Genus: Malus

Malus coronaria
Malus coronaria

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 02/06/2012

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Malus Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4, [“M”]. 1754. LECTOTYPE: Malus pumilus Mill. designated by Britton & Brown (1913) or Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. according to Index Nominum Genericorum.

Key to the species of Malus

1. Leaves unlobed...2
1. Leaves lobed...7

2. Leaves glabrous beneath...Malus sylvestris
2. Leaves tomentose beneath...3

3. Calyx glabrous...4
3. Calyx villous or tomentose..5

4. Calyx deciduous...Malus baccata
4. Calyx persistent...Malus prunifolia

5. Leaves crenate-serrate...Malus pumila
5. Leaves sharply serrate...6

6. Leaves folded in bud; calyx pubescent, deciduous...Malus floribunda
6. Leaves colvolute in bud; calyx villous or glabrous, persistent...Malus prunifolia

7. Leaves irregularly serrate; calyx persistent...Malus coronaria
7. Leaves sharply serrate; calyx deciduous...Malus sieboldii

List of Malus Species

References to Malus

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  • Bailey, L. H. 1949. The Pyrus-Malus puzzle. Gentes Herb. 8: 40-3.
  • Beach, S. A. 1905. The apples of New York (2 vols.). Albany, NY. , 769 (2 vols.) pages.
  • Bean, W. J. 1913. Pyrus ioensis. Bot. Mag. 139: pl.8488.
  • Black, C. A. 1916. The nature of the inflorescence and fruit of Pyrus malus. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 6: 519-47.
  • Boutineau, E. 1883. De la fleur des Rosacees. Contribution a l'etude des ovaires inferes. Paris. , 44 pages.
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  • Bradford, F. C.; Bradford, R. H. 1949. Pollination of native crab apples of the northeastern United States. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 54: 133-6.
  • Brase, K. D. 1937. The vascular anatomy of the flower of Malus domestica. M.S. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY53 figs. + 23 p.
  • Challice, J. S. 1981. Chemotaxonomic studies in the family Rosaceae and the evolutionary origins of the subfamily Maloideae. Preslia 53(4): 289-304. (Chech summary)
  • Chester, E. W.; Wofford, B. E.; McKinney, L. E.; Campbell, D. 1996. Rare and noteworthy vascular plants from the Fort Campbell Military Reservation, Kentucky and Tennessee. Sida 17: 269-274.
  • Cook, D. B.; Hamilton, W. J. 1944. The ecological relationships of red fox food in eastern New York. Ecology 25(1): 91-104.
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  • Dickson, E. E. 1995. Systematic studies of Malus section Chloromeles (Maloideae, Rosaceae). Ph.D. Dissertation Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY323 p.
  • Dickson, E. E.; Kresovich, S.; Weeden, N. F. 1991. Isozymes in North American Malus (Rosaceae): hybridization and species differentiation. Syst. Bot. 16(2): 363-75.
  • Dorsey, M. J. 1930. The relation between embryo-sac development and the set of fruit in apple. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 26: 56-61.
  • Eseltine, G. P. van 1933. Notes on the species of apples. 1. The American crabapples.
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  • Fernald, M. L. 1947. Minor transfers in Pyrus. Rhodora 49(585): 229-33.
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  • Free, J. B. 1970. Insect pollination of crops. Academic Press, New York. , 544 pages.
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  • Fulford, R. M. 1965. The morphogenesis of apple buds. I. The activity of the apical meristem. Ann. Bot. 29: 167-80.
  • Fulford, R. M. 1966. The morphogenesis of apple buds. II. The development of the bud. Ann. Bot. 30: 25-38.
  • Fulford, R. M. 1966. The morphogenesis of apple buds. III. The inception of flowers. Ann. Bot. 30: 207-19.
  • Fulford, R. M. 1966. The morphogenesis of apple buds. IV. The effect of fruit. Ann. Bot. 30: 596-606.
  • Ginsberg, H. S. 1983. Foraging ecology of bees in an old field. Ecology 64: 165-175.
  • Harris, G. H. 1926. The activity of apple and filbert roots especially during winter months. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 23: 414-22.
  • Heinicke, A. J. 1917. Factors influencing the abscission of flowers and partially developed fruits of the apple (Pyrus malus L.).
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  • Hockman, J. G.; Chapman, J. A. 1983. Comparative feeding habits of red foxes and gray foxes in Maryland. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 110: 276-285.
  • Huckins, C. A. 1972. A revision of the sections of the genus Malus Miller. Ph.D. Thesis Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY398 p.
  • Hutson, R. 1925. The honeybee as an agent in the pollination of pears, apples, and cranberries. J. Econ. Entomol. 18: 387-91.
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  • Koidzumi, G. 1934. A synopsis of the genus Malus. Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 3: 179-96.
  • Langenfeld, W. 1971. Die Evolution der Gattung Malus Mill. Wiss. Z. Univ. Rostock, Reihe Math. 20: 49-51.
  • Likhonos, F. D. 1974. A survey of the species in the genus Malus Mill. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 52(3): 16-34. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Lincoln, F. B.; McCann, L. P. 1937. Polyploidy in native species of Malus. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 34: 26.
  • Lindenhofer, A; Weber, A 1999. The spiraeoid androecium of Pyroideae and Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 121: 583-605.
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  • McVaugh, R. 1943. The status of certain anomalous native crabapples in the eastern United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70: 418-29.
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  • Oldén, E. J. 1953. Sexual and apomictic seed formation in Malus sieboldii Rehd. Bot. Not. 106: 105-28.
  • Pelc, S. 1984. Morphology and structure of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill.) common pear ({Pyrus communis L.) and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Seeds. Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 53(2): 159-70.
  • Phipps, J. B.; Robertson, K. R.; Rohrer, J. R.; Smith, P. G. 1991. Origins and evolution of subfam. Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot. 16: 303-32.
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  • Ponomarenko, V. V. 1985. Evolution in the flower in the genus Malus Mill. Sborn. Nauch. Tr. Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selek. 99: 115-9. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Ponomarenko, V. V. 1978. On the systematics of Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 62(3): 24-35. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Qian, G. Z. 2010. (1933) Proposal to conserve the name Malus domestica against M. Pumila, M. communis, M. frutescens, and Pyrus dioica (Rosaceae). Taxon 59: 650-652.
  • Remmy, K.; Gruber, F. 1993. Studies on the distribution and morphology of the wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.). Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 81: 71-94. (In German; English summary)
  • Riedhart, J. M.; Guard, A. T. 1957. On the anatomy of the roots of apple seedlings. Bot. Gaz. 118(3): 191-4.
  • Robertson, C. 1894. Flowers and insects: Rosaceae and Compositae. Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci. 6: 435-80.
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  • Rohrer, J. R.; Robertson, K. R.; Phipps, J. B. 1991. Variation in structure among fruits of Maloideae (Rosaceae) Amer. J. Bot. 78: 1617-35.
  • Rubtsov, G. A. 1944. Geographical distribution of the genus Pyrus and trends and factors in its evolution. Amer. Naturalist 78: 358-66.
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  • Sax, K. 1959. The cytogenetics of facultative apomixis in Malus species. J. Arnold Arbor. 40: 289-97.
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  • Sims, J. 1818. Pyrus coronaria. Sweet-scented crab-tree. Bot. Mag. 45: pl. 2009.
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  • Southwick, E. E. 1981. Nectar production composition energetics and pollinator attractiveness in spring flowers of western New York USA. Amer. J. Bot. 68: 994-1002.
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  • Sterling, C. 1953. Developmental anatomy of the fruit of Prunus domestica. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 80: 457-477. (Other genera also)
  • Sucoff, E.; Hong, S. G. 1976. Effect of NaCl on cold hardiness of Malus spp. and Syringa vulgaris. Canad. J. Bot. 54(24): 2816-9.
  • Tukey, H. B.; Young, J. O. 1942. Gross morphology and histology of developing fruit of the apple. Bot. Gaz. 104: 3-25.
  • Tukey, L. D. 1959. Periodicity in growth of fruits of apples, peaches, and sour cherries with some factors influencing their development.
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  • Weerdenburg, C. A.; Peterson, C. A. 1983. Structural changes in phi thickenings during primary and secondary growth in roots. I. Apple (Pyrus malus) Rosaceae. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 2570-6.
  • Williams, A. H. 1982. Chemical evidence from the flavonoids relevant to the classification of Malus species. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 84(1): 31-9.
  • Woodcock, E. F.; Tullis, E. C. 1928. Extra-floral nectar glands of Malus malus and Pyrus communis. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 8: 239-43.