Genus: Pyrus

By Science Staff

Not peer reviewed

Last Modified 03/11/2013

Back to Rosaceae


Pyrus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 479. 1753.

Key to the species of Pyrus


List of Pyrus Species

References to Pyrus

  • Aldasoro, J. J.; Aedo, C.; Navarro, C. 1998. Pome anatomy of Rosaceae subfam. Maloideae, with special reference to Pyrus. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 518-527.
  • Anstey, J. H. 1966. Prediction of full bloom date for apple, pear, cherry, peach and apricot from air temperature data. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 88: 57-66.
  • Bailey, L. H. 1949. The Pyrus-Malus puzzle. Gentes Herb. 8: 40-3.
  • Browicz, K. 1993. Conspect and chorology of the genus Pyrus. Arbor. Kornickie 38: 17-33.
  • Challice, J. S. 1981. Chemotaxonomic studies in the family Rosaceae and the evolutionary origins of the subfamily Maloideae. Preslia 53(4): 289-304. (Chech summary)
  • Challice, J. S.; Westwood, M. N. 1973. Numerical taxonomic studies of the genus Pyrus using both chemical and botanical characters. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 67: 121-48.
  • Challice, J. S.; Williams, A. H. 1968. Phenolic compounds of the genus Pyrus II. A chemotaxonomic survey. Phytochemistry 7: 1781-801.
  • Culley, T. M. 2011. The role of horticulture in plant invasions: how grafting in cultivars of Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana) can facilitate spread into natural areas. Biological Invasions 13: 739-746.
  • Culley, T. M.; Hardiman, N. A. 2007. The beginning of a new invasive plant: a history of the ornamental Callery pear in the United States. Bioscience 57: 956-964.
  • Culley, T. M.; Hardiman, N. A. 2009. The role of intraspecific hybridization in the evolution of invasiveness: a case study of the ornamental pear tree Pyrus calleryana. Biological Invasions 11: 1107-1119.
  • Cummings, M. B.; Jenkins, E. W.; Dunning, R. G. 1936. Sterility in pears.
  • Fernald, M. L. 1947. Minor transfers in Pyrus. Rhodora 49(585): 229-33.
  • Gracza, P. 1970. Some observations on pistil organization of Pyrus communis L. Bot. Kozlem. 57: 175-82. (In Hungarian; English summary)
  • Hardiman, N. A.; Culley, T. M. 2010. Reproductive success of cultivated Pyrus calleryana (Rosaceae) and establishment abiliity of invasive, hybrid progeny. Amer. J. Bot. 97: 1698-1706.
  • Hedrick, V. P. 1921. The pears of New York.
  • Hutson, R. 1925. The honeybee as an agent in the pollination of pears, apples, and cranberries. J. Econ. Entomol. 18: 387-91.
  • Jackson, J. E. 2003. Biology of apples and pears. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. , 488 pages. (ISBN 0521380189)
  • Jones, A. L.; Aldwinckle, H. S. (eds.) (1990): 1990. The compendium of apple and pear diseases. APS Press, St. Paul, MN. , 100 pages. (170 color photos, 26 b&w figs.)
  • Lindenhofer, A; Weber, A 1999. The spiraeoid androecium of Pyroideae and Amygdaloideae (Rosaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 121: 583-605.
  • Modlibowska, I. 1945. Pollen tube growth and embryo-sac development in apples and pears. J. Pomology 21: 57-89.
  • Nebel, B. R. 1939. Longevity of pollen in apple, pear, plum, peach, apricot, and sour cherry. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 37: 130-1.
  • Nesom, G. L. 2000. Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana-Rosaceae) naturalized in North Carolina. Rhodora 102: 361-364.
  • Pelc, S. 1984. Morphology and structure of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill.) common pear ({Pyrus communis L.) and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Seeds. Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 53(2): 159-70.
  • Phipps, J. B.; Robertson, K. R.; Rohrer, J. R.; Smith, P. G. 1991. Origins and evolution of subfam. Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot. 16: 303-32.
  • Phipps, J. B.; Smith, P. G.; Rohrer, J. R. 1990. A checklist of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2209-69. (French summary)
  • Robertson, K. R.; Phipps, J. B.; Rohrer, J. R. 1992. Summary of leaves in the genera of Maloideae (Rosaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 81-94.
  • Robertson, K. R.; Phipps, J. B.; Rohrer, J. R.; Smith, P. G. 1991. A synopsis of genera in Maloideae (Rosaceae). Syst. Bot. 16: 376-94.
  • Rohrer, J. R.; Robertson, K. R.; Phipps, J. B. 1991. Variation in structure among fruits of Maloideae (Rosaceae) Amer. J. Bot. 78: 1617-35.
  • Sanzol, J.; Rallo, P.; Herrero, M. 2003. Asynchronous development of stigmatic receptivity in the pear (Pyrus communis; Rosaceae) flower. Amer. J. Bot. 90: 78-84.
  • Scott, T. G. 1955. Dietary patterns of red and gray foxes. Ecology 36: 366-7.
  • Stephen, W. P. 1958. Pear pollination studies in Oregon.
  • Sterling, C. 1965. Comparative morphology of the carpel in the Rosaceae. V. Pomoideae: Amelanchier, Aronia, Malacomeles, Malus, Peraphyllum, Pyrus, Sorbus. Amer. J. Bot. 52: 418-26.
  • Terp√≥, A. 1985. Studies on taxonomy and grouping of Pyrus species. Feddes Repert. 96(1-2): 73-87.
  • Tuz, A. S. 1972. Up-to-date systematics of the genus Pyrus L. Trudy Prikl. Bot. 46: 70-91. (In Russian; English summary)
  • Vasilakakis, M.; Porlingis, I. C. 1985. Effect of temperature on pollen germination, pollen tube growth, effective pollination period and fruit set of pear. Hortscience 20: 733-5.
  • Vincent, M. A. 2005. On the spread and current distribution of Pyrus calleryana in the United States. Castanea 70: 20-31.
  • Waldron, G. E.; Hilton, R. J.; Ambrose, J. D. 1976. Evidence of microevolution in an escaped pear population. Canad. J. Bot. 54(24): 2857-67.
  • Wanscher, J. H. 1939. Contributions to the cytology and life history of apple and pear. Vet. & Agr. Coll. Copenhagen Yearb. 1939: 21-70.
  • Westwood, M. N.; Bjornstad, H. I. 1971. Some fruit characteristics of interspecific hybrids and extent of self-fertility in Pyrus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 98: 22-4.
  • Westwood, M. N.; Bjornstad, H. O. 1971. Some fruit characteristics of interspecific hybrids and extent of self-sterility in Pyrus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 98: 22-4.
  • Woodcock, E. F.; Tullis, E. C. 1928. Extra-floral nectar glands of Malus malus and Pyrus communis. Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci. 8: 239-43.
  • Zielinski, Q. B. 1965. Self incompatability of Pyrus species. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 92: 219-20.
  • Zielinski, Q. B.; Thompson, M. M. 1967. Speciation in Pyrus: Chromosome number and meiotic behavior. Bot. Gaz. 128(2): 109-12.
  • Zielinski, Q. B.; Thompson, M. M. 1966. Pollen germination in Pyrus species and species hybrids. Euphytica 15: 195-8.