New York Metropolitan Flora

Genus: Malus

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/06/2012

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Nomenclature

Malus Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4, [“M”]. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Malus pumilus Mill. designated by Britton & Brown (1913) or Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. according to Index Nominum Genericorum.

Key to the species of Malus

1. Leaves unlobed...2
1. Leaves lobed...7

2. Leaves glabrous beneath...Malus sylvestris
2. Leaves tomentose beneath...3

3. Calyx glabrous...4
3. Calyx villous or tomentose..5

4. Calyx deciduous...Malus baccata
4. Calyx persistent...Malus prunifolia

5. Leaves crenate-serrate...Malus pumila
5. Leaves sharply serrate...6

6. Leaves folded in bud; calyx pubescent, deciduous...Malus floribunda
6. Leaves colvolute in bud; calyx villous or glabrous, persistent...Malus prunifolia

7. Leaves irregularly serrate; calyx persistent...Malus coronaria
7. Leaves sharply serrate; calyx deciduous...Malus sieboldii

List of Malus Species

References to Malus

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  • Alexander, E. J. 1960. Malus baccata. Addisonia 24: 1.
  • Anstey, J. H. 1966. Prediction of full bloom date for apple, pear, cherry, peach and apricot from air temperature data. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 88: 57-66.
  • Avery, G. S.; Burkholder, P. R.; Creighton, H. B. 1937. Production and distribution of growth hormone in shoots of Aesculus and Malus, and its probable role in stimulating cambial activity. Amer. J. Bot. 24: 51-8.
  • Badizadegan, M. 1967. Physiological studies of dormancy and germination of apple (Malus sylvestris Mill.) seed. Ph.D. Thesis Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI104 p. (Diss. Abstr. 28(3):755B. 1967.)
  • Bailey, L. H. 1949. The Pyrus-Malus puzzle. Gentes Herb. 8: 40-3.
  • Beach, S. A. 1905. The apples of New York (2 vols.). Albany, NY. , 769 (2 vols.) pages.
  • Bean, W. J. 1913. Pyrus ioensis. Bot. Mag. 139: pl.8488.
  • Black, C. A. 1916. The nature of the inflorescence and fruit of Pyrus malus. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 6: 519-47.
  • Boutineau, E. 1883. De la fleur des Rosacees. Contribution a l'etude des ovaires inferes. Paris. , 44 pages.
  • Bouvier-Durand, M. et.al. 1984. Dormancy of apple embryos. Are starch and reserve protein changes related to dormancy breaking? Canad. J. Bot. 62: 2308-15.
  • Bradford, F. C.; Bradford, R. H. 1949. Pollination of native crab apples of the northeastern United States. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 54: 133-6.
  • Brase, K. D. 1937. The vascular anatomy of the flower of Malus domestica. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY53 figs. + 23 p.
  • Challice, J. S. 1981. Chemotaxonomic studies in the family Rosaceae and the evolutionary origins of the subfamily Maloideae. Preslia 53(4): 289-304. (Chech summary)
  • Chester, E. W.; Wofford, B. E.; McKinney, L. E.; Campbell, D. 1996. Rare and noteworthy vascular plants from the Fort Campbell Military Reservation, Kentucky and Tennessee. Sida 17: 269-274.
  • Cook, D. B.; Hamilton, W. J. 1944. The ecological relationships of red fox food in eastern New York. Ecology 25(1): 91-104.
  • Crocker, W.; Barton, L. V. 1931. After-ripening, germination, and storage of certain rosaceous seeds. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 3: 385-404.
  • Decaisne, M. J. 1874. Memoires sur la famille des Pomacees. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 10: 113-92.
  • Degrandi-Hoffman, G.; Hoopingarner, R.; Baker, K. K. 1985. The influence of honey bees "sideworking" behavior on cross-pollination and fruit-set in apples. Hortscience 20: 397-9.
  • Dibello, F. J.; Arthur, S. M.; Krohn, W. B. 1990. Food habits of sympatric coyotes, red foxes, and bobcats in Maine. Canad. Field-Naturalist 104: 403-8.
  • Dickson, E. E. 1995. Systematic studies of Malus section Chloromeles (Maloideae, Rosaceae). Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY323 p.
  • Dickson, E. E.; Kresovich, S.; Weeden, N. F. 1991. Isozymes in North American Malus (Rosaceae): hybridization and species differentiation. Syst. Bot. 16(2): 363-75.
  • Dorsey, M. J. 1930. The relation between embryo-sac development and the set of fruit in apple. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 26: 56-61.
  • Eseltine, G. P. van 1933. Notes on the species of apples. 1. The American crabapples.
  • Eseltine, G. P. van 1933. Notes on the species of apples. 2. The Japanese flowering crabapples of the Sieboldii group and their hybrids.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1947. Minor transfers in Pyrus. Rhodora 49(585): 229-33.
  • Ferree, D. C. (eds.) (2003): 2003. Apples: botany, production and uses. CABI. , 672 pages. (ISBN 0851995926)
  • Fiala, J. 1995. Flowering crabapples. The genus Malus. Timber Press, Portland, OR. , 340 pages.
  • Free, J. B. 1970. Insect pollination of crops. Academic Press, New York. , 544 pages.
  • Freeman, C. C. et.al. 1998. Vascular plants new to Kansas. Sida 18: 593-604.
  • Fulford, R. M. 1966. The morphogenesis of apple buds. IV. The effect of fruit. Ann. Bot. 30: 596-606.
  • Fulford, R. M. 1966. The morphogenesis of apple buds. III. The inception of flowers. Ann. Bot. 30: 207-19.
  • Fulford, R. M. 1966. The morphogenesis of apple buds. II. The development of the bud. Ann. Bot. 30: 25-38.
  • Fulford, R. M. 1965. The morphogenesis of apple buds. I. The activity of the apical meristem. Ann. Bot. 29: 167-80.
  • Ginsberg, H. S. 1983. Foraging ecology of bees in an old field. Ecology 64: 165-175.
  • Harris, G. H. 1926. The activity of apple and filbert roots especially during winter months. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 23: 414-22.
  • Heinicke, A. J. 1917. Factors influencing the abscission of flowers and partially developed fruits of the apple (Pyrus malus L.).
  • Hjelmqvist, H. 1957. The apomictic development of Malus sieboldii. Bot. Not. 110: 455-67.
  • Hockman, J. G.; Chapman, J. A. 1983. Comparative feeding habits of red foxes and gray foxes in Maryland. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 110: 276-285.
  • Huckins, C. A. 1972. A revision of the sections of the genus Malus Miller. Ph.D. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY398 p.
  • Hutson, R. 1925. The honeybee as an agent in the pollination of pears, apples, and cranberries. J. Econ. Entomol. 18: 387-91.
  • Jackson, J. E. 2003. Biology of apples and pears. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. , 488 pages. (ISBN 0521380189)
  • Jones, A. L.; Aldwinckle, H. S. (eds.) (1990): 1990. The compendium of apple and pear diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. , 100 pages. (170 color photos, 26 b&w figs.)
  • Koidzumi, G. 1934. A synopsis of the genus Malus. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3: 179-96.
  • Langenfeld, W. 1971. Die Evolution der Gattung Malus Mill. Wiss. Z. Univ. Rostock, Reihe Math. 20: 49-51.
  • Likhonos, F. D. 1974. A survey of the species in the genus Malus Mill. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3): 16-34. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Lincoln, F. B.; McCann, L. P. 1937. Polyploidy in native species of Malus. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 34: 26.
  • Lindenhofer, A; Weber, A 1999. The spiraeoid androecium of Pyroideae and Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 121: 583-605.
  • Mabberley, D. J.; Jarvis, C. E.; Juniper, B. E. 2001. The name of the apple. Telopea 9: 421-430.
  • MacDaniels, L. H. 1940. The morphology of the apple and other pome fruits. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 230: 1-32.
  • Mayer, D. F. 1983. Apple pollination. Amer. Bee J. 123: 272-3.
  • McCown, M. 1943. Anatomical and chemical aspects of abscisson of fruits of the apple. Bot. Gaz. 105: 212-20.
  • McDaniels, L. H. 1937. Some anatomical aspects of apple flower and fruit abscisson. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 34: 122-9.
  • McVaugh, R. 1943. The status of certain anomalous native crabapples in the eastern United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70: 418-29.
  • Modlibowska, I. 1945. Pollen tube growth and embryo-sac development in apples and pears. J. Pomology 21: 57-89.
  • Myers, J. A. et.al. 2004. Seed dispersal by white-tailed deer: implications for long-distance dispersal, invasion, and migration of plants in eastern North America. Oecologia 139: 35-44.
  • Nebel, B. R. 1939. Longevity of pollen in apple, pear, plum, peach, apricot, and sour cherry. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 37: 130-1.
  • Nybom, H.; Rogstad, S. H.; Schaal, B. A. 1990. Genetic variation detected by use of the M13 "DNA fingerprint" probe in Malus, Prunus, and Rubus (Rosaceae). Theor. Appl. Genet. 79: 153-6.
  • Oldén, E. J. 1953. Sexual and apomictic seed formation in Malus sieboldii Rehd. Bot. Not. 106: 105-28.
  • Pelc, S. 1984. Morphology and structure of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill.) common pear ({Pyrus communis L.) and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Seeds. Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 53(2): 159-70.
  • Phipps, J. B.; Robertson, K. R.; Rohrer, J. R.; Smith, P. G. 1991. Origins and evolution of subfam. Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot. 16: 303-32.
  • Phipps, J. B.; Smith, P. G.; Rohrer, J. R. 1990. A checklist of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2209-69. (French summary)
  • Ponomarenko, V. V. 1978. On the systematics of Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 62(3): 24-35. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Ponomarenko, V. V. 1985. Evolution in the flower in the genus Malus Mill. Sborn. Nauch. Tr. Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 99: 115-9. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Qian, G. Z. et.al. 2010. (1933) Proposal to conserve the name Malus domestica against M. Pumila, M. communis, M. frutescens, and Pyrus dioica (Rosaceae). Taxon 59: 650-652.
  • Remmy, K.; Gruber, F. 1993. Studies on the distribution and morphology of the wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.). Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 81: 71-94. (In German; English summary)
  • Riedhart, J. M.; Guard, A. T. 1957. On the anatomy of the roots of apple seedlings. Bot. Gaz. 118(3): 191-4.
  • Robertson, C. 1894. Flowers and insects: Rosaceae and Compositae. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 6: 435-80.
  • Robertson, K. R.; Phipps, J. B.; Rohrer, J. R. 1992. Summary of leaves in the genera of Maloideae (Rosaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 81-94.
  • Robertson, K. R.; Phipps, J. B.; Rohrer, J. R.; Smith, P. G. 1991. A synopsis of genera in Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot. 16: 376-94.
  • Robinson, J. P.; Harris, S. A.; Juniper, B. E. 2001. Taxonomy of the genus Malus Mill. (Rosaceae) with emphasis on the cultivated apple, Malus domestica Borkh. Pl. Syst. Evol. 226: 35-58.
  • Rohrer, J. R.; Robertson, K. R.; Phipps, J. B. 1991. Variation in structure among fruits of Maloideae (Rosaceae) Amer. J. Bot. 78: 1617-35.
  • Rubtsov, G. A. 1944. Geographical distribution of the genus Pyrus and trends and factors in its evolution. Amer. Naturalist 78: 358-66.
  • Rybin, V. A. 1926. Cytological investigations of the genus Malus (preliminary account). Trudy Prikl. Bot. 16(3): 187-200. (Russian with English summary)
  • Sax, K. 1959. The cytogenetics of facultative apomixis in Malus species. J. Arnold Arbor. 40: 289-97.
  • Scott, T. G. 1955. Dietary patterns of red and gray foxes. Ecology 36: 366-7.
  • Sims, J. 1818. Pyrus coronaria. Sweet-scented crab-tree. Bot. Mag. 45: pl. 2009.
  • Skibinskaia, A. M. 1966. Historical geography of the genus Malus. Bjulleten' Glavnogo botanicheskogo sada 61: 52-9. (In Russian)
  • Southwick, E. E. et.al. 1981. Nectar production composition energetics and pollinator attractiveness in spring flowers of western New York USA. Amer. J. Bot. 68: 994-1002.
  • Sterling, C. 1965. Comparative morphology of the carpel in the Rosaceae. V. Pomoideae: Amelanchier, Aronia, Malacomeles, Malus, Peraphyllum, Pyrus, Sorbus. Amer. J. Bot. 52: 418-26.
  • Sterling, C. 1953. Developmental anatomy of the fruit of Prunus domestica. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 80: 457-477. (Other genera also)
  • Sucoff, E.; Hong, S. G. 1976. Effect of NaCl on cold hardiness of Malus spp. and Syringa vulgaris. Canad. J. Bot. 54(24): 2816-9.
  • Tukey, H. B.; Young, J. O. 1942. Gross morphology and histology of developing fruit of the apple. Bot. Gaz. 104: 3-25.
  • Tukey, L. D. 1959. Periodicity in growth of fruits of apples, peaches, and sour cherries with some factors influencing their development.
  • Visser, T. 1956. The role of seed coats and temperature in after-ripening, germination and respiration of apple seeds. Proc. Nederl. Akad. Wet. C. 59: 211-22.
  • Visser, T. 1956. Some observations on respiration and secondary dormancy in apple seeds. Proc. Nederl. Akad. Wet. C. 59: 314-24.
  • Visser, T. 1956. The growth of apple seedlings as affected by after-ripening, seed maturity and light. Proc. Nederl. Akad. Wet. C. 59: 325-34.
  • Visser, T. 1954. After-ripening and germination of apple seeds in relation to the seed coats. Proc. Nederl. Akad. Wet. C. 57: 175-85.
  • Wanscher, J. H. 1939. Contributions to the cytology and life history of apple and pear. Vet. & Agr. Coll. Copenhagen Yearb. 1939: 21-70.
  • Weerdenburg, C. A.; Peterson, C. A. 1983. Structural changes in phi thickenings during primary and secondary growth in roots. I. Apple (Pyrus malus) Rosaceae. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 2570-6.
  • Williams, A. H. 1982. Chemical evidence from the flavonoids relevant to the classification of Malus species. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 84(1): 31-9.
  • Woodcock, E. F.; Tullis, E. C. 1928. Extra-floral nectar glands of Malus malus and Pyrus communis. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 8: 239-43.