gaz. 110: 80-91.
  • Buchholz, J. T. 1944. The cause of sterility in cross-pollinations between species of pines. Amer. J. Bot. 31: Suppl. p. 2s.
  • Buchholz, K. 1983. Initial responses of pine and oak to wildfire in the New Jersey Pine Barrens Plains. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 91-6.
  • Buchholz, K. 1980. Mineral nutrient accumulations in Pinus rigida Mill. from Plains and Barrens populations in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, and an analysis of density, biomass and net annual above-ground productivity of Plains Pinus rigida. Ph.D. Dissertation Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ185 p.
  • Buchholz, K.; Good, R. E. 1982. Density, age structure, biomass and net annual above-ground productivity of dwarfed Pinus rigida Mill. from the New Jersey Pine Barrens Plains. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 109: 24-34.
  • Buell, J. H. 1940. Red pine in West Virginia. Castanea 5: 1-6.
  • Buell, M. F. 1947. Mass dissemination of pine pollen J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 63: 163-7.
  • Buell, M. F. 1946. A size frequency study of Pinus banksiana pollen. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 62: 221-8.
  • Bump, N. G. 1926. Some observations of forest tree seeds and the early development of the seedlings. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY64 p.
  • Bunce, J. A.; Miller, L. N.; Chabot, B. F. 1977. Competative exploitation of soil water by five eastern North American tree species. Bot. Gaz. 138(2): 168-73.
  • Burgess, D.; Wetzel, S. 2002. Recruitment and early growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) regeneration after partial cutting and site preparation. Forestry (Oxford) 75: 419-423.
  • Butts, D.; Buchholz, J. T. 1940. Cotyledon numbers in conifers. Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 33: 58-62.
  • Byram, G. M.; Doolittle, W. T. 1950. A year of growth for a shortleaf pine. Ecology 31: 27-35.
  • Cain, S. A. 1948. Size frequency characteristics of Pinus echinata pollen. Bot. Gaz. 110: 325-30.
  • Canham, C. D. et.al. 1996. Biomass allocation and multiple resource limitation in tree seedlings. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 1521-30. (French summary)
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. Pinus rigida. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1993. Pinus strobus. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. Pinus pungens. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1992. Pinus echinata. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1993. Pinus banksiana. ()
  • Carey, J. H. 1993. Pinus resinosa. ()
  • Carleton, T. J.; Maycock, P. F.; Arnup, R.; Gordon, A. M. 1996. In situ regeneration of Pinus strobus and P. resinosa in the Great Lakes forest communities of Canada. J. Veg. Sci. 7: 431-44.
  • Carlisle, A. 1958. A guide to the named variants of Scots pine. Forestry (Oxford) 31: 203-24.
  • Carter, J. C. 1975. Major tree diseases of the century. J. Arboric. 1(8): 141-7.
  • Carter, K. K. 1996. Provenance tests as indicators of growth response to climate change in 10 north temperate tree species. Canad. J. Forest Res. 26: 1089-95. (French summary)
  • Cayford, J. H.; Waldron, R. M. 1965. Multiple jack pine seedlings. Canad. J. Bot. 43: 481-2.
  • Cechich, R. A. 1979. Ovule development and abortion in Pinus banksiana. (Abstr. in Ref. Zhurn. Biol., 8(2):V263. 1980.)
  • Cecich, R. A. 1984. The histochemistry and ultrastructure of jack pine microsporangia during the winter. Amer. J. Bot. 71(6): 851-64.
  • Chamberlin, E. A.; Aarssen, L. W. 1996. The cost of apical dominance in white pine (Pinus strobus L.): Growth in multi-stemmed versus single-stemmed trees. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 123: 268-72.
  • Chaney, W. R.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1969. Seasonal and diurnal changes in water balance of fruits, cones, and leaves of forest trees. Canad. J. Bot. 47: 1407-17.
  • Chapman, H. H. 1952. The place of fire in the ecology of pines. Bartonia 26: 39-44.
  • Cheliak, W. M. et.al. 1985. Temporal variation and mating system in a natural population of jack pine. Genetics 109: 569-84.
  • Cherosciewicz, Z. 1990. Site conditions for jack pine seeding. Forest. Chron. 66: 579-84.
  • Cheyney, E. G. 1932. The roots of a jack pine tree. J. Forest. 30: 929-32.
  • Ching, T. M.; Ching, K. K. 1964. Freeze-drying pine pollen. Pl. Physiol. (Lancaster) 39: 705-9.
  • Chisman, H. H.; Lylo, N. 1958. A dwarf form of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). J. Forest. 56: 110-2.
  • Clark, J. S. 1991. Disturbance and tree life history on the shifting mosaic landscape. Ecology 72: 1102-18.
  • Clements, J. R. 1970. Shoot responses of young red pine to watering applied over two seasons. Canad. J. Bot. 48: 75-80.
  • Clements, J. R.; Fraser, J. W.; Stiell, W. M. 1968. Exploratory studies of the compatibility of young red pine with sweet-fern.
  • Collingwood, G. H. 1942. Scotch pine. Amer. Forests 48: 34-5.
  • Constantinidou, H. A.; Kozlowski, T. T.; Hensen, K. 1976. Effect of sulphur dioxide on Pinus resinosa seedlings in the cotyledon stage. J. Environ. Qual. 5: 141-4.
  • Cook, D. B. 1941. Five seasons' growth of conifers. Ecology 22(3): 285-96.
  • Cook, D. B.; Smith, R. H. 1964. Planting an adverse site in New York -II. J. Forest. 62(3): 161-2.
  • Cook, D. B.; Smith, R. H.; Stone, E. L. 1952. The natural distribution of red pine in New York. Ecology 33: 500-12.
  • Cook, E. R.; Jacoby, G. C. 1977. Tree-ring drought relationships in the Hudson Valley, New York. Science 198(4315): 399-401. (Pinus, Quercus, & Tsuga used for dendrochronology)
  • Cooke, R. R. 1989. Stand and individual tree growth of eastern white pine. M.S. Thesis Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH149 p.
  • Cope, E. A. 1986. Native and cultivated conifers of northeastern North America. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY.
  • Cope, J. A. 1932. Northern white pine in the southern Appalachians. J. Forest. 30: 821-8. (Also Ribes)
  • Costonis, A. C. 1970. Acute foliar injury of eastern white pine induced by sulfur dioxide and ozone. Phytopathology 60: 994-9.
  • Costonis, A. C.; Sinclair, W. A. 1969. Relationship of atmospheric ozone to needle blight of eastern white pine. Phytopathology 59: 1566-74.
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  • Critchfield, W. B. 1975. Interspecific hybridization in Pinus: a summary review.
  • Critchfield, W. B.; Little, E. L. 1966. Geographic distribution of the pines of the world.
  • Curtis, J. D.; Popham, R. A. 1972. The developmental anatomy of long-branch terminal buds of Pinus banksiana. Amer. J. Bot. 59: 194-202.
  • Dallimore, W. 1921. The yellow pines of North America. Kew Bull. 1921: 330-5.
  • Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B. 1966. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae, revised by S.G. Harrison. ed. St. Martins Press, New York.
  • Daughtrey, M.; Kowalsick, T. 1988. The Japanese black pine - What's happening?
  • Davis, J. E. 1926. A study of the natural reproduction of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY60 p.
  • De Steven, D. 1991. Experiments on mechanisms of tree establishment in old-field succession: seedling survival and growth. Ecology 72: 1076-88.
  • De Steven, D. 1991. Experiments on mechanisms of tree establishment in old-field succession: seedling emergence. Ecology 72: 1066-75.
  • DeMent, J. A.; Stone, E. L. 1968. Influence of soil and site on red pine plantations in New York. II. Soil type and physical properties.
  • Demeritt, M. E.; Kettlewood, H. C. 1975. Eastern white pine seed source variation in the northeastern United States: 16-year results.
  • Despland, E.; Houle, G. 1997. Climate influences on growth and reproduction of Pinus banksiana (Pinaceae) at the limit of the species distribution in eastern North America. Amer. J. Bot. 84: 928-37.
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  • Dickmann, D. I. 1969. Physiological investigations of first- and second-year pistillate strobili of red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait. Ph.D. Dissertation Univ. Wisconsin, Madison, WI,
  • Dickmann, D. I.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1969. Seasonal growth patterns of ovulate strobili of Pinus resinosa in central Wisconsin. Canad. J. Bot. 47: 839-48.
  • Dickmann, D. I.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1971. Cone size and seed yield in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 85: 431-5.
  • Dickmann, D. I.; Kozlowski, T. T. 1969. Seasonal variations in reserve and structural components of Pinus resinosa cones. Amer. J. Bot. 56: 515-20.
  • Dils, R. E.; Day, M. W. 1952. The effect of precipitation and temperature upon the radial growth of red pine. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 48: 730-4.
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  • Doyle, J.; O'Leary, M. 1935. Pollination in Pinus. Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 24
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  • Ehrenberg, C. E.; Simak, M. 1956. Flowering and pollination in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Meddeland. Statens Skogs-Forskningsinst. 46(12): 1-23.
  • Eliason, E. J.; Heit, C. E. 1940. The effect of temperature, light and dormancy on the germination of Scotch pine. Proc. Assoc. Off. Seed Analysts N. Amer. 32: 92-102.
  • Eliason, E. J.; Heit, C. E. 1973. Red pine seed shows high germination after 42 years in storage. J. Forest. 71(12): 776.
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  • Fenton, R. H.; Sucoff, E. I. 1965. Effects of storage treatments on the ripening and viability of Virginia pine seed.
  • Ferguson, M. C. 1904. Contributions to the knowledge of the life history of Pinus with special reference to sporogenesis, the development of the gametophytes and fertilization. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. 6: 1-202.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1911. A botanical expedition to Newfoundland and southern Labrador. Rhodora 13: 109-62.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1919. Lithological factors limiting the range of Pinus banksiana and Thuja occidentalis. Rhodora 21(243): 41-67.
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  • Flory, W. S. 1936. Chromosome numbers and phylogeny in the gymnosperms. J. Arnold Arbor. 17: 83-9.
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  • Fraser, J. W. 1969. Influences of sweet-fern on germination, survival, and early growth of red pine. Canad. J. Bot. 47: 1681-3.
  • Frothingham, E. H. 1914. White pine under forest management.
  • Funk, D. T. 1979. Genetic variation in volume growth of eastern white pine. Forest Sci. 25: 2-6.
  • Funk, D. T. comp. 1986. Eastern white pine: today and tomorrow. Symposium proceedings; 1985 June 12-14, Durham, NH.
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  • Garrett, P. W.; Zahner, R. 1973. Fascicle density and needle growth reponses of red pine to water supply over two seasons. Ecology 54: 1328-34.
  • Gates, F. C. 1938. Layering in black spruce. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 19: 589-94.
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  • Gauthier, S.; Bergeron, Y.; Simon, J. P. 1993. Cone serotiny in jack pine: ontogenetic, positional and environmental effects. Canad. J. Forest Res. 23: 394-401.
  • Gauthier, S.; Simon, J. P.; Bergeron, Y. 1992. Genetic structure and variability in jack pine populations: effects of insularity. Canad. J. Forest Res. 22: 1958-65.
  • Gelderen, D. M. van 1982. Pinus. Dendroflora 19: 3-28.
  • Genys, J. B. 1980. Growth rates of nine different pines and two other conifers in Maryland's piedmont plateau. Castanea 45: 16-24.
  • Genys, J. B. 1987. Provenance variation among different populations of Pinus strobus from Canada and the United States. Canad. J. Forest Res. 17: 228-35.
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