New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Malus

Malus coronaria

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/06/2012

Back to Rosaceae


Malus Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4, [“M”]. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Malus pumilus Mill. designated by Britton & Brown (1913) or Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. according to Index Nominum Genericorum.

List of Malus Species

References to Malus

  • Aldasoro, J. J.; Aedo, C.; Navarro, C. 1998. Pome anatomy of Rosaceae subfam. Maloideae, with special reference to Pyrus. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 518-527.
  • Alexander, E. J. 1960. Malus baccata. Addisonia 24: 1.
  • Anstey, J. H. 1966. Prediction of full bloom date for apple, pear, cherry, peach and apricot from air temperature data. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 88: 57-66.
  • Avery, G. S.; Burkholder, P. R.; Creighton, H. B. 1937. Production and distribution of growth hormone in shoots of Aesculus and Malus, and its probable role in stimulating cambial activity. Amer. J. Bot. 24: 51-8.
  • Badizadegan, M. 1967. Physiological studies of dormancy and germination of apple (Malus sylvestris Mill.) seed. Ph.D. Thesis Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI104 p. (Diss. Abstr. 28(3):755B. 1967.)
  • Bailey, L. H. 1949. The Pyrus-Malus puzzle. Gentes Herb. 8: 40-3.
  • Beach, S. A. 1905. The apples of New York (2 vols.). Albany, NY. , 769 (2 vols.) pages.
  • Bean, W. J. 1913. Pyrus ioensis. Bot. Mag. 139: pl.8488.
  • Black, C. A. 1916. The nature of the inflorescence and fruit of Pyrus malus. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 6: 519-47.
  • Boutineau, E. 1883. De la fleur des Rosacees. Contribution a l'etude des ovaires inferes. Paris. , 44 pages.
  • Bouvier-Durand, M. 1984. Dormancy of apple embryos. Are starch and reserve protein changes related to dormancy breaking? Canad. J. Bot. 62: 2308-15.
  • Bradford, F. C.; Bradford, R. H. 1949. Pollination of native crab apples of the northeastern United States. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 54: 133-6.
  • Brase, K. D. 1937. The vascular anatomy of the flower of Malus domestica. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY53 figs. + 23 p.
  • Challice, J. S. 1981. Chemotaxonomic studies in the family Rosaceae and the evolutionary origins of the subfamily Maloideae. Preslia 53(4): 289-304. (Chech summary)
  • Chester, E. W.; Wofford, B. E.; McKinney, L. E.; Campbell, D. 1996. Rare and noteworthy vascular plants from the Fort Campbell Military Reservation, Kentucky and Tennessee. Sida 17: 269-274.
  • Cook, D. B.; Hamilton, W. J. 1944. The ecological relationships of red fox food in eastern New York. Ecology 25(1): 91-104.
  • Crocker, W.; Barton, L. V. 1931. After-ripening, germination, and storage of certain rosaceous seeds. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 3: 385-404.
  • Decaisne, M. J. 1874. Memoires sur la famille des Pomacees. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 113-92.
  • Degrandi-Hoffman, G.; Hoopingarner, R.; Baker, K. K. 1985. The influence of honey bees "sideworking" behavior on cross-pollination and fruit-set in apples. Hortscience 20: 397-9.
  • Dibello, F. J.; Arthur, S. M.; Krohn, W. B. 1990. Food habits of sympatric coyotes, red foxes, and bobcats in Maine. Canad. Field-Naturalist 104: 403-8.
  • Dickson, E. E. 1995. Systematic studies of Malus section Chloromeles (Maloideae, Rosaceae). Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY323 p.
  • Dickson, E. E.; Kresovich, S.; Weeden, N. F. 1991. Isozymes in North American Malus (Rosaceae): hybridization and species differentiation. Syst. Bot. 16(2): 363-75.
  • Dorsey, M. J. 1930. The relation between embryo-sac development and the set of fruit in apple. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 26: 56-61.
  • Eseltine, G. P. van 1933. Notes on the species of apples. 1. The American crabapples.
  • Eseltine, G. P. van 1933. Notes on the species of apples. 2. The Japanese flowering crabapples of the Sieboldii group and their hybrids.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1947. Minor transfers in Pyrus. Rhodora 49(585): 229-33.
  • Ferree, D. C. (eds.) (2003): 2003. Apples: botany, production and uses. CABI. , 672 pages. (ISBN 0851995926)
  • Fiala, J. 1995. Flowering crabapples. The genus Malus. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 340 pages.
  • Free, J. B. 1970. Insect pollination of crops. Academic Press, New York. , 544 pages.
  • Freeman, C. C. 1998. Vascular plants new to Kansas. Sida 18: 593-604.
  • Fulford, R. M. 1966. The morphogenesis of apple buds. IV. The effect of fruit. Ann. Bot. 30: 596-606.
  • Fulford, R. M. 1966. The morphogenesis of apple buds. III. The inception of flowers. Ann. Bot. 30: 207-19.
  • Fulford, R. M. 1966. The morphogenesis of apple buds. II. The development of the bud. Ann. Bot. 30: 25-38.
  • Fulford, R. M. 1965. The morphogenesis of apple buds. I. The activity of the apical meristem. Ann. Bot. 29: 167-80.
  • Ginsberg, H. S. 1983. Foraging ecology of bees in an old field. Ecology 64: 165-175.
  • Harris, G. H. 1926. The activity of apple and filbert roots especially during winter months. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 23: 414-22.
  • Heinicke, A. J. 1917. Factors influencing the abscission of flowers and partially developed fruits of the apple (Pyrus malus L.).
  • Hjelmqvist, H. 1957. The apomictic development of Malus sieboldii. Bot. Not. 110: 455-67.
  • Hockman, J. G.; Chapman, J. A. 1983. Comparative feeding habits of red foxes and gray foxes in Maryland. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 110: 276-285.
  • Huckins, C. A. 1972. A revision of the sections of the genus Malus Miller. Ph.D. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY398 p.
  • Hutson, R. 1925. The honeybee as an agent in the pollination of pears, apples, and cranberries. J. Econ. Entomol. 18: 387-91.
  • Jackson, J. E. 2003. Biology of apples and pears. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. , 488 pages. (ISBN 0521380189)
  • Jones, A. L.; Aldwinckle, H. S. (eds.) (1990): 1990. The compendium of apple and pear diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. , 100 pages. (170 color photos, 26 b&w figs.)
  • Koidzumi, G. 1934. A synopsis of the genus Malus. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3: 179-96.
  • Langenfeld, W. 1971. Die Evolution der Gattung Malus Mill. Wiss. Z. Univ. Rostock, Reihe Math. 20: 49-51.
  • Likhonos, F. D. 1974. A survey of the species in the genus Malus Mill. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3): 16-34. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Lincoln, F. B.; McCann, L. P. 1937. Polyploidy in native species of Malus. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 34: 26.
  • Lindenhofer, A; Weber, A 1999. The spiraeoid androecium of Pyroideae and Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 121: 583-605.
  • Mabberley, D. J.; Jarvis, C. E.; Juniper, B. E. 2001. The name of the apple. Telopea 9: 421-430.
  • MacDaniels, L. H. 1940. The morphology of the apple and other pome fruits. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 230: 1-32.
  • Mayer, D. F. 1983. Apple pollination. Amer. Bee J. 123: 272-3.
  • McCown, M. 1943. Anatomical and chemical aspects of abscisson of fruits of the apple. Bot. Gaz. 105: 212-20.
  • McDaniels, L. H. 1937. Some anatomical aspects of apple flower and fruit abscisson. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 34: 122-9.
  • McVaugh, R. 1943. The status of certain anomalous native crabapples in the eastern United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70: 418-29.
  • Modlibowska, I. 1945. Pollen tube growth and embryo-sac development in apples and pears. J. Pomology 21: 57-89.
  • Myers, J. A. 2004. Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America. Oecologia 139: 35-44.
  • Nebel, B. R. 1939. Longevity of pollen in apple, pear, plum, peach, apricot, and sour cherry. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 37: 130-1.
  • Nybom, H.; Rogstad, S. H.; Schaal, B. A. 1990. Genetic variation detected by use of the M13 "DNA fingerprint" probe in Malus, Prunus, and Rubus (Rosaceae). Theor. Appl. Genet. 79: 153-6.
  • Oldén, E. J. 1953. Sexual and apomictic seed formation in Malus sieboldii Rehd. Bot. Not. 106: 105-28.
  • Pelc, S. 1984. Morphology and structure of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill.) common pear ({Pyrus communis L.) and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Seeds. Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 53(2): 159-70.
  • Phipps, J. B.; Robertson, K. R.; Rohrer, J. R.; Smith, P. G. 1991. Origins and evolution of subfam. Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot. 16: 303-32.
  • Phipps, J. B.; Smith, P. G.; Rohrer, J. R. 1990. A checklist of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2209-69. (French summary)
  • Ponomarenko, V. V. 1978. On the systematics of Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 62(3): 24-35. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Ponomarenko, V. V. 1985. Evolution in the flower in the genus Malus Mill. Sborn. Nauch. Tr. Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 99: 115-9. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Qian, G. Z. 2010. (1933) Proposal to conserve the name Malus domestica against M. Pumila, M. communis, M. frutescens, and Pyrus dioica (Rosaceae). Taxon 59: 650-652.
  • Remmy, K.; Gruber, F. 1993. Studies on the distribution and morphology of the wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.). Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 81: 71-94. (In German; English summary)
  • Riedhart, J. M.; Guard, A. T. 1957. On the anatomy of the roots of apple seedlings. Bot. Gaz. 118(3): 191-4.
  • Robertson, C. 1894. Flowers and insects: Rosaceae and Compositae. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 6: 435-80.
  • Robertson, K. R.; Phipps, J. B.; Rohrer, J. R. 1992. Summary of leaves in the genera of Maloideae (Rosaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 81-94.
  • Robertson, K. R.; Phipps, J. B.; Rohrer, J. R.; Smith, P. G. 1991. A synopsis of genera in Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot. 16: 376-94.
  • Robinson, J. P.; Harris, S. A.; Juniper, B. E. 2001. Taxonomy of the genus Malus Mill. (Rosaceae) with emphasis on the cultivated apple, Malus domestica Borkh. Pl. Syst. Evol. 226: 35-58.
  • Rohrer, J. R.; Robertson, K. R.; Phipps, J. B. 1991. Variation in structure among fruits of Maloideae (Rosaceae) Amer. J. Bot. 78: 1617-35.
  • Rubtsov, G. A. 1944. Geographical distribution of the genus Pyrus and trends and factors in its evolution. Amer. Naturalist 78: 358-66.
  • Rybin, V. A. 1926. Cytological investigations of the genus Malus (preliminary account). Trudy Prikl. Bot. 16(3): 187-200. (Russian with English summary)
  • Sax, K. 1959. The cytogenetics of facultative apomixis in Malus species. J. Arnold Arbor. 40: 289-97.
  • Scott, T. G. 1955. Dietary patterns of red and gray foxes. Ecology 36: 366-7.
  • Sims, J. 1818. Pyrus coronaria. Sweet-scented crab-tree. Bot. Mag. 45: pl. 2009.
  • Skibinskaia, A. M. 1966. Historical geography of the genus Malus. Bjulleten' Glavnogo botanicheskogo sada 61: 52-9. (In Russian)
  • Southwick, E. E. 1981. Nectar production composition energetics and pollinator attractiveness in spring flowers of western New York USA. Amer. J. Bot. 68: 994-1002.
  • Sterling, C. 1965. Comparative morphology of the carpel in the Rosaceae. V. Pomoideae: Amelanchier, Aronia, Malacomeles, Malus, Peraphyllum, Pyrus, Sorbus. Amer. J. Bot. 52: 418-26.
  • Sterling, C. 1953. Developmental anatomy of the fruit of Prunus domestica. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 80: 457-477. (Other genera also)
  • Sucoff, E.; Hong, S. G. 1976. Effect of NaCl on cold hardiness of Malus spp. and Syringa vulgaris. Canad. J. Bot. 54(24): 2816-9.
  • Tukey, H. B.; Young, J. O. 1942. Gross morphology and histology of developing fruit of the apple. Bot. Gaz. 104: 3-25.
  • Tukey, L. D. 1959. Periodicity in growth of fruits of apples, peaches, and sour cherries with some factors influencing their development.
  • Visser, T. 1956. The role of seed coats and temperature in after-ripening, germination and respiration of apple seeds. Proc. Nederl. Akad. Wet. C. 59: 211-22.
  • Visser, T. 1956. Some observations on respiration and secondary dormancy in apple seeds. Proc. Nederl. Akad. Wet. C. 59: 314-24.
  • Visser, T. 1956. The growth of apple seedlings as affected by after-ripening, seed maturity and light. Proc. Nederl. Akad. Wet. C. 59: 325-34.
  • Visser, T. 1954. After-ripening and germination of apple seeds in relation to the seed coats. Proc. Nederl. Akad. Wet. C. 57: 175-85.
  • Wanscher, J. H. 1939. Contributions to the cytology and life history of apple and pear. Vet. & Agr. Coll. Copenhagen Yearb. 1939: 21-70.
  • Weerdenburg, C. A.; Peterson, C. A. 1983. Structural changes in phi thickenings during primary and secondary growth in roots. I. Apple (Pyrus malus) Rosaceae. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 2570-6.
  • Williams, A. H. 1982. Chemical evidence from the flavonoids relevant to the classification of Malus species. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 84(1): 31-9.
  • Woodcock, E. F.; Tullis, E. C. 1928. Extra-floral nectar glands of Malus malus and Pyrus communis. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 8: 239-43.