New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Clematis

Clematis virginiana
Clematis virginiana   L.  -  Virgin's-bower
Photo © by Peter Nelson
Taken in Conway, MA.

By Steven D. Glenn

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 04/12/2013

Back to Ranunculaceae

Nomenclature

Clematis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 543. 1753; Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 242. 1754. Clematitis Moench, Meth. Pl. 296. 1794. LECTOTYPE: Clematis vitalba L. designated by Britton & Brown (1913).

Key to the species of Clematis

1. Leaves simple (at least at the base of young shoots), (commonly cultivated)...Clematis ×jackmanii
1. Leaves compound...2

2. Flowers numerous in each inflorescence, borne in panicles of cymes, rarely simple cymes...3
2. Flowers 1-3 in each inflorescence, borne solitary or in simple cymes...4

3. Leaflets mostly 3, margins coarsely serrate to dentate...Clematis virginiana
3. Leaflets mostly 5, margins entire...Clematis terniflora

4. Flowers 100-120 mm wide, (commonly cultivated)...Clematis ×jackmanii
4. Flowers 30-80 mm wide...Clematis occidentalis

List of Clematis Species

References to Clematis

  • Anonymous 1887. Proceedings of the Club. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 14: 176.
  • Anonymous 1887. Proceedings of the Club. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 14: 154.
  • Barykina, R. P.; Chubatova, N. V. 1981. On types of germination and the first stages of ontogenesis in the Clematis L. Trudy Moskovsk. Obsc. Isp. Prir. 56: 111-40. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Beskaravainaja, M. A. 1993. Clematis morphology. Clematis 1993: 34-41.
  • Beskaravainaya, M. A. 1994. The classification of types of Clematis species for selection purposes. Clematis 1994: 36-40.
  • Brooks, V. J. 1994. Nomenclature in the genus Clematis. Clematis 1994: 41-2.
  • Carter, G. A.; Teramura, A. H. 1988. Vine photosynthesis and relationships to climbing mechanics in a forest understory. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 1011-8.
  • Carter, G. A.; Teramura, A. H.; Forseth, I. N. 1989. Photosynthesis in an open field for exotic versus native vines of the southeastern United States. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 443-6. (French summary)
  • Donyushkina, E. A.; Novikova, V. M.; Beskaravainaya, M. A. 1984. Morphobiological features of Clematis seed. Sborn. Nauch. Tr. Nikit. Bot. Sada 92: 111-8. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Essig, F. B. 1992. Seedling morphology in Clematis (Ranunculaceae) and its taxonomic implications. Sida 15: 377-90.
  • Essig, F. B. 1992. The Clematis virginiana (Ranunculaceae) complex in the southeastern United States. Clematis 1992: 39-44.
  • Essig, F. B. 1990. The Clematis virginiana (Ranunculaceae) complex in the southeastern United States. Sida 14: 49-68.
  • Essig, F. B.; Jarvis, C. E. 1989. Lectotypification of Clematis virginiana L. (Ranunculaceae). Taxon 38: 271-7.
  • Fish, R. K. 1971. Megagametogenesis in Clematis and its taxonomic and phylogenetic implications. Phytomorphology 20(4): 317-27.
  • Grey-Wilson, C 2000. Clematis, the genus. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 224 pages. (ISBN 0881924288)
  • Hara, H. 1975. The identity of Clematis terniflora. J. Jap. Bot. 50: 155-158.
  • Hollick, A. 1923. Erect silky leather flower on Staten Island. Proc. Staten Island Inst. Arts 1: 120-122.
  • Howells, J. 1990. A plantsman's guide to Clematis. Ward Lock Ltd., London. , 124 pages.
  • James, J. F. 1883. A revision of the genus Clematis of the United States: embracing descriptions of all the species, their systematic arrangement, geographical distribution, and synonymy. J. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist. 6: 118-35.
  • Johnson, M. 2001. The genus Clematis. Magnus Johnsons Plantskola AB, Sodertalje, Sweden. , 896 pages. (ISBN 916311030X)
  • Keener, C. S. 1967. A biosystematic study of Clematis subsection Integrifoliae (Ranunculaceae). J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 83: 1-41.
  • Keener, C. S. 1975. Studies in the Ranunculaceae of the southeastern United States. III. Clematis L. Sida 6: 33-47.
  • Keener, C. S.; Dennis, W. M. 1982. The subgeneric classification of Clematis (Ranunculaceae) in temperate North America north of Mexico. Taxon 31(1): 37-44.
  • Kuntze, C. E. O. 1885. Monographie der Gattung Clematis. Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 26(Abh.): 81-202.
  • Lloyd, C. 1977. Clematis. Collins, London. , 208 pages.
  • Matlack, G. R. 1987. Diaspore size, shape, and fall behavior in wind-dispersed plant species. Amer. J. Bot. 74(8): 1150-60.
  • Miikeda, O. et.al. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of Clematis (Ranunculaceae) based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 152: 153-168.
  • Mitchell, R. S.; Dean, J. K. 1982. Ranunculaceae (Crowfoot Family) of New York State. New York St. Mus. Bull. 446, Albany. , 100 pages.
  • Prantl, K. 1888. Beitroge zur Morphologie und Systematik der Ranunculaceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 9: 225-73. (In German)
  • Pringle, J. S. 1971. Taxonomy and distribution of Clematis, sect. Atragene (Ranunculaceae), in North America. Brittonia 23(4): 361-93.
  • Reveal, J. L. 1990. Solander, Dryander, or Aiton: Who is the Author of Clematis ochroleuca and What is its Type? Bartonia 56: 20-2.
  • Smith, E. M.; Treaster, S. A. 1987. Tolerance of landscape vines to selected pre-emergence herbicides. Ohio Agric. Res. Dev. Circ. 291: 17-18.
  • Smith, G. H. 1927. Vascular anatomy of Ranalian flowers, - I. Ranunculaceae. Bot. Gaz. 82: 1-29.
  • Snoeijer, W. 1992. A suggested classification for the genus Clematis. Clematis 1992: 7-20.
  • Snoeijer, W. 1991. Clematis index. Jan Fopma, Boskoop. , 144 pages.
  • Tamura, M. 1987. A classification of genus Clematis. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 38: 33-44. (In Japanese)
  • Tarasevich, V. F.; Serov, V. P. 1986. The morphology and ultrastructure of pollen in the genera Clematis and Atragene (Ranunculaceae) in connection with the systematics. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Lenengrad) 71(11): 1491-501. (In Russian)
  • Tepfer, S. S. 1960. The shoot apex and early leaf development in Clematis. Amer. J. Bot. 47: 655-64.
  • Tobe, H. 1979. Morphological studies on the genus Clematis Linn.: 4. Vascular anatomy of the inflorescence axis, with some consideration of the evolution of the floral shoot with simple axillary inflorescences. Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 92(1027): 197-215.
  • Toomey, M. K.; Leeds, E. 2001. An illustrated encyclopedia of Clematis. Timber Press, Portland. , 428 pages. (ISBN 088192508X)
  • Torrey, R. H. 1930. Torrey Botanical Club Field Trip - Sept. 21. Torreya 30: 142.
  • Wodehouse, R. P. 1936. Pollen grains in the identification and classification of plants. VII. The Ranunculaceae. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 63: 495-514.
  • Xie, L. et.al. 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of Clematis (Ranunculaceae) based on sequences of nuclear ribisomal ITS and three plastid regions. Syst. Bot. 36: 907-921.
  • Yano, Y. 1993. Pollen grain morphology in Clematis (Ranunculaceae). Clematis 1993: 42-3.